The search for novel antimicrobial agents is of huge importance. Nanomaterials can come to the rescue in this case. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial effects of rare-earth-based orthovanadate nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity against host cells and antimicrobial activity of LaVO 4 :Eu 3+ and GdVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles were analyzed. Effects of nanomaterials on fibroblasts were assessed by MTT, neutral red uptake and scratch assays. The antimicrobial effects were evaluated by the micro-dilution method estimating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanoparticles against various strains of microorganisms, DNA cleavage and biofilm inhibition. GdVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles were found to be less toxic against eukaryotic cells compared with LaVO 4 :Eu 3+. Both nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity and the highest MIC values were 64 mg/L for E. hirae, E. faecalis and S. aureus shown by GdVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles. Nanopar-ticles demonstrated good DNA cleavage activity and induction of double-strand breaks in supercoiled plasmid DNA even at the lowest concentrations used. Both nanoparticles showed the biofilm inhibition activity against S. aureus at 500 mg/L and reduced the microbial cell viability. Taken the results of host toxicity and antimicrobial activity studies, it can be assumed that GdVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles are more promising antibacterial agents compared with LaVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles.
It is very difficult to reconstruct computationally a large biomolecular complex in its biological entirety from experimental data. The resulting atomistic model should not contain gaps structurally and it should yield stable dynamics. We, for the first time, reconstruct from the published incomplete cryo-EM density a complete MS2 virus at atomistic resolution, that is, the capsid with the genome, and validate the result by all-atom molecular dynamics with explicit water. The available experimental data includes a high resolution protein capsid and an inhomogeneously resolved genome map. For the genomic RNA, apart from 16 hairpins with atomistic resolution, the strands near the capsid's inner surface were resolved up to the nucleic backbone level, and the innermost density was completely unresolved. As a result, only 242 nucleotides (out of 3569) were positioned, while only a fragmented backbone was outlined for the rest of the genome, making a detailed model reconstruction necessary. For model reconstruction, in addition to the available atomistic structure information, we extensively used the predicted secondary structure of the genome (base pairing). The technique was based on semi-automatic building of relatively large strands of RNA with subsequent manual positioning over the traced backbone. The entire virus structure (capsid + genome) was validated by a molecular dynamics run in physiological solution with ions at standard conditions confirming the stability of the model.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterized by a persistent tendency to seizures. The development of new approaches to the treatment of epilepsy is an urgent issue in modern pharmacology. Such studies are especially necessary in view of the growing number of cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, which reaches 30 %. To improve the results of treatment, adjuvant non-antiepileptic drugs are offered. Promising adjuvant agents include, in particular, the lipophilic cardiac glycoside digoxin in subcardiotonic doses as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Taking into account the important role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, it is necessary to clarify the influence of standard antiepileptic drugs and adjuvant agents on individual links of the inflammatory process and neurons’ damage under the conditions of chronic epileptogenesis. The aim of the work is to determine the effect of digoxin, sodium valproate and celecoxib per se as well as the combination of digoxin with sodium valproate on the content of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 types (COX-1, COX-2), prostaglandins (PG) E 2 , F 2α , I 2 , thromboxane (TX) B 2 , 8-isoprostane and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the brain of mice in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model. It was found that during 16 days of kindling (PTZ 30 mg/kg daily) sodium valproate in a sub-effective dose of 150 mg/kg and digoxin 0.8 mg/kg ( ¹ / 10 LD 50 ) per se moderately effectively affected the course of the seizure syndrome in mice. Sodium valproate significantly (p<0.05) increased the seizure latency and decreased the number of days with convulsions, when digoxin significantly (p<0.05) decreased the number of animals with seizures. Digoxin clearly potentiated the effect of sodium valproate – against the background of their combination, seizures were absent. Celecoxib 4 mg/kg only tended to reduce the number of animals with convulsions. In the brains of untreated animals with the PTZ-kindling model, a clear shift of the cyclooxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade was revealed, indicating neuroinflammation: the level of COX-1 and especially COX-2, PGF 2α , and TXB 2 increased, while the content of PGE 2 and PGI 2 decreased compared to the vehicle control group (p<0.001). These violations occurred against the background of strong oxidative stress, as evidenced by an almost 18-fold increase in the content of cerebral 8-isoprostane (p<0.001), and were accompanied by massive destruction of neurons, the marker of which is a 2.7-fold increase in the content of NSE (p<0.001). The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of