Science is among humanity’s greatest achievements, yet scientific censorship is rarely studied empirically. We explore the social, psychological, and institutional causes and consequences of scientific censorship (defined as actions aimed at obstructing particular scientific ideas from reaching an audience for reasons other than low scientific quality). Popular narratives suggest that scientific censorship is driven by authoritarian officials with dark motives, such as dogmatism and intolerance. Our analysis suggests that scientific censorship is often driven by scientists, who are primarily motivated by self-protection, benevolence toward peer scholars, and prosocial concerns for the well-being of human social groups. This perspective helps explain both recent findings on scientific censorship and recent changes to scientific institutions, such as the use of harm-based criteria to evaluate research. We discuss unknowns surrounding the consequences of censorship and provide recommendations for improving transparency and accountability in scientific decision-making to enable the exploration of these unknowns. The benefits of censorship may sometimes outweigh costs. However, until costs and benefits are examined empirically, scholars on opposing sides of ongoing debates are left to quarrel based on competing values, assumptions, and intuitions.
Oral history indicates that a large wooden trough held in storage at the University of Kentucky’s William S. Webb Museum of Anthropology was a component of the saltpeter mining operation in Mammoth Cave in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, worked largely by enslaved persons. We used multiple heritage science methods, including radiocarbon wiggle-match dating, tree-ring dating, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), and optical scanning, combined with historical research, to examine the trough. Our analysis supports the oral history of the trough as an artifact of the mining system in Mammoth Cave. This case study illustrates how heritage science methods can provide corroboration for the origins and biographies of poorly documented historical artifacts.
We assessed the effects of a postbiotic program consisting of liquid and solid Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) on the ruminal microbiome and fermentation characteristics of beef steers. Eight Holstein steers (BW 467 ± 13.9 kg) with rumen cannulas were used in a crossover design study with 21-d per period and 7-d washout in between periods. Steers were blocked based on initial BW and assigned to one of two treatments: 1) Control, basal diet, or 2) SCFP, basal diet plus one day feeding of LiquiCare RTU (Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA; dosed via rumen cannula at 11 mL/100 kg BW), followed by daily feeding of 12 g/d NaturSafe (Diamond V, top-dressed). Rumen fluid samples were collected on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 21 at 0, 4, 8, or 12 h post morning feeding via rumen cannula for pH, VFA and NH3-N analyses. Samples collected at 4 h post morning feeding on d 0, 2 and 21 were subjected to DNA extraction and shotgun Nanopore sequencing to determine microbiome composition and carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) functional potential. Statistical model included the fixed effects of treatment, period, day and their interactions and random effect of animal. Feeding SCFP tended to reduce ruminal lactate (0.09 vs. 0.02 mM, P = 0.10), and reduced ruminal NH3-N (4.86 vs. 6.83 mg/dL, P = 0.04) on d 21. Ruminal total VFA concentration was increased (P = 0.01) by feeding SCFP 4-h post-feeding on d 5 and numerically increased 4-h post-feeding on day 21 (133.3 vs. 151.2 mM, P = 0.12). Treatments did not affect species or CAZy alpha- and beta-diversity. Steers received liquid postbiotic on d 2 exhibited a positive correlation (P < 0.05) between propionate molar proportion and glycosyl transferases (GT), glycoside hydrolases (GH), carbohydrate esterases, and carbohydrate binding modules (CBM); and a negative correlation (P < 0.05) between acetate molar proportion and polysaccharide lyases, GT, GH, and CBM, which was not observed in Control. Additionally, SCFP steers had higher (P = 0.05) CBM functional potential on d 21 than on d 0, while CAZy class abundances did not change over time in Control steers. Differential network analysis indicated a greater normalized degree for GT in the SCFP steers compared with Control on d 21. There were 2, 6 and 12 differently abundant species (P < 0.01) between SCFP and Control on d 0, 2 and 21, respectively, suggesting supplementing SCFP altered the abundances of more species over time. Our results showed that the postbiotic program altered the metabolic pathways of ruminal microbes toward greater propionate production, and improved abundance of carbohydrate binding modules. Our results also showed that glycosyl transferases had a greater promotive role in the ruminal enzymatic network of SCFP steers.