Kenyatta University
  • Nairobi, Kenya
Recent publications
Honeybees are generalists, and therefore, a wide range of flowering plants can easily be identified from their collected pollen loads. In this study, the levels of pesticide contamination on corbicular pollen were investigated using two approaches; (i) unsorted colony level collected and (ii) sorted pollen samples (according to botanical origin). Sorted samples were palynologically identified up to the family level to establish the types of pesticides used across landscapes and identify their botanical sources. This study was carried out between November 2019 and October 2020 in Murang’a county, Kenya, across three landscape types. The landscape was characterized according to the degree of greenness using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) into high, medium, and low classes. Pollen Hazard Quotient (PHQ) was used to estimate the risk to honeybees of each detected pesticide. In the unsorted samples, five different pesticides were detected with concentrations ranging between 0.12 and 37.97 µg kg⁻¹. From the results, 11 pesticides were detected, nine insecticides and two fungicides. These pesticides were further traced to 11 plant families, from which Poaceae, Rubiceae, and Astereceae were contaminated with more than 70% of the 11 detected pesticides. Acetamiprid concentration in March was found to be extremely higher (1202.50 µg kg⁻¹) the recommended EU limit (50 µg kg⁻¹). Additionally, chlorpyriphos concentration was found to be higher than the EU set limit of 10 µg kg⁻¹ in months of July, September, and October. Additionally, pollen from Rubiaceae and Poaceae plant families were the most collected during the period of this study. It was further noted that pesticides and plant families identified varied across sampling time, but not across landscapes.
The increase of macroalgae at degraded reefs impedes several ecosystem services and calls for effective methods to facilitate a return to coral dominance. Removal of macroalgae (browsing) is typically realized by fish, but the role and identity of browsers at the heavily-fished East African coast is still largely unknown. This study investigated how browsing pressure at Kenyan reefs (−4.700, 39.396) related to fisheries management and herbivore community. From October 2018 to January 2019, consumption during 24-h buffet assays using the brown macroalgae Sargassum and Padina was determined and video recorded at six sites: two in fished zones, two in marine reserves (traditional fishing allowed) and two in no-take zones. Herbivorous fish composition, biomass and sea urchin density were also determined. Consumption of Sargassum and Padina was nearly three-fold lower in the fished zones (26% and 28% of macroalgal biomass consumed, respectively) compared to the no-take zones (62% and 82%), with intermediate consumption in the marine reserves (48% and 71%). Herbivore biomass was seven-fold higher in no-take zones and included substantially more browsers (mainly unicornfishes, Naso spp.) and scrapers (scarids), which were associated with the higher browsing pressure. Browsers and scrapers were predominantly responsible for the consumption of macroalgae as determined by video recordings, though key species differed across sites. In contrast, damselfish-dominated fished sites were associated with high sea urchin densities and low browsing pressure. These results indicate that fishing restrictions are likely to support reef resilience by increasing herbivorous fish biomass of key species and thereby promote macroalgae removal.
This paper concerns the management and protection of livestock using Indigenous Technical Knowledge among the Maasai of Kenya with an ultimate goal of promoting agricultural development. A sample of 120 households were selected from four Sub-locations of Loita ward in Narok County and subjected to questionnaire surveys. Additional qualitative data were collected through Key Informant Interviews and Focused Group Discussions. Results from this study show that the Maasai still rear three types of livestock, namely, cattle, sheep and goats. These animals provide them with food (99.2%) and other livestock byproducts. Study findings also reveal that the Maasai still predominantly use traditional methods based on indigenous technical knowledge to manage livestock feeding (85.8%), livestock diseases (89.9%), livestock breeding (74.2%) and livestock protection against predators and other incidental accidents. These findings are also supported by qualitative information from Focused Groups Discussions and Key Informants Interviews. In conclusion, the study established that the use of indigenous technical knowledge to manage and protect livestock among the Maasai have enabled them to sustain high-quality breeds of livestock for food security and income as well as environmental protection. The study recommends that as a policy, the Kenya government should put emphasis on mainstreaming indigenous technical knowledge systems in its agriculture extension programme and scientific knowledge base for sustainable well being and agricultural development. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