digoxin, sodium valproate and especially their combinations have been shown. They are manifested in a significant decrease in the level of COX-1 and COX-2 (p<0.001), an increase in the content of PGE 2 and PGI 2 (p<0.001), a decrease in the level of PGF 2α and TXB 2 , 8-isoprostane and NSE (p<0.001) compared to the positive control (PC). Despite its selectivity for COX-2, celecoxib had almost no effect on the level of this cerebral COX isoform, mainly inhibiting COX-1. Compared with PC, celecoxib did not have a significant effect on COX-2, PGI 2 , and NSE, significantly inferior to valproate (except for the effect on PGF 2α ), digoxin and its combination (except for the effect on COX-1), which corresponds to the absence of a pronounced impact on the course of kindling and indicates the limitation of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in the CNS without a neurocytoprotective effect. Predominant suppression of COX-2 indicates a moderate selectivity of the combination of valproate and digoxin to this enzyme, which is a predictor of a reduction in the risk of side effects against the background of long-term use. Complete normalization of the level of 8-isoprostane under the combination of valproate + digoxin indicates the most favorable effect on the course of cerebral oxidative stress, as well as the maximum decrease in the content of NSE (p<0.001) indicates the neurocytoprotective properties of this combination in the model of chronic epileptogenesis. The set of obtained results experimentally substantiates the expediency of using a combination of digoxin with classical anticonvulsants, in particular with sodium valproate, to increase the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy of epilepsy.
The aim of the study was to assess the role of immunological factors in the development of abnormal uterine bleeding in women of reproductive age with extragenital disorders. Materials and methods. The study involved 100 women with abnormal uterine bleeding and accompanying extragenital disorders (main group) and 50 somatically healthy women (control group). Autoimmune antibodies to platelets, phagocytic activity of neutrophil granulocytes, concentration of circulating immune complexes (CICs), total level of membranotropic cytotoxic factors, content of CD4+T-helper subpopulations and cytotoxic CD8+T-killer lymphocytes were evaluated as immunological markers. Results of the study. The study showed that thrombocytopenia, caused by the presence of autoimmune antibodies to their own platelets, can be one of the pathogenic factors of bleeding in women with AUB. In 41 % of women with AUB, phagocytic reactions were found to be intense, which was expressed by an increase in chemotaxis and adhesion functions, and in 46 % of women by an increase in the absorption capacity of phagocytes. In the main group, 48 % of the examined women had insufficient phagocyte enzymatic activity, which was evidenced by a decrease in the index of completion of phagocytosis. In 79 % of women of the main group, violations of the formation and elimination of circulating immune complexes were detected. The formation of low-molecular-weight CICs in 82 % of women of this cohort contributed to the induction of autoimmune reactions. The total content of membranotropic cytotoxic factors, which was evaluated according to the lymphocytotoxic test, exceeded the reference values in 88 % of women of the main group. In the main group, the average content of CD4+ T-helpers was 23 % lower, and the content of suppressor CD8+ T-lymphocytes was twice as low compared to the control group, resulting in a significant increase in the immunoregulatory index by 30 %. Conclusion. The women of the main group with abnormal uterine bleeding were found to have a violation of the functional activity of cellular factors of innate immunity, accompanied by changes in the absorption and digestive capacity of phagocytic cells. Assessment of secondary adaptive reactions showed induction of humoral sensitization and formation of autoimmune reactions (presence of antiplatelet autoantibodies, increase in CICs and LCT, decrease in the subpopulation of CD8+-suppressor T-lymphocytes). The detected violations indicate the pathogenic role of immunological reactions in women with abnormal uterine bleeding
The article deals with the essence and significance of investment activity at the macro- and micro-levels as the main factor of changes in the economy and interdependence of countries and enterprises. The article’s authors prove that the development of investment processes in all areas of activity is a necessary condition for effective business organization. It is noted that the significance and essence of investments is reflected in their functions. The authors define functions of investments at the macro- and micro-levels. The authors consider variable factors of the macro- and microeconomic environment that affect investment processes in a particular industry. To determine the state of investment activity at the macro-level, the authors have conducted a research of foreign investment. The article discloses the dynamics of foreign direct investments in the economy of Ukraine and from the economy of Ukraine in other countries, their share in a total volume of foreign direct investment, the dynamics of capital investment and their share in the structure of GDP. The author studied and identified major objects for investing in Ukraine. The article describes the role of domestic investments as the most active element of economic growth in the country. The article highlights modern obstacles to its development. Since Ukraine remains geographically, economically, and socially attractive country for investing at both macro- and micro-levels, the authors suggest to identify prior areas for improving its investment climate.