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a postbiotic feeding program consisting of liquid and solid Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) on digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and plasma metabolome of finishing beef steers. Eight Holstein steers (BW 467 ± 13.9 kg) equipped with rumen cannulas were used in a crossover design study, with 21-d per period and 7-d washout period in between periods. Steers were blocked based on initial BW to one of two treatments: 1) Control, basal diet only (CON), or 2) SCFP, one day feeding of LiquiCare RTU (Diamond V, dosed via rumen cannula at 11 mL/100 kg BW) followed by daily feeding of 12 g NaturSafe (Diamond V, top-dressed). Feed and fecal samples were collected during d 17 to 20 for determination of digestibility and fecal excretion of N, P, Cu and Zn using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Blood samples were collected on d 21 before morning feeding. Rumen fluid samples were collected on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 21 at 0, 4, 8, or 12 h post morning feeding via rumen cannula. Results were analyzed with the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS 9.4 (SAS, 2022). BW, DMI and digestibility were not affected by treatment. There was a tendency of treatment by period interaction (P = 0.09) on feed efficiency, which was improved by feeding SCFP only in period 1. Feeding SCFP did not affect (P > 0.10) ruminal pH. Feeding SCFP tended to reduce ruminal lactate concentration on d 21 (0.09 vs. 0.02 mM, P = 0.10). Supplementing SCFP reduced ruminal NH3-N concentration on d 2 (4.24 vs. 7.31 mg/dL, P = 0.03) and d 21 (4.86 vs. 6.83 mg/dL, P = 0.04). By feeding SCFP, ruminal total VFA concentration was increased 4-h post-feeding on d 5 (139.7 vs. 126.7 mM, P = 0.01) and numerically increased 4-h post-feeding on d 21 (151.2 vs. 133.3 mM, P = 0.12). For VFA composition, no treatment differences were observed on day 21. However, feeding SCFP reduced (P = 0.01) propionate proportion and increased (P = 0.05) butyrate proportion on day 3. The enriched plasma metabolic pathways (P ≤ 0.05) by feeding SCFP are citric acid cycle, pyrimidine metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, retinol metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism pathways. Overall, our results indicated potential benefits of the SCFP feeding program on improving ruminal fermentation, preventing acidosis and improving N utilization in the rumen. Furthermore, feeding SCFP enriched several important pathways in lipid, protein, and glucose metabolism, which may improve feed efficiency of energy and protein in finishing beef cattle.
Given the current urbanization context and rising interest in green roof systems, growing a high-value crop such as saffron crocus in green roof medium could be an opportunity to use the benefits of both the crop and the green roof system; the drainage, aeration, and sand-like texture of green roof media make it suited for saffron production, and the saffron market price could make green roof production commercially viable. Various factors, including plant diseases and planting depth, could affect saffron production. Therefore , this research was conducted to evaluate the effects of planting depth and biofungicide treatments using Bacillus subtilis on saffron production in a green roof system. A completely randomized factorial block design was used with planting depth (10 cm and 15 cm) and B. subtilis strain QST 713 biofungicide treatments (an untreated control, 15.6 × 10 9 cfu/L, and 31.2 × 10 9 cfu/L) as independent variables. In 2019, fresh flower yield, fresh stigma yield, and dry stigma yield were calculated during harvesting, and additional data on flower number, tepal length and width, stigma length, and harvest time were collected in 2020. All variables were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), with planting depth and biofungicide treatments as fixed effects using R. Fresh stigma yield and dry stigma yield were higher in the 10-cm planting depth in 2019. Results were the opposite in 2020: flower number, fresh flower yield, fresh stigma yield, dry stigma yield, and harvest time were higher in the 15-cm planting depth than the 10-cm planting depth. B. subtilis treatments did not affect any studied variable in 2020, but in 2019, the higher level of fungicide treatment resulted in lower fresh flower yield and dry stigma yield. There was no effect of bio-fungicide treatment and planting depth on tepal length, tepal width, and stigma length in both years. This study showed that growing saffron crocus on green roofs is feasible and even resulted in higher yield than field production in many saffron-producing regions and countries. In addition, results indicated that shallow planting might be suitable for annual production, whereas deeper planting could be ideal for perennial production based on the objective. Our findings demonstrated the feasibility of saffron production in the green roof system and suggest further research to develop best management practices.