Abstract Background Meat and meat products have been blamed for a myriad of problems facing human kind like lifestyle illnesses, environmental degradation, and climate change. Edible insects have been suggested as the suitable alternatives to conventional meats in order to ameliorate these drawbacks. Healthfulness is the ability for a given food to impart health benefits to the consumer. Evidence is however scanty on the healthfulness of both the meats and edible insects in order to have grounds for replacing meats with insects in the diet. This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the healthfulness of meats and edible insects in Sub-Saharan Africa using modern nutrient profiling models. Materials and methods Nutritional data for meats and edible insects were obtained from Food Composition Tables (FCTs) and a systematic review, respectively. The data was applied to three nutrient profiling models: the WXYfm (Ofcom) model that was designed to regulate advertising of foods to children, the RRR (Ratio of Recommended to Restricted) model that assesses the ratio of positive to negative nutrients in foods, and the GDA (Guideline Daily Amounts) model which has been used to regulate health claims on foods. Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test (The SAS System) was used to check for significance in differences of healthfulness using mean scores. Results The WXYfm model classified all foods as healthful, and Nasutitermes spp. was significantly more healthful than duck (P = 0.05). The RRR classified all foods as healthful, and Nasutitermes spp. was significantly more healthful than all other foods except Macrotermes bellicosus and tilapia (P = 0.05). Duck (for women and men) and pork (for women), were classified as unhealthful by the GDA scoring system, and duck was significantly less healthful than all other foods (P
Background: Global food supply is highly dependent on field crop production that is currently severely threatened by changing climate, poor soil quality, abiotic, and biotic stresses. For instance, one of the major challenges to sustainable crop production in most developing countries is limited nitrogen in the soil. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of legumes such as soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) with rhizobia plays a crucial role in supplying nitrogen sufficient to maintain good crop productivity. Characterization of indigenous bradyrhizobia is a prerequisite in the selection and development of effective bioinoculants. In view of this, bradyrhizobia were isolated from soybean nodules in four agro-climatic zones of eastern Kenya (Embu Upper Midland Zone, Embu Lower Midland Zone, Tharaka Upper Midland Zone, and Tharaka Lower Midland Zone) using two soybean varieties (SB8 and SB126). The isolates were characterized using biochemical, morphological, and genotypic approaches. DNA fingerprinting was carried out using 16S rRNA gene and restricted by enzymes HaeIII, Msp1, and EcoRI. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (38) bradyrhizobia isolates obtained from the trapping experiments were placed into nine groups based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Most (77%) of the isolates had characteristics of fast-grower bradyrhizobia while 23% were slow-growers. Restriction digest revealed significant (p < 0.015) variation within populations and not among the agro-climatic zones based on analysis of molecular variance. Principal coordinate analysis demonstrated sympatric speciation of indigenous bradyrhizobia isolates. Embu Upper Midland Zone bradyrhizobia isolates had the highest polymorphic loci (80%) and highest genetic diversity estimates (H' = 0.419) compared to other agro-climatic zones. Conclusion: The high diversity of bradyrhizobia isolates depicts a valuable genetic resource for selecting more effective and competitive strains to improve promiscuous soybean production at a low cost through biological nitrogen fixation.
Households in urban informal settlements of Kisumu City use multiple fuels for their cooking and heating. Despite this reality, previous national inventories of fuel choices in these settlements were based on the most preferred fuel rather than the whole fuel composite used by the households. This paper, therefore, examines the fuel combinations that households in informal settlements of Kisumu City use and how their socio-economic characteristics influence their choice of these combinations. The paper is premised on the energy stacking theory. The study sampled 419 households from informal settlements of Kisumu City. Multinomial logistic regression is used to establish correlation between household characteristics and fuel combination choices. The findings show that majority of households in urban informal settlements of Kisumu City use multiple fuels for cooking, with charcoal and liquefied petroleum gas being the most commonly stacked fuels. Education does not have a strong correlation with fuel choices; whereas household size reliably predicts the choice of individual fuels. Household income significantly predicts the adoption of fuel stacks that have liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal. While increase in household income has a positive correlation with adoption of modern fuels, it does not lead to households dropping primitive and transitional fuels from their stacks. The study asserts that the energy stacking theory is a suitable basis for assessing the relationship between household-based socioeconomic determinants and fuel combination choices among residents of SSA cities. The reality of fuel stacking in urban informal settlements requires policies geared towards increasing access to modern household fuel technologies while incentivizing adoption of fuel-efficient biomass stoves.
