# Kent State University

• Kent, OH, United States
Recent publications
Split Bregman methods are popular iterative methods for the solution of large-scale minimization problems that arise in image restoration and basis pursuit. This paper investigates the possibility of projecting large-scale problems into a Krylov subspace of fairly small dimension and solving the minimization problem in the latter subspace by a split Bregman algorithm. We are concerned with the restoration of images that have been contaminated by blur and Gaussian or impulse noise. Computed examples illustrate that the projected split Bregman methods described are fast and give computed solutions of high quality.
Cutting actions were likely an important factor in the emergence and evolution of stone tools. In recent years, experiments have shown many factors can influence the efficiency of cutting behaviors, including tool form, tool material, and tool-user. Here, following other researchers, we test whether the material getting cut influences the efficiency effects of particular variables, namely flake size, cutting-edge length, and gross-edge curvature. Slicing six different materials, five participants used 300 stone flakes with quantitatively documented differences in flake size, cutting-edge length, and gross-edge curvature. The results of our Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) provide evidence that specimen size, edge length, and edge curvature have differential effects based on the material being cut. Our results support the hypothesis that the hominin need or desire to process particular materials potentially influenced the production and selection of stone tool forms over time and to different extents.
Based on agency theory, signaling theory, and moral capital theory, we examine whether and how corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance influences firms’ political risk disclosure. We also examine the impact of such disclosure on institutional ownership and financial analysts’ forecast dispersion and forecast error and whether the impact depends on CSR performance. We find that stronger CSR performers provide less disclosure of political risk than weaker CSR performers, suggesting that CSR performance is a substitute for political risk disclosure. We find that political risk disclosure is associated with lower percentage of ownership by institutional investors with long-term investment horizons and higher analyst forecast dispersion and forecast error. However, we find that CSR performance cancels out the negative impact of political risk disclosure on institutional ownership and analyst forecast dispersion/error, suggesting that institutional investors and financial analysts put less weight on such disclosure issued by more CSR-oriented firms.
Objectives: This study examined the effect of maturation on parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) response from rest to light- to moderate-intensity exercise and recovery from maximal exercise in pre- (n = 10; maturity offset = -3.0 ± 1.2 years; age = 10.1 ± 1.9 years), mid- (n = 9; maturity offset = -0.1 ± 0.6 years; age = 13.7 ± 1.0 years), and postpubertal (n = 10; maturity offset = 1.9 ± 0.6 years; age = 15.6 ± 1.2 years) boys and men (n = 10; age = 24.1 ± 2.0 years). Design: Participants completed seated rest, light-intensity exercise (50% HRmax), and moderate-intensity exercise (65% HRmax). Following moderate-intensity exercise, intensity was ramped to elicit maximal HR and followed by 25 min of seated recovery. Log transformed values for root mean square of successive differences (lnRMSSD), high-frequency power (lnHF) and normalized HF power (lnHFnu) assessed PNS modulation during 3 min of rest, light-intensity exercise, moderate-intensity exercise, and 3-min epochs throughout recovery. Results: During light-intensity exercise, lnRMSSD and lnHF were greater in prepubertal (lnRMSSD = 3.4 ± 0.3 ms; lnHF = 5.4 ± 0.7 ms2) compared to men (lnRMSSD = 2.8 ± 0.5 ms; lnHF = 4.0 ± 0.9 ms2). During moderate-intensity exercise, lnHF differed between prepubertal and men (2.8 ± 1.0 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 ms2). During recovery, HRV variables were greater in prepubertal compared to postpubertal and men. Conclusions: Prepubertal boys have reduced PNS withdrawal during light-intensity exercise and greater PNS reactivation following exercise.
Most deep learning methods in hyperspectral image (HSI) classification use local learning methods, where overlapping areas between pixels can lead to spatial redundancy and higher computational cost. This paper proposes an efficient global learning (EGL) framework for HSI classification. The EGL framework was composed of universal global random stratification (UGSS) sampling strategy and a classification model BrsNet. The UGSS sampling strategy was used to solve the problem of insufficient gradient variance resulted from limited training samples. To fully extract and explore the most distinguishing feature representation, we used the modified linear bottleneck structure with spectral attention as a part of the BrsNet network to extract spectral spatial information. As a type of spectral attention, the shuffle spectral attention module screened important spectral features from the rich spectral information of HSI to improve the classification accuracy of the model. Meanwhile, we also designed a double branch structure in BrsNet that extracted more abundant spatial information from local and global perspectives to increase the performance of our classification framework. Experiments were conducted on three famous datasets, IP, PU, and SA. Compared with other classification methods, our proposed method produced competitive results in training time, while having a greater advantage in test time.