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of trailblazing women leaders in US police organizations as viewed through the lens of translocational positionality framework (TPF). The intent was to determine if as “trailblazers” their leadership strategies might have differed from other leaders in police organizations. This exploratory qualitative study used a purposive sample of 13 trailblazing leaders and conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews. Using a grounded theory methodology, the author found the women police leaders’ behaviors and leadership characteristics were fluid based on the context and circumstances of the situation. The themes of authority and presence emerged as the leaders proved to be highly capable and component caregivers, selfless servants, over-achievers, and great communicators who balanced both male and female leadership behaviors. The findings revealed that the trailblazing participants were unique, and their leadership strategies were different from their colleagues because they were willing to create their own path to leadership opportunities.
Urban agriculture is regaining popularity as a method of food cultivation to meet the food needs of communities that reside in densely populated areas. Although this method of farming has many benefits, little research has evaluated the potential impacts of practice on the environment, such as water quality resulting from nutrient runoff. To address this gap, this study analyzed runoff water collected from raised beds and small plastic pool container plots with four different types of nutrient management treatments (conventional fertilizer, organic fertilizer, low-compost + organic fertilizer, and high compost). Water samples were collected from each of the raised bed and container plots once per month, weather permitting, and analyzed for pH, conductivity, color, turbidity, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, total phosphorus, and potassium. Although there were some significant differences between the raised beds and container plots, they did not translate to meaningful differences in water quality for most variables measured, except for nitrate-nitrogen. The conventional fertilizer treatment demonstrated greater or more variable nutrient leaching than the other nutrient management treatments. This result suggests an opportunity for improved nutrient management by urban farmers to reduce nutrient leaching. Sampling time was found to have a significant impact on runoff water quality, which could be attributed to varying precipitation rates between samplings and timing of sampling in relation to compost and fertilizer applications, and crop production cycles. © 2023 American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.
We evaluated the effects of supplementing bacterial direct-fed microbial (DFM) on performance, apparent total-tract digestibility, rumen fermentation, and immune parameters of lactating dairy cows. One-hundred and 14 multiparous Holstein cows (41 ± 7 DIM) were used in a randomized complete block design with an experiment comprising 14-d covariate (pre-experimental sample and data collection) and 91-d of experimental period. Cows were blocked based on energy-corrected milk yield during the covariate period and the following treatments were randomly assigned within each block: 1) Control (CON): Corn silage-based total mixed ration (TMR) without DFM; 2) PRO-A: Basal diet top-dressed with a mixture of Lactobacillus animalis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii at 3 × 109 cfu/day; and 3) PRO-B: Basal diet top-dressed with a mixture of L. animalis, P. freudenreichii, Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis at 11.8 × 109 cfu/day. Milk yield, DMI, and BW were measured daily while milk samples for component analysis were taken on 2 consecutive days of each week of data collection. Feces, urine, rumen, and blood samples were taken during the covariate period, wk 4, 7, 10, and 13 for estimation of digestibility, N-partitioning, rumen fermentation, plasma nutrient status and immune parameters. Treatments had no effect on DMI and milk yield. Fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM) and milk fat yield were improved with PRO-B, while milk fat percent and feed efficiency (ECM/DMI) tended to increase with PRO-B compared with PRO-A and CON. Crude fat digestibility was greater with PRO-B compared with CON. Feeding CON and PRO-A resulted in higher total VFA concentration relative to PRO-B. Percentage of neutrophils tended to be reduced with PRO-A compared with CON and PRO-B. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of anti-CD44 antibody on granulocytes tended to be higher in PRO-B compared with CON. The MFI of anti-CD62L antibody on CD8+ T cells was lower in PRO-A than PRO-B, with PRO-A also showing a tendency to be lower than CON. This study indicates the potential of DFM to improve fat digestibility with consequential improvement in fat corrected milk yield, feed efficiency and milk fat yield by lactating dairy cows. The study findings also indicate that dietary supplementation with DFM may augment immune parameters or activation of immune cells, including granulocytes and T cells; however, the overall effects on immune parameters are inconclusive.