Objective: The aim: Estimate the prevalence of the parietal foramen in the adult human skulls of Ukrainian origin, and study its morphology and relationships to main anatomical landmarks of the skull. Patients and methods: Materials and methods: A cross-sectional observational study of PF was conducted with 42 random cadaveric adult human skull roofs (calvaria) collected from the laboratory and museum of Human Anatomy Department, Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine. The patency and the length of the PF canal were determined, and PF external/internal diameters and the distance to the calvarial landmarks from PF were measured using the caliper. Mean and standard deviation were calculated to compare with the existing data. Results: Results: In the present study 85.7% (n = 36) of the calvaria had the PF, 54.8% (n = 23) had bilateral location of PF, 30.9% (n = 13) had unilateral presence of PF (right side: 23.8%, n=10 and left side: 7.1%, n=3), and 14.3 % (n = 6) demonstrated bilateral absence of PF. Conclusion: Conclusions: An anatomical variation in parietal foramen is not uncommon, and the differences can be based on multiple factors like geography and race. It is important to have detailed information on anatomical variations in different population groups to facilitate surgical and radiological interventions.
Objective: The aim: To describe an integrated approach to the morphological diagnosis of different types of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland. Patients and methods: Materials and methods: Surgical and biopsy material from 30 patients with pleomorphic adenomas of epithelial, mixed and mesenchymal variants was studied using histological, immunohistochemical, genetic, morphometric and statistical methods. Results: Results: The results of research allowed us to identify methods for determination the pleomorphic adenomas types. The first method requires an immunohistochemical reaction with a monoclonal antibody to human papillomavirus type 16, followed by counting the percentage of positively stained cells in the tumor. Thus, the mesenchymal variant of the tumor is diagnosed when the percentage of positively stained cells is < 40%. In the mixed variant, this indicator is ≥ 40%, but ≤ 70%, and in epithelial variant - > 70%. The second method was based on the multivariate discriminant analysis. Three formulae were derived to determine the tumor types (Fmesenchymal = - 41.03 + 4.96Х1 + 1.11Х2, Fepithelial = - 22.27 + 3.46Х1 + 0.85Х2, Fmixed = - 122.25 + 5.63Х1 + 3.2Х2, here Х1 - number of vessels, Х2 - specific volume of parenchyma). Conclusion: Conclusions: The authors identified several methods for determining the histological variants of pleomorphic adenomas. These methods will improve the morphological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas variants in the preoperative and postoperative periods.
The involvement of commensals and opportunistic pathogens and the role of protective mechanisms in the development of dental diseases in children with cystic fibrosis require more detailed study. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the ecological characteristics of the oral microbiota and some antimicrobial factors of saliva in children with mucoviscidosis. Materials and methods: The study involved an assessment of oral microbiota as complex ecological system that protects the human body from colonization by pathogenic flora in children with cystic fibrosis. Bacteriological studies have been performed on clinical material from 30 children with mucoviscidosis diagnosed with dental and periodontal diseases. Results: In the microbiological study of plaque microbiota, 70 strains of opportunistic pathogens were isolated in patients with mucoviscidosis. The most significant were alpha-hemolytic Streptococci (40%). The proportion of bacteria of Neisseria genus in patients with cystic fibrosis was lower and amounted to 24.3%. C. albicans fungi were isolated in comparable values (18.5%), S. aureus (8.5%), as well as gram-negative strains of E. aerogenes (4.3%) and E. coli (4.3%) significantly dominated. The results indicate that opportunistic pathogens S. aureus, E. aerogenes and E. coli partially replaced the representatives of the normal oral microbiota alpha-hemolytic streptococci and non-pathogenic species of Neisseria genus in patients with mucoviscidosis. Conclusions: Microbiota of plaque in children with mucoviscidosis is characterized by an expansion of the spectrum of opportunistic pathogens due to Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and C. albicans fungi, which indicates a violation of the microbiocenosis due to reduced mucosal immunity. Mucosal immunity of the oral cavity in children with mucoviscidosis is characterized by a 1.5-fold decrease in lysozyme activity and the level of secretory IgA in the saliva of children.
Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles are promising biomedical agents characterized by good biocompatibility. In this study, we explored the cytotoxicity of TiO 2-x nanoparticles with a different Ti ³⁺ (Ti ²⁺ )/Ti ⁴⁺ ratio and analyzed the effeciency of eryptosis indices as a tool in nanotoxicology. Methods. Two types of TiO 2-x nanoparticles (5 nm) with various Ti ³⁺ (Ti ²⁺ )/ Ti ⁴⁺ ratios in the crystal lattice were synthesized. 1-TiO 2-x nanoparticles contained 54% Ti ⁴⁺ , 38% Ti ³⁺ and 8% Ti ²⁺ , while the relative amount of Ti ⁴⁺ and Ti ³⁺ in the crystal lattice of 2-TiO 2-x nanoparticles was 63% and 37%, respectively. Cell viability and cell motility induced by TiO 2-x nanoparticles were investigated on primary fibroblast cultures. Eryptosis modulation by the nanoparticles along with cell death mechanisms was studied on rat erythrocytes. Results. We report that both TiO 2-x nanoparticles don’t decrease the viability of fibroblasts simultaneously stimulating cell migration. Data from in vitro studies on erythrocytes indicate that TiO 2-x nanoparticles trigger eryptosis via ROS- (1-TiO 2-x ) and Ca ²⁺ -mediated mechanisms (both TiO 2-x nanoparticles) suggesting that evaluation of eryptosis parameters is a more sensitive nanotoxicological approach for TiO 2-x nanoparticles than cultured fibroblast assays. Conclusion. TiO 2-x nanoparticles are characterized by low toxicity against fibroblasts, but they induce eryptosis, which is shown to be a promising tool for nanotoxicity screening. The Ti ³⁺ (Ti ²⁺ )/ Ti ⁴⁺ ratio at least partially determines the cytotoxicity mechanisms for TiO 2-x nanoparticles.
Background: Small bowel obstruction, mesenteric thrombosis, and strangulated ventral hernia area a challenge in emergency abdominal surgery. This study aimed to evaluate biomarkers of damage to the digestive tract in patients with urgent pathology. Materials and methods: The study involved 71 patients aged 18 to 80 years who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit in the immediate postoperative period. Results: All 71 underwent emergency surgery, 27 with small bowel necrosis. Lactate level area under curve (AUC = 0.964), C-reactive protein (AUC = 0.805) and systolic blood pressure (area under curve, AUC = 0.803) on the context of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (AUC = 0.880) showed stratification of patients with complications before surgery. Small bowel necrosis patients revealed an increase in primary thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive products (AUC = 0.813) lipid peroxidation products, and a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity (AUC = 0.818) and catalase (AUC = 0.804). Wide variability of intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP) from 199.8 to 2189.6 pg/mL were observed in all patients studied, with an AUC = 0.814 in small intestinal necrosis. Conclusion: Surgical pathology of the small intestine due to obstruction of various origina, mesenteric thrombosis, and strangulated ventral hernia pronounced revealed disorders of the antioxidant-prooxidant balance. This was expressed by an increase in lipid peroxidation products, and the level of TBA-reactive products, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase. Viewed against the background of an increase in I-FABP above 577 pg/mL, these variables were the most significant indicators of small intestinal necrosis.
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify strain factors and compare work ability and stress-relevant coping with demands for German and Ukrainian teachers. Methods: Data from 147 German and 291 Ukraine teachers were examined. A professional history questionnaire, the Work Ability Index (WAI), and a questionnaire for the analysis of stress-relevant coping with demands (FABA, inability to recover subscale) were used. The differences among the age groups in the two countries were evaluated. Results: German teachers reported more demands than Ukrainian teachers did. The WAI score indicates a moderate level of work ability for both groups of teachers. German teachers are more unable to recover than Ukrainian teachers are (p < .001), and older German teachers are significantly less able to recover than their Ukrainian counterparts are. Conclusions: Health intervention and promotion are necessary, especially for older teachers.