We consider the distributed setting of $n$ autonomous mobile robots that operate in Look-Compute-Move cycles and communicate with other robots using a constant number of colored lights (the robots with lights model). We assume obstructed visibility where collinear robots do not see each other. In addition, we consider a grid-based terrain embedded in the 2-dimensional euclidean plane. The Convex Hull Formation problem is to relocate the $n$ robots (starting at arbitrary, but distinct, initial positions) so that each robot is positioned on a vertex of a convex hull. In this article, we provide a framework for solving Convex Hull Formation . We then provide four asynchronous algorithms under this framework. Key measures of the algorithms’ performance include the time taken and the space occupied. The presented algorithms are randomized and their time bounds hold with high probability. The first $O(\max \lbrace n^{2},D\rbrace)$ -time, $O({n^{2}})$ -perimeter, and $O({n^{3}})$ -area algorithm serves to introduce key ideas, where $D$ is the diameter of the initial configuration. The subsequent algorithms, differing in computational requirements, run in $O(\max \lbrace n^{\frac{3}{2}},D\rbrace)$ time with a perimeter of $O(n^{\frac{3}{2}})$ and area of $O(n^{3})$ . We also prove lower bounds of $\Omega (n^{\frac{3}{2}})$ for time and perimeter and $\Omega (n^{3})$ for area, for any Convex Hull Formation algorithm; i.e., our $O(\max \lbrace n^{\frac{3}{2}},D\rbrace)-$ time algorithm is optimal in time, perimeter, and area.
Extreme heat is often overlooked as a public health concern in Minnesota, where intraseasonal summer variability limits acclimatization to oppressive heat conditions. Specific categories of synoptic-scale air masses are linked to summer excess mortality and elevated health risk in the Midwestern United States, particularly within urban areas. Between 1948 and 2019, Minnesota's four largest urban areas have experienced decreased nighttime cooling, while warmer and more humid air masses have increased in frequency at the expense of cooler and drier ones. We used downscaled CMIP5 climate projections for 21st-century Minnesota, under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emissions scenarios, to generate daily synoptic classifications and evaluate projected frequency and character trends in the highest-risk air masses. Projections show dramatic increases in both the frequency and temperature of days within the Dry Tropical category, neither of which have changed significantly thus far across Minnesota's historical record. Frequency and duration of consecutive-day episodes of excess heat, as identified either by synoptic classifications or by the Excess Heat Factor, are likewise expected to increase more substantially in the future than they have in the past. Other projected trends, such as rising dew point temperatures and nighttime air temperatures, represent continuations of already existing historical trends.
Background: Burden transfer, when veterinary client caregiver burden underlies stressful encounters with providers, elevates risk for occupational distress in veterinary medicine. To date, burden transfer has been primarily examined in veterinarians working in general practice, using methods that are time consuming. The current work validates an abbreviated Burden Transfer Inventory (BTI-A) and explores burden transfer across positions of employment and veterinary settings. Methods: Participants completed online measures of burden transfer, stress and burnout. A BTI-A with items representing each BTI domain was created with an initial validation sample (n = 1151 veterinarians). Confirmatory psychometric analyses were conducted in a cross-validation sample (n = 440 veterinarians and support staff), followed by exploration of the BTI and BTI-A across veterinary settings and position of employment. Results: The BTI-A correlated with the full-length BTI (r = 0.89-0.96) shows good internal consistency (α = 0.72-0.88) and 1-month test-retest reliability (r = 0.69-0.74). The BTI-A correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with stress and burnout. Exploratory comparisons suggested group differences including greater reactivity in general compared to specialty referral/emergency practice (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The BTI-A can be used in place of the original measure when brevity is important. Use of the BTI-A may help guide allied mental health professionals in providing support for wellbeing in veterinary healthcare team members.