The need for soil fumigants of natural origin such as glucosinolates (GSLs) has increased due to the general prevention of manmade soil fumigants. GSLs and other phytochemicals (vitamin C and phenols) present in Brassica vegetables such as turnips, arugula, and mustard have antioxidant properties, and hence have important health attributes. The study examined how different soil amendments (chicken manure CM, vermicompost Vermi, horse manure HM, sewage sludge SS, elemental inorganic fertilizer Inorg, organic fertilizer Org, and biochar) impact the concentrations of glucosinolates (GSLs), vitamin C, phenols, and reducing sugars in three varieties of turnips (Purple Top White Globe PTWG, Scarlet Queen Red SQR, and Tokyo Cross TC), arugula, and mustard greens grown under field conditions. The results showed that mustard greens contained higher concentrations of GSLs (974 µg g−1 fresh shoots) than arugula (651 µg g−1 fresh shoots), and the TC variety of turnip had the highest concentrations of GSLs, vitamin C, and sugars. Additionally, amending the soil with SS, CM, and HM significantly increased the vitamin C content in mustard shoots by 82%, 90%, and 31%, respectively, and the total phenols by 77%, 70%, and 36%, respectively, compared to the control treatment. The increased inorganic fertilizers cost, and availability of large amounts of animal manure made animal manure application to cropland an attractive disposal option.
Agriculture has been a cornerstone of human civilization for thousands of years, providing food and other essential resources to sustain our societies. However, as we enter the 21st century, we face unprecedented challenges that threaten the very foundations of our agricultural systems. Climate change, resource depletion, and population growth are just a few of the issues that demand urgent attention from policymakers and practitioners alike. Further, the growing population, climate change, the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the Ukraine-Russia war, and the depreciation of national currencies have disrupted the global food supply chain and increased food prices and food insecurity in many countries, including Nepal. The Nepalese agriculture sector alone contributed employment opportunities for more than 60 % of the population with a 23.9% share in total value added of the national economy (Ministry of Finance, 2022). Though the majority of farmers in Nepal are engaged in the agriculture sector, there is still a dominance of traditional and subsistence agriculture and the country's agricultural production is not enough to feed its population. The continued rise in import bills and volume of food products in recent years has been a major challenge for the country. Addressing these constraints warrants consortia of efforts from the government, nonprofits, and private sectors to promote sustainable and regenerative agricultural concepts and practices that align with local farm attributes and the agroecological environment. With the above mentioned issue, Policy Research Institute, the publisher of NPPR, collaborated with Association of Nepalese Agricultural Professionals of Americas (NAPA) for the utilization of expert knowledge for public policy making and policy discussion. PRI is open to collaborating with any professional and intellectual society for policy issues. Thereof, a two-day (January 6-7, 2023) virtual symposium on "Agricultural Policies and Practices in Nepal: Pathways for Transformation" was jointly organized by the PRI and NAPA with the aim to discuss and synthesize structural, policy intervention-related procedural, and local barriers and issues inherent to inadequate agricultural growth in Nepal and recommend transformative and pragmatic policies, programs, and practices feasible at local, regional, and national levels. The other symposium collaborators were the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD), Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences (IAAS, Tribhuvan University), Nepal Agricultural Cooperative Central Federation Ltd. (NACCFL), and Society of Agricultural Scientists-Nepal (SAS-Nepal). The 38 papers presented at the symposium brought together over 500 researchers, policymakers, and practitioners from around the world. The symposium highlighted the importance of innovative policies and practices that can help transform agriculture and ensure its sustainability for future generations. The symposium was organized and facilitated in four thematic areas. The Agriculture Policy theme highlighted an analysis of current agricultural policies, laws, and regulations that have hindered the production and marketing of farm products, land use policies, transformative agriculture for the viable and circular economy, promoting cooperative farming, farm diversity, and sustainability including internationally successful policy practices suitable for Nepal. The Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension theme included diverse subject matters. These were genetic improvement of crops and livestock for diverse agro-climatic zones; technology innovations and dissemination; science-based knowledge and extension practices; climate-smart and organic agriculture; agri-business and entrepreneurship; commercial agriculture; and integration of agricultural research, education, and extension. Similarly, the Technology and Infrastructure Development theme focused on varied avenues of innovative technology (such as UAV, GIS, and Remote Sensing), farm mechanization, and smart and efficient irrigation