IntroductionThere is a vast data gap for the national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) budget from different smallholder land utilization types in Kenya and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) at large. Quantifying soil GHG, i.e., methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from smallholder land utilization types, is essential in filling the data gap.Methods We quantified soil GHG emissions from different land utilization types in Western Kenya. We conducted a 26-soil GHG sampling campaign from the different land utilization types. The five land utilization types include 1) agroforestry M (agroforestry Markhamia lutea and sorghum), 2) sole sorghum (sorghum monocrop), 3) agroforestry L (Sorghum and Leucaena leucocephala), 4) sole maize (maize monocrop), and 5) grazing land.Results and discussionThe soil GHG fluxes varied across the land utilization types for all three GHGs (p ≤ 0.0001). We observed the lowest CH4 uptake under grazing land (−0.35 kg CH4–C ha−1) and the highest under sole maize (−1.05 kg CH4–C ha−1). We recorded the lowest soil CO2 emissions under sole maize at 6,509.86 kg CO2–Cha−1 and the highest under grazing land at 14,400.75 kg CO2–Cha−1. The results showed the lowest soil N2O fluxes under grazing land at 0.69 kg N2O–N ha−1 and the highest under agroforestry L at 2.48 kg N2O–N ha−1. The main drivers of soil GHG fluxes were soil bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil moisture, clay content, and root production. The yield-scale N2O fluxes ranged from 0.35 g N2O–N kg−1 under sole maize to 4.90 g N2O–N kg−1 grain yields under agroforestry L. Nevertheless, our findings on the influence of land utilization types on soil GHG fluxes and yield-scaled N2O emissions are within previous studies in SSA, including Kenya, thus fundamental in filling the national and regional data of emissions budget. The findings are pivotal to policymakers in developing low-carbon development across land utilization types for smallholders farming systems.
Background Kenya is faced with a triple burden of malnutrition which is multi-faceted with health and socio-economic implications. Huge geographical disparities exist, especially, in the arid and semi-arid lands exacerbated by inadequate resource allocation to the nutrition sector and challenges in multi-sectoral coordination and nutrition governance. UNICEF’s Maternal and Child Nutrition Programme is a four-year (2018–2022) resilience-building, multi-sectoral program focused on pregnant and lactating women, mothers of children under five years and children under five years. The objective of the mid-term evaluation was to establish the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of the programme. Methods The field evaluation conducted between June and July 2021, adopted a concurrent mixed-methods approach, where qualitative information was gathered through 29 key informant interviews and 18 focus group discussions (6 FGDs per population group; women of reproductive age, adolescent girls and men). Quantitatively, data were obtained through desk review of secondary data from programme reports, budgets, and project outputs where descriptive analysis was undertaken using Excel software. Qualitative information was organized using Nvivo software and analyzed thematically. Results The findings provide evidence of the relevance of the Maternal and Child Nutrition Programme II to the nutrition situation in Kenya and its alignment with the Government of Kenya and donor priorities. Most planned programme targets were achieved despite operating in a COVID-19 pandemic environment. The use of innovative approaches such as family mid-upper arm circumference, integrated management of acute malnutrition surge model, Malezi bora and Logistic Management Information Management System contributed to the realization of effective outputs and outcomes. Stringent financial management strategies contributed toward programme efficiencies; however, optimal utilization of the resources needs further strengthening. The programme adopted strategies for strengthening local capacity and promoting ownership and long-term sustainability. Conclusion The programme is on track across the four evaluation criteria. However, a few suggestions are recommended to improve relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability. A formal transition strategy needs to be developed in consultation with multi-stakeholder groups and implemented in phases. UNICEF Nutrition section should explore a more integrated programming mode of delivery through joint initiatives with other agencies under the Delivery as One UN agenda, along the more gender transformative approaches with more systematic involvement of males and females in gender-based discussions.