Conservation management is often integrated into a broader tourism context, and under some conditions allows wildlife trophy hunting to support its goals. In such cases it is generally acknowledged that the direct impact of hunting requires careful monitoring and regulation with respect to the size and dynamics of hunted populations. However, hunting may also affect the behaviour of local wildlife, including their reaction to the approach of humans. Thus, hunting may have broader consequences on tourism and conservation management if animals respond by changing their behaviour in a way that makes them more difficult to monitor or for tourists to observe. We examined the potential impact of trophy hunting on vigilance and flight behaviour of Blue Sheep (Bharal: Pseudois nayaur) in Nepal, by comparing their behavioural responses in conservation areas with contrasting management approaches: the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) where male Blue Sheep have been trophy hunted since the 1980 s, and the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) where hunting is forbidden. Blue Sheep in the DHR had higher levels of vigilance than sheep in the ACA (10 % versus 8 % of their time respectively). Sheep in the DHR were also much more difficult to approach on foot, with Blue Sheep groups in the DHR having an average flight initiation distance of 96 ± 7 m versus 39 ± 3 m for the ACA, and subsequently moving much greater distances when disturbed (flight movement distance in the DHR versus ACA: 79 ± 3 m versus 26 ± 2 m respectively). These results suggest that hunting impacts on tourism and conservation may extend well beyond the population dynamic consequences of trophy animal removal. These behavioural effects suggest additional consideration is required when balancing wildlife hunting and observation tourism activities in the same area. It would also be valuable to assess the impacts of hunting-induced behaviour changes on the effectiveness of wildlife monitoring in such areas.
Habitat selection models are the basis of an increasing number of conservation and management programs. Decision-makers rely on accurate models to assess animal distribution over space and time, and to recommend suitable actions that can alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Despite a rapidly growing number of field studies on habitat selection, there remains a paucity of empirical evidence that selection is a density-dependent process that can impact males and females differently. Based on 11 years of monitoring, we demonstrate that the response of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to land-cover types varied with population size, and that density-dependent adjustments differed between sexes. Specifically, our longitudinal follow-up of GPS-collared elephants revealed that elephants gradually decrease their selection for open woodlands and forests, as the population increased and the availability of palatable browse species decreased. Both sexes – though males more strongly – increased their travel rate together with their relative probability of selection of roads for travel. Also, elephants displayed a density-dependent increase in their selection of infrastructures, a response that was stronger for males than females. The risk of human-elephant conflicts thus increased with population size, with males being particularly prone to be involved in such conflicts. Overall, we provide rare empirical evidence that density-dependence in fine-grain habitat selection can differ between sexes. This information can be critical to accurately forecast potential human-wildlife conflicts, and for taking targeted and effective conservation and management actions.
Magnetic fluids have advantages such as flow ability and solid‐like property in strong magnetic fields, but have to suffer from the tradeoff between suspension stability and flow resistance. In this work, a thermal/photo/magnetorheological water‐based magnetic fluid is fabricated by using oleic acid‐coated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@OA) nanoparticles as the magnetic particles and the amphiphilic penta block copolymer (PTMC‐F127‐PTMC)‐based aqueous solution as the carrier fluid. Due to the hydrophobic self‐assembly between Fe3O4@OA and PTMC‐F127‐PTMC, the Newtonian‐like magnetic fluid has outstanding long‐term stability and reversible rheological changes between the low‐viscosity flow state and the 3D gel structure. In the linear viscoelastic region, the viscosity exhibits an abrupt increase from below 0.10 Pa s at 20 °C to ≈1.3 × 104 Pa s at 40 °C. Benefitting from the photothermal and magnetocaloric effects of the Fe3O4@OA nanoparticles, the rheological change process also can be controlled by near infrared light and alternating magnetic field, which endows the magnetic fluid with the applications in the fields of mobile valves, moveable switches, buffer or damping materials in sealed devices, etc. A thermal/photo/magneto rheological water‐based magnetic fluid with long‐term stability is prepared. This magnetic liquid can exhibit a reversible rheological change from a liquid‐like low‐viscous state to a solid‐like viscoelastic state under external stimuli (i.e., heat, light, and alternating magnetic field), which shows promise in many applications, like movable valves, switches, buffer or damping materials, and beyond.