practices to optimize costs of production, labor, fertilizer shortages, and monitoring of plant and soil health Finally, the Governance theme underpinned coherence and discordance between the policy frameworks and governing structures/mechanisms of three levels of government and opportunities for realignment for agricultural transformation as well as a local governance framework for agricultural service delivery at a municipality level. Finally, the symposium highlighted the importance of partnerships and collaborations in driving transformational change. The papers discussed the potential of public-private partnerships, multi-stakeholder platforms, and other forms of collaboration to leverage resources, share knowledge, and scale up innovative solutions. This special issue received 20 papers for publication consideration, however, after the review process, it is able to manage 12 papers for publication. These papers provide a rich and diverse set of insights into the pathways for transforming agriculture. They offer both practical guidance and theoretical frameworks for policymakers and practitioners seeking to navigate the complex challenges facing agriculture today. We hope this special issue will inspire further research and action towards a more sustainable and equitable agricultural future. We thank all the authors who contributed to this special issue and the reviewers who provided their valuable feedback. We also extend our appreciation to the symposium organizers and collaborators. Finally, we encourage additional authors/presenters to submit their papers in the NPPR’s Regular Issue, which will be published in September 2023.
Food security means access to food along with food production and availability to every individual at a reasonable cost according to the calorific needs of people. To assure food safety to 30 million Nepali people, it is essential to utilize every piece of available farmable land in each geographic region of seven provinces. We analyzed individual household food intake, dietary energy adequacy, and nutritional status and needs at the ward level of Nepal. We used a decadal (2010-2020) average food production of different crops per unit of farmable area, and food needs for people living in that ward based on their gender and nutritional requirements to perform various activities in different geographic regions of seven provinces. We assumed three food consumption scenarios: a) traditional practices of meeting dietary needs only from major crops; b) consuming major and minor crops; and c) consuming major and minor crops and meat and fruit products. Our analysis revealed that it is essential for Nepal to implement policies that will encourage crop diversification comprising both major and minor crops and inform the public about the nutritional values of various crops that can be grown utilizing location-specific environments in different geographic regions of seven provinces. Our findings assist in policy instrumentation that will pursue farming communities to supplement their dietary needs with diverse crop products and suggest government set aside some matching funds to encourage remitters, who return to Nepal with knowledge and financial resources, to engage in agriculture. We also argue that crop diversification is needed to assure farm productivity if certain crops fail due to unforeseen environmental calamities.
Abstract Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) commercialization in Florida is mainly challenged by the lack of suitable essential oil hemp cultivars with Δ‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration below the legal threshold. However, previous studies have only evaluated cannabidiol (CBD)‐dominant industrial hemp cultivars but not the cultivars primarily grown for cannabigerol (CBG) production. Hence, field trials were conducted using two CBG dominant cultivars adapted in Kentucky (CBG Gold) and Colorado (Panacea) at three experimental farms located at Okeechobee (Lykes) and Clewiston (Townsite and Ritta) in southern Florida with three planting dates from late April to late June under two different soil types (sandy soil at Lykes and Townsite, and organic soil at Ritta). CBG, CBD, and THC concentrations were analyzed in developing flowers harvested at weekly intervals beginning 2 weeks after flowering until crop maturity. Location and planting date had some effect on cannabinoids profile, but the effect was not consistent in any of the tested cultivars. Both the cultivars contained THC concentration (
Outdoor recreation is one of the most widely recognized ecosystem services provided by forests and grasslands in the world. This paper examined the influence of factors not related to landscape values, such as ethnicity and gasoline prices, on individual participation in outdoor recreation in the southeastern region of the U.S. The model results showed that there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the race groups (Caucasians and non-Caucasians) for participation in the different activities either between racial groups or among National Forest (NF). This may be due to the very high proportion of Caucasian participants in the study. The results also revealed that travel costs negatively influence the number of NF visits. The number of NF visits decreases if the gasoline price increases by 20% and more. The results of this study have practical importance for different entities such as stakeholders, tourism operators, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and local authorities.