Background Bacterial infections are a common complication in patients with seasonal viral respiratory tract infections and are associated with poor prognosis, increased risk of intensive care unit admission and 29–55% mortality. Yet, there is limited data on the burden of bacterial infections among COVID-19 patients in Africa, where underdeveloped healthcare systems are likely to play a pertinent role in the epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we evaluated the etiologies, antimicrobial resistance profiles, risk factors, and outcomes of bacterial infections in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted in severely ill COVID-19 patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, from October to December 2021. We used a structured questionnaire and case report forms to collect sociodemographics, clinical presentation, and hospitalization outcome data. Blood, nasal/oropharyngeal swabs and tracheal aspirate samples were collected based on the patient's clinical presentation and transported to the Kenyatta National Hospital microbiology laboratory for immediate processing following the standard bacteriological procedures. Results We found at least one bacterial infection in 44.2% (53/120) of the patients sampled, with a 31.7% mortality rate. Pathogens were mainly from the upper respiratory tract (62.7%, 42/67), with gram-negative bacteria dominating (73.1%, 49/67). Males were about three times more likely to acquire bacterial infection ( p = 0.015). Those aged 25 to 44 years (p = 0.009), immunized against SARS-CoV-2 (p = 0.027), and admitted to the infectious disease unit ward (p = 0.031) for a short length of stay (0–5 days, p < 0.001) were more likely to have a positive outcome. Multidrug-resistant isolates were the majority (64.3%, 46/67), mainly gram-negative bacteria (69.6%, 32/46). The predominant multidrug-resistant phenotypes were in Enterococcus cloacae (42.9%, 3/7), Klebsiella pneumonia (25%, 4/16), and Escherichia coli (40%, 2/5). Conclusion Our findings highlight a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in severely ill COVID-19 patients, with male gender as a risk factor for bacterial infection. Elderly Patients, non-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, intensive care unit admission, and long length of hospital stay were associated with poor outcomes. There is a need to emphasize strict adherence to infection and prevention at KNH-IDU and antimicrobial stewardship in line with local and global AMR control action plans.
This study investigated the efficacy of hotel facilities’ management practices on employee performance. A descriptive research survey was applied, while the study area was Nairobi County. The sampling techniques applied were a census, stratified, purposive and simple random sampling which gave a sample size of 144 employees. Study results show that sufficient lighting to allow ease of working and moving around safely gave the highest mean value among maintenance management factors (3.95), while work surfaces and head-height beams yielded the highest mean (3.95) among hotel workplace design factors. Nonetheless, health and safety had the majority (40%) of respondents among the hotel facilities regulations and standards. Finally, hotel maintenance management gave the greatest contribution in the relationship between hotel facilities management practices and employee performance (Β = 0.572, t = 4.637, p < 0.001), while hotel workplace design gave the least contribution (B = −0.299, t = −2.576, p = 0.011).
Tea farming is common in Kenya, and most of it is produced by smallholder farmers. Further, there is very minimal data currently on the food security status among households of small-scale tea farmers in Kenya. This study investigated smallholder tea farmers' household food security status in Vihiga County, Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional analytical study. A Multistage sampling technique was employed in this study, and a sample of 310 was considered. In the first stage, Vihiga County was purposively selected, while the respondents were randomly selected. Descriptive statistics, such as frequencies and means, were used to describe the data. Most people had 3 acres of land (45.5%), while (3.1%) had more than 6 acres. Cash crops took the highest portion of their land. Most households (49.0%), focusing on children under five, consumed four food groups daily. The DDS was low (4.5 ± 2.1), with only about 15% meeting the minimum requirements for dietary diversity, meal frequency, and adequate diet, while most households >90% took cereals, pulses, vegetables, sugar, and fat. The production from tea was low (104.3 ± 24.7) kg while the income from tea was not reliable, with a kg being paid at 18 KES. However, most of the tea-based income was not used to access food. Most of the tea-based income was not used to access food. The production from tea was low (104.3 ± 24.7) kg while the income from tea was unreliable. Men controlled the tea and any other income, with a few drinking the proceeds. Consumption of cereals, pulses, vegetables, and chicken was okay. However, the consumption of the other food groups was low. The study recommends the empowerment of women so that they make decisions on food production, income, and use and further the review of tea pay policy to ensure payment that is commensurate with input as well as more sensitization of mothers on more allocations of funds to the food use of the available funds for a diversified health diet. Key words: Cash crop farming, Small-scale tea farmers, Food security, Households
Rhizobia are soil bacteria that induce nodule formation on leguminous plants. In the nodules, they reduce dinitrogen to ammonium that can be utilized by plants. Besides nitrogen fixation, rhizobia have other symbiotic functions in plants including phosphorus and iron mobilization and protection of the plants against various abiotic stresses including salinity. Worldwide, about 20% of cultivable and 33% of irrigation land is saline, and it is estimated that around 50% of the arable land will be saline by 2050. Salinity inhibits plant growth and development, results in senescence, and ultimately plant death. The purpose of this study was to investigate how rhizobia, isolated from Kenyan soils, relieve common beans from salinity stress. The yield loss of common bean plants, which were either not inoculated or inoculated with the commercial R. tropici rhizobia CIAT899 was reduced by 73% when the plants were exposed to 300 mM NaCl, while only 60% yield loss was observed after inoculation with a novel indigenous isolate from Kenyan soil, named S3. Expression profiles showed that genes involved in the transport of mineral ions (such as K+, Ca2+, Fe3+, PO43−, and NO3−) to the host plant, and for the synthesis and transport of osmotolerance molecules (soluble carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides) are highly expressed in S3 bacteroids during salt stress than in the controls. Furthermore, genes for the synthesis and transport of glutathione and γ-aminobutyric acid were upregulated in salt-stressed and S3-inocculated common bean plants. We conclude that microbial osmolytes, mineral ions, and antioxidant molecules from rhizobia enhance salt tolerance in common beans.