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported to be promising enhancement agents for radiation therapy. The aim of the study was to assess the cytotoxicity of UV non-treated and UV pretreated GdYVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles against erythrocytes and leukocytes by detecting eryptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Levels of intracellular ROS in erythrocytes and leukocytes using a ROS-sensitive dye 2ʹ,7ʹ-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA), as well as eryptosis rate utilizing annexin V staining, following direct exposure to UV-activated and nonactivated NPs were detected by flow cytometry. Blood cells were collected from 9 intact WAG rats. Neither the UV light-untreated GdYVO4:Eu3+ NPs nor the treated ones promoted eryptosis and ROS generation in erythrocytes. Low concentrations of UV light-untreated NPs did not induce oxidative stress in leukocytes, evidenced by unaffected intracellular ROS levels. UV light treatment grants prooxidant properties to NPs, confirmed by NP-induced ROS overproduction in leukocytes. High concentrations of both UV light-treated and untreated NPs altered the redox state of leukocytes. UV light treatment imparts prooxidant properties to GdYVO4:Eu3+ NPs, making them promising radiosensitizing agents in cancer radiation therapy.
Aims: To carry out a comprehensive retrospective assessment of the prevalence, features and course of treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: Our study is based on a retrospective analysis of statistical data obtained from 762 current and former MDR-TB patients (74% of patients with resistance only to first-line drugs – isoniazid (H) and rifampin (R); 36% with resistance to H, R and second-line drugs) included in the register of tuberculosis (TB) patients from different regions of Ukraine and the Grodno region of the Republic of Belarus between 2015 and 2019. Results and Discussion: In both groups of the study recurrent TB prevailed: 49 cases (55.7%) of relapse TB compared to 39 cases (44.3%) of primary TB in the main group; 363 cases (53.9%) of relapse TB compared to 311 (46.1%) primary TB in the control group (P < 0.05). The rate of successful treatment in the control group is higher than in the main group (64.7% vs. 61.4%; P < 0.05). A significant difference between the two groups was observed owing to the difference in frequency of treatment, which in the main group has recorded 27.3%, as against 40.3% in the control group (almost two times lower; P < 0.05). Conclusions: The association between TB and DM increases the morbidity, chemoresistance and proportion of recurrences. Pulmonary TB developed significantly more often in middle-aged patients with type 2 DM with moderate and severe states, with subcompensated form and with a complicated course.
An analysis of antihypertensive drugs in patients with comorbidities, namely, arterial hypertension (AH), type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, indicates that the complex treatment of these patients should include drugs that inhibit excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, in particular, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB II). Numerous scientific data have established that angiotensin II is the main effector mediator of the RAAS, and ACE inhibitors do not fully inhibit the synthesis of angiotensin II. ARB II, their advantages over ACE inhibitors should be emphasized by their ability to reduce the effects of angiotensin II, regardless of the ways of its formation, aim of this study was to compare the results of treatment of patients with comorbidities 56 patients of middle age (64.4 ± 1.1) years old, men/women—43%/57% were examined and treated. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed, according to the recommendations of the International Society of Hypertension (ISH), 2020. The type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity were diagnosed on the basis of clinical, instrumental, biochemical criteria, in accordance with the recommendations of WHO experts, the European Society of Endocrinologists. After treatment for three months, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (by 19.6%), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (by 15%), and heart rate (HR) (by 9%). From the side of echocardiographic characteristics, the following levels have decreased: EDV—by 25.5%, ESV—by 17.3%, EDD—by 24.0%, ESD—by 12.6%, LVMM—by 8.3%; LVEF has increased by 6% compared with the indicated indicators before treatment. There were no significant differences between such indicators as fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, TChC, TG, HDL cholesterol, AI; however, a significant decrease was found after treatment in the levels of VLDL cholesterol and BMI.. Treatment of arterial hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity with the inclusion of ramipril or telmisartan in the standard therapy had a positive effect on the structural and functional parameters of the left ventricle and ejection fraction. At the same time, the neutral effect of these drugs on carbohydrate metabolism in the examined category of patients has been determined.