Abstract Due to limited information, identifying suitable cannabidiol (CBD) dominant industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars and optimal planting date are critical for hemp commercialization for CBD production in Florida. Two field trials were conducted with seven cultivars planted on three different dates from late April to late June. The cultivars were received from two different suppliers (Kentucky and Colorado) representing their adaptation. Plant growth parameters such as plant height and green canopy cover were recorded at 2−3 weeks intervals during crop growth. Temporal CBD and Δ‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations in developing flowers were analyzed weekly beginning two weeks after flowering until maturity. The final floral biomass yield was measured at harvest. CBD and THC concentration curve over crop growing season varied among the tested cultivars. High positive correlations between CBD and THC concentrations (R2 = 0.88−0.98) were observed in all cultivars. This resulted in similar CBD/THC ratios across all planting conditions. Earlier planting resulted in higher CBD, THC, and floral biomass yield in a few cultivars, with no significant effect in most cultivars. Cultivars adapted in Kentucky performed better compared to Colorado in floral biomass and CBD yield. However, THC concentrations in the cultivars adapted in Kentucky mostly exceeded the acceptable legal threshold (0.3% THC) at harvest. Results indicate cultivar performance was affected more by genetics compared to planting date. Screening more cultivars adapted to regions of similar latitudes and environmental conditions is necessary to identify suitable hemp cultivars for Florida or similar climatic conditions.
Recent demographic changes in the United States have shown that we live in a multicultural society. However, for some reason, colleges and universities are still floundering in mediocrity when it comes to multiculturalism. What we see in higher education is multiculturalism that is fraudulent and unaccountable and the fact that individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) and vulnerable backgrounds consistently endure White supremacy, racism, discrimination, and xenophobia, to say the least. In addition, we consistently see that proactive and measurable efforts are not made in the recruitment, retention, graduation, continuation, tenure, and promotion of students, faculty, staff, and leaders from CLD, immigrant, and vulnerable backgrounds. While there are well-written and documented policies, mission and vision statements, and goals and objectives in institutions of higher learning, there appears to be deficits in applicability and accountability measures of equity, diversity, quality, goodness, and fairness. Most strategies seem to be feel-good, look-good, fake, bandaid, and fraudulent approaches that are divorced from realities. How do we reverse these moves while respecting the traditional roles of higher education? This article responds to this critical question.
Extreme weather events have cost lives and financial losses across the United States. Moreover, they are expected to increase in frequency, and this will exacerbate their impact on vulnerable sectors such as agriculture. But how farmers could adapt to extreme weather events by adopting different conservation practices has received slight attention in the literature. This study examines how farmers' perceptions of drought and flooding influence their decisions to implement conservation practices in their conventional crop fields. Out of the 350 farmer responses we received, fewer than half indicated a likelihood to adopt no-tillage/reduced tillage (43%), cover crops (40%), crop diversification (37%), and integrated crop-livestock grazing (29%). Using this data and a multivariate probit modeling framework, we show that farmers’ decisions can be partly explained by their perception of drought but not by their perception of flooding. Specifically, the perceived number of drought years significantly increases the likelihood of adopting no-tillage/reduced tillage and diversified cropping in the future. However, the number of drought years is not significantly associated with the use of cover crops and integrated crop-livestock grazing. These results suggest that the effects of extreme weather events on adoption of conservation practices as adaptive measures vary across different practices. Therefore, adaptation policies that make use of conservation practices must be tailored to farmers’ needs and priorities to be effective.