Kenya’s Startup ecosystem has experienced tremendous growth over the last ten years. Further, Kenya’s startups have also been among the top-funded in the continent during the same period – attracting financing of between USD 300 million – over USD 3 billion. However, there is currently a lack of granular data guiding policies on the startup ecosystem in Kenya. Hence this Paper traces startup successes and pitfalls of the Ten years (2010-2020) Period in Kenya. The study utilized cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. The target population was start-ups registered in the 47 Counties in Kenya. A total of 104 startups participated in the study. A mix of sampling techniques was used, namely cluster-stage, systematic, purposive, and snow-balling sampling techniques, to select the respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using Content analysis descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The findings indicated that startup innovation hubs emerged in Nairobi in 2010 but offer time, which spurred the mushrooming of startups, seats, and co-working spaces with decentralization to significant towns in the country. The Kenyan startup ecosystem has experienced tremendous growth for the last two decades, growing from 10% in the 2000-2010 to 80% in 2010-2020. However, access to financing remains the biggest challenge for startups because of the risk associated with it, especially for early-stage startups. To strengthen the growth of the startup ecosystem, the government, through the statement of Kenya National Innovation Agency, should ensure the development of policies tailored towards startups. The national government should provide matching funds and establish an Inter-county collaboration framework to ensure skills transfer within and among the counties.
Introduction: Three-fourths of maternal deaths occur from direct obstetric complications. These life-threatening pregnancy-related outcomes are avoidable through ensuring that mothers have access to adequate and proper maternal health services and prompt management of any complications during pregnancy or childbirth process. This study examined the relationship between social network structures and birth attendant decisions among women in Nakuru County, Kenya. Methods: The study applied a mixed-method approach that employs a convergent parallel design. Interviewer administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data among women of birth giving age and community health workers (CHWs) respectively. Chi-square tests for independence were used to assess whether the dependent variable and categorical independent variables are independent at p< 0.05 significance levels. Binomial logistic regression technique was employed to identify variables that are likely to be essential predictors for the dependent variable. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews with key informants was analyzed through content analysis using NVivo 10. Results: About 55% of the women were embedded in homogeneous networks, 76% had high Skilled Birth Attendants (SBA) endorsement networks, and the average number of social networks was 2.4 (SD=1.1, median = 2). There was no significant relationship between social network size and birth attendant decision (χ2(2), p=.072). There was, however, a significant relationship between social network content and birth attendant decision (χ2(1)=55.604, p< 0.001). Social network homogeneity was also strongly related to birth attendant choice (χ2(1)=21.152, p<0.001). Women embedded in social networks with high SBA endorsement had 5.28 higher odds of giving birth in a health facility than their counterparts embedded in low SBA endorsement. Those embedded in a homogeneous network had a 70% reduction in odds of facility delivery. Conclusion: According to the study findings, social networks can either facilitate or constrain facility utilization during birth, and thus health education and mother mobilization interventions promoting facility birth should leverage on the role of social networks. Key words: social networks, mixed methods, birth attendant decisions, skilled birth attendants