The aim was to conduct a comparative assessment of the circadian rhythm abnormalities and blood pressure (BP) levels between pseudo-resistant and true resistant hypertension (RH) in obesity. The study included 302 patients with uncontrolled hypertension and obesity. Initial treatment efficacy was assessed 3 months after dual therapy was administered. Those patients who did not reach target BP in dual therapy were transferred to triple therapy. Among patients who received triple therapy, 69 people did not reach target BP. All patients were additionally examined 6 months after the initiation of antihypertensive therapy. In the absence of a difference in BP, patients who subsequently become resistant, already at the stage of inclusion, significantly more often had a violation of the circadian rhythm with a predominance of the non-dipper rhythm. Despite the achievement of target BP after 6 months of therapy, in the majority (91.42%) of patients without resistance, the circadian rhythm normalized, while resistant patients had a normal circadian rhythm only in 60.87%. At the stage of enrolling patients into the study and 3 months of therapy there was no significant difference in BP between true and pseudo-resistance, then after 6 months of therapy, patients with true resistance had significantly higher office SBP (p < 0.01) and 24 h average SBP according to ABPM data (p < 0.05) compared with pseudo-resistant patients. Already at the stage of inclusion in the study, the normal circadian rhythm in true resistance was significantly less common than in pseudo-resistance; during the prescribed therapy, a similar trend persisted: after 6 months of therapy, 71.05% of pseudo-resistant patients had a normal circadian rhythm, while with true resistance only about half of the patients had a normal circadian rhythm. Even when target BP levels in antihypertensive therapy are achieved, obese patients with RH are characterized by more pronounced disturbances of the circadian rhythm (most often non-dipper) and higher levels of office and out-of-office BP, compared with non-resistant patients. Compared with pseudo-resistant patients, the presence of true resistance in obesity is associated with higher SBP levels and a higher incidence of circadian rhythm disturbances.
to determine the influence of dapagliflozin (D) on the level of blood pressure (BP) in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 57 patients with AH, stage II and concomitant non-severe T2DM were examined (fasting plasma glucose < 9 mmol/L, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) - 7.45 ± 1.3%, mean age 52.4 ± 2.8, mean BP 162/102 ± 3.5/2.3 mm Hg, BMI 28.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2, disease duration 6.6 ± 1.7 years,). Patients were divided into 2 groups: the comparison group included 23 patients who received metformin 850 mg 2/day, lisinopril 10 mg 1/day and amlodipine 10 mg 1/day. Patients of the main group (D-group, n = 34), received dapagliflozin 10 mg in addition to standard therapy. 6 months after beginning of therapy, the following results were obtained: HbA1C in the D-group was 6.28 ± 0.6%, in the comparison group – 6.56 ± 0.48% (p < 0.05). A slight decrease of BMI was observed in both groups (26.3 ± 1.2 kg/m2 and 27.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2, respectively), however, the changes were insignificant. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the D-group was 132 ± 7.24 mm Hg., and in the comparison group - 145.5 ± 9.17 mm Hg., (p < 0.05). The diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 83.5 ± 3.8 mm Hg and 89,6 ± 4.2 mm Hg, respectively. the obtained data demonstrate that adding of dapagliflozin to a standard therapy of hypertension and concomitant type 2 diabetes leads both to significant decrease of SBP and improvement of glycemic control. The outcomes of our research suggest that dapagliflozin has a potential to reduce cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.
COVID-19 has become the largest pandemic in recent history to sweep the world. This study is devoted to developing and investigating three models of the COVID-19 epidemic process based on statistical machine learning and the evaluation of the results of their forecasting. The models developed are based on Random Forest, K-Nearest Neighbors, and Gradient Boosting methods. The models were studied for the adequacy and accuracy of predictive incidence for 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 30 days. The study used data on new cases of COVID-19 in Germany, Japan, South Korea, and Ukraine. These countries are selected because they have different dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic process, and their governments have applied various control measures to contain the pandemic. The simulation results showed sufficient accuracy for practical use in the K-Nearest Neighbors and Gradient Boosting models. Public health agencies can use the models and their predictions to address various pandemic containment challenges. Such challenges are investigated depending on the duration of the constructed forecast.
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