This qualitative study seeks to fill a gap in the literature by providing state police agencies with specific strategies to improve diversity recruitment and hiring. Enhanced agency legitimacy is discussed as a potential by-product of creating a more diverse workforce. The intent of this study is not to evaluate legitimacy or prove diversity recruitment will positively affect the overall perceptions of agency legitimacy. Seven focus groups of sworn female (n = 15) and minority (n = 23) state police officers from a mid-south state police agency are organized to provide insight into diversity recruiting challenges and strategies. We conducted thematic analysis to isolate the themes from the focus groups. The themes resulted in a compilation of diversity recruitment strategies. Additional strategies were added based on the literature. Recommendations are provided for improving diversity recruitment and hiring within state police agencies through a holistic approach.
Flooding is a common, serious, and costly natural disaster. Kentucky is ranked second among flood-related disaster areas in the United States. Preparation of flood zone and flood hazard maps are essential to identify flood risk zones, and then to potentially reduce the impact of flooding. Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) provides high-resolution and high-accuracy elevation data as input for flood modeling and in studying flood impacts. The objectives of this study are: (1) to use topographic elevation data for delineating flood inundation areas of the Kentucky River at Frankfort; and (2) to demonstrate a flood analysis technique using Lidar as a source of highly accurate elevation data. Lidar point cloud tiles from the Kentucky Geography Network were used to create Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), then used to generate water surface elevation. Results showed Lidar-based topography data accurately delineated flood inundation areas and water depth. A simulated flood at a level of 14.77 m, approximating the flood of 1978, inundated 7.85 ha within downtown Frankfort and vicinity, causing considerable physical and monetary damage. Resulting maps of flood inundation areas can be used as supplementary information for flood modeling and analysis. This information can be used in land-use management, town planning, and estimating flood insurance to minimize damage from flooding. KEYWORDS: Flood modeling, Kentucky, Lidar, Water levels, Floodplain, GIS
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mycotoxin known to impair human and animal health. It is also believed to have a deleterious effect on ruminal nutrient digestibility under in vitro batch culture systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing the dose of AFB1 on ruminal dry matter and nutrient digestibility, fermentation profile, and N flows using a dual-flow continuous culture system fed a diet formulated for lactating dairy cows. Eight fermenter vessels were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 10 d periods (7 d adaptation and 3 d sample collection). Treatments were randomly applied to fermenters on diet DM basis: (1) 0 μg of AFB1/kg of DM (Control); (2) 50 μg of AFB1/kg of DM (AF50); (3) 100 μg of AFB1/kg of DM (AF100); and (4) 150 μg of AFB1/kg of DM (AF150). Treatments did not affect nutrient digestibility, fermentation, and N flows. Aflatoxin B1 concentration in ruminal fluid increased with dose but decreased to undetectable levels after 4 h post-dosing. In conclusion, adding incremental doses of AFB1 did not affect ruminal fermentation, digestibility of nutrients, and N flows in a dual-flow continuous culture system fed diets formulated for lactating dairy cows.
An anti-angiogenic drug in cancer treatment prevents the growth of new blood vessels in tumors by binding to VEGF molecules, which otherwise induce endothelial cells inside blood vessels to sprout the blood supply toward the tumor. This would prevent the growth of new blood cells which will deprive the tumor of nutrients, thus decreasing its carrying capacity, and ultimately shrinking its volume. With new vascularization absent, the tumor will be isolated, making it easier to treat. Although there is an availability of various anti-angiogenic drugs, their effectiveness is low compared to other cancer treatments. We are specifically pinpointing the various combination of doses and the treatment timelines as reasonable factors to increase the effectiveness of the anti-angiogenic drug Bevacizumab, which can possibly prolong the patient’s survival rate and offer lower toxicity compared to other treatment modalities such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We have numerically analyzed different doses of Bevacizumab, including 15 mg/kg, an FDA-approved dose if offered in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs, carboplatin and paclitaxel, as a single-agent treatment option. Based on the results, the tumor volume was observed to be stabilizing for the duration of the treatment, which was chosen to be 400 days. The toxicity levels of these doses with Bevacizumab as a single-agent treatment option have not been tested in a clinical setting. However, these mathematically promising results can provide a gateway for the successful treatment of ovarian cancer in the future.
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