Black soldier fly farming is gaining traction globally as a strategy for recycling organic waste into high-quality proteins and fat for feed and organic fertilizer for crop production. The support of governments in East Africa to integrate insect meal in livestock feed has opened opportunities for commercializing insect products. Understanding the potential value of Black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) is paramount to inform policies and practices to promote insect farming and insect-based feed for livestock production. This paper uses the economic surplus method to generate evidence on the potential socioeconomic impact of replacing conventional soybean and fish meal protein sources with insect-based feed (IBF), BSFLM, in Uganda. Results indicate that substitution of IBF for existing protein sources will generate net economic benefits of USD 0.73 billion in 20 years (0.037 billion per year). The benefit-cost ratio is estimated at 28:1, and the internal rate of return is 138%, indicating that the insect-based animal feed industry is a profitable investment. Even in the worst-case scenario, when the replacement rate of IBF and its economic benefits are reduced by half, the benefit-cost ratio remains high (8:1). The estimated economic benefit can lift about 4.53 million people above the poverty line in the country. It can also create about 1,252─563,302 new jobs per annum, depending on the substitution rate of conventional protein feeds with IBF (0.1%─45%). Uganda has the potential to produce from about 3,244 tons to 1.5 million tons of IBF. Similarly, using the same replacement rates, the country can produce about 695─312,678 tons of NPK fertilizer from biowaste recycling. About 0.09-41 million tons of biowaste could be recycled, depending on the replacement rate of conventional feed sources with IBF. Our results justify that investing in the insect feed value chain can contribute to Uganda’s economic, social, and environmental sustainability.
Background: Enterococci are clinically significant because of their increasing antibiotic resistance and their ability to cause severe infections due to an arsenal of virulence genes. Few studies in the developing world have examined virulence factors that may significantly impact patient outcomes. This study describes the antimicrobial resistance profiles and prevalence of five key Enterococcal virulence genes gelE, asa, cylA, esp, and hyl in forty-four clinical Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates in Kenya and their association with patients' demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: All E. faecium isolates were obtained from hospital-acquired skin and soft tissue infections. While E. faecalis was associated with community-acquired urinary tract infections. All isolates were resistant to erythromycin, whereas 11/44 (27.5%), 25/44 (56.8%), 28/44 (63.6%), 37/44 (84.1%), 40/44 (90.0%), and 43/44 (97.5%) were susceptible to tetracycline, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, and teicoplanin, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to tigecycline, vancomycin, and linezolid. There was little difference in the antibiotic resistance profiles between E. faecalis and E. faecium. The prevalence of the virulence genes among the 44 isolates were 27 (61.4%) for gelE, 26 (59.1%) for asa1, 16 (36.3%) for esp, 11 (25.0%) for cylA, and 1 (2.3%) for hyl. 72.9% of E. faecalis isolates had multiple virulence genes compared to 57% of E. faecium isolates with no virulence genes. The hyl gene was only detected in E. faecium, while cylA and asa1 were only detected in E. faecalis. A significant correlation was observed between the presence of asa1 and esp virulence genes and tetracycline resistance (P=0.0305 and 0.0363, respectively). A significant correlation was also observed between the presence of virulence genes gelE and asa1 and nitrofurantoin resistance (P=0.0175 and 0.0225, respectively) and ampicillin resistance (P=0.0005 and 0.0008, respectively). Conclusion: The study highlights the high levels of erythromycin resistance in E. faecalis and E. faecium, the demographic factors influencing the species distribution among patients, and the accumulation of multiple virulence genes in E. faecalis. The significant association of gelE, asa1, and esp virulence genes with drug resistance could explain the pathogenic success of E. faecalis and provides a guide for future studies.
Water quality monitoring is imperative in providing the objective evidence required to make sound decisions about water quality management. This study aimed to examine the water quality status of the Migori River by determining spatio-seasonal variations in water quality parameters, along with associated influencing factors and potential health risks. Therefore, eighteen physico-chemical and bacteriological variables were sampled and analyzed monthly for six months covering the wet and dry seasons from the upstream, midstream, and downstream stations, and a health risk survey was conducted with 90 watershed households. ANOVA and T-test were used to test for the significant spatial and seasonal variations (p < 0.05), respectively; whereas Pearson's correlation was used to identify relationships between parameters. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to find various spatial patterns in the river water quality datasets, while the Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) showed the suitability status of the river water quality. The assessed variables showed significant seasonal variability but no significant spatial differences in the river. HCA generated 3 clusters suggesting that water quality deteriorated downstream from the upstream of the watershed. The PCA extracted four PCs explaining 80.5% of the total variance, which suggested that the variations in water quality are attributed to point and nonpoint sources of pollution. While most of the physico-chemical variables were within maximum permissible limits, the bacteriological levels exceeded the prescribed standards. The index ranked the river's water condition between ‘poor’ to ‘marginal’; upstream has better water condition that gradually decreases toward the downstream, and water quality is better in the wet season than the dry season. The study revealed that the water of the Migori River is polluted and potentially hazardous for human usage, and thus suitable pollution control measures are urgently needed to safeguard public health.
The public health sector is affected by various challenges, such as operational inefficiencies and poor service delivery. These challenges affect public hospitals' delivery of quality services that meet client expectations. As a result of these issues, public hospitals have adopted the total quality management approach to deal with these challenges. The general objective of this research was to determine the effect of total quality management application on the quality-of-service delivery across public hospitals in Kenya. The study was anchored on a resource-based view, dynamic capabilities, and system approach theories. The research applied a descriptive approach to the target population of 1718 respondents. The sampling approach for the study was a stratified random technique that selected a sample of 250 participants. The findings indicated that employee involvement, technology adoption, continual advancement, and client focus affect service delivery across various public hospitals in Kenya. The research concluded that applying total quality management practices is essential and influences service delivery across various public hospitals. Therefore, the national and county governments are supposed to ensure management’s commitment to the implementation of TQM practices across the county’s healthcare facilities.
Background Malnutrition due to inadequate dietary intake is commonly reported in children with Cerebral palsy (CP). Poor dietary intakes are majorly caused by feeding dysfunctions secondary to oro-motor impairment characteristic of the condition. Strategies that improve nutrient densities in foods can help enhance nutrient intakes by these children. Objective This study investigated the effect of consumption of fermented finger millet porridge fortified with Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MoLP) on the protein and vitamin A status of children with CP. Design A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 113 children aged 5–11 years with CP. The study had two arms (intervention [N = 57] and control [N = 56]). The intervention group received a daily serving of fortified finger millet porridge for 3 months while the control group received non-fortified finger millet porridge servings. All children received the same amounts of porridge servings. The levels of serum albumin and retinol between the groups were compared at both baseline and end line. The BMI-for-age Z-scores (BMIAZ) and morbidity prevalence of the children were also assessed. Results At baseline, the two study groups were similar in all demographic and socio-economic characteristics, nutrient intakes, serum levels of albumin and retinol, weight status and morbidity. At end line, the children from the intervention group had significantly higher intakes of vitamin A at 717.12±432.7 μg/d (p = 0.038) and protein at 44.367±17.2 g/d (p = 0.031) respectively. The serum nutrients levels increased significantly from baseline by 0.456±0.12 g/dL (p<0.001) for albumin and by 0.243±0.10 μmol/L (p<0.001) for retinol among children in the intervention group. Among the children in the control group, the changes in the levels of both serum albumin 0.012±0.07 g/dL (p = 0.868) and serum retinol [0.0021±0.02 μmol/L (p = 0.890)] were not significant. At endline, the BMI-for-age Z-scores results showed that 10.52% and 34.0% of children from intervention and control group respectively were undernourished [χ2 = 30.985; p = 0.037]. Among the children in the intervention, group there was a significant change in the weight status between baseline and endline (p = 0.036). The weight status among children in the control group was not significantly different between baseline and endline (p = 0.109). Significant difference in morbidity prevalence between the two groups was also observed at endline (p = 0.003) with the prevalence being 24.6% and 51.8% among children in the intervention and control group respectively. Conclusion Consumption of M . oleifera fortified porridge significantly improved the children’s serum albumin and retinol levels, as well as BMIAZ. Registration number and name of trial registry The trial is registered at Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, number PACTR202107669905145 URL link: .
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5,522 members
George Gachara
  • Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences
Steven Runo
  • Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hudson Nyabuga Nyambaka
  • Department of Chemistry
Evans Changamu
  • Department of Chemistry
Ahmed Hassanali
  • Department of Chemistry
Nairobi, Kenya