Messaging about COVID-19 was different across the political spectrum, which influenced differences in attitudes surrounding COVID-19. This study examined the political affiliation/ideology on COVID-19 stigma (blame, deservingness of help, negative emotionality) and two mediators of this relationship: conspiracy beliefs and anxiety about COVID-19. Participants answered questions about their political affiliation and ideology, attitudes toward people who have contracted COVID-19; and COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs and anxiety. Democrats and Independents indirectly stigmatized people with COVID-19 via increased COVID-19 anxiety and fewer COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs relative to Republicans. Politicization can strongly impact stigma, and messaging could be harnessed as a stigma reduction tool.
The study aimed to examine state requirements for K-12 physical education teacher licensures and professional development (PD) and PD funding opportunities and supportive practices for promoting physical education teachers’ in-depth content knowledge (CK) at the SHAPE America national conventions. Four national reports published in the past decade were used to examine the state policies for physical education teacher licensures, PD requirements, and PD funding opportunities. In addition, all published abstracts at the SHAPE America national conventions during the past six years were used to examine PD practices focused on promoting physical education teachers’ in-depth CK. Descriptive statistics were employed for answering the research questions using the SPSS (version 24.0). There were four findings: (a) increased state requirements for elementary physical education licensure, (b) increased state requirements for physical education teachers’ PD with a lack of financial support, (c) fewer CK-focused presentations, and (d) fewer specialized CK-focused presentations after revising the national standards for beginning physical education teachers. These findings provide a future direction for enhancing physical education teachers’ depth of CK in the United States.
For those with interests in water infrastructure policy and federalism, I encourage you to become familiar with Dr. John C. Morris’s new book, Clean Water Policy: Promise and Performance in the Water Quality Act. It is a timely read, as water infrastructure has received increasing attention since President Biden signed a major new infrastructure law passed by Congress in 2021, the Infrastructure and Jobs Investment Act (IJIA). This law authorized large federal water infrastructure investments (EPA 2022), and it has since been supplemented by additional water infrastructure investments in the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA). Morris’s book addresses the evolution of federal clean water policy and the Water Quality Act (WQA) of 1987, the most substantial national clean water legislation in the last 35 years. While he touches on multiple aspects of the WQA, he focuses primarily on parts of the law guiding investments in a specific kind of clean water infrastructure—those which support state and local efforts to manage pollutant releases to streams, rivers, lakes, and coastal waters. The book includes two major lines of inquiry. The first relates to the WQA’s enactment, the political dynamics associated with it, and the structure of its new clean water State Revolving Fund (SRF) program. The second line of inquiry investigates choices states have made, collectively and individually, in implementing the new SRF program. Morris grounds his book in theories of multiple streams (Kingdon 1984) and incrementalism (Lindblom 1959) and uses survey and EPA data to inform his work. Because his analyses are multi-faceted, I highlight just a handful of observations here and comment on issues raised by the book and its utility.
Introduction Health systems in several countries have integrated information and communication technologies into their operations. Electronic medical records (EMRs) are at the core of patient care. The working of these EMRs requires their acceptance and use by medical and paramedical personnel. The objective of this study was to empirically evaluate the intention of health professionals to use these EMRs. Materials and Methods A questionnaire on the intention of health professionals to use the EMR was developed following a Likert scale. The survey was done via in-person interviews of health professionals in major health facilities in the cities of Libreville and Owendo in Gabon. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was tested using a step-down logistic regression analysis to identify the main factors explaining the intention of health professionals to use the EMR. Results A total of 218 health professionals responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-eight percent (38%) of respondents were male. The average age was 41.33 years (±8.98 years) and the average length of service at work in the system was 12.02 years (±8.47 years). The integrated model showed that the intention to use the EMR was significantly associated with the perceived usefulness, the subjective standard, and experience. No socio-demographic variables explained the intention to use the EMR. Conclusion The perceived ease, familiarity with the computer, and motivation are not associated with the intention to use the EMR. Actions should be taken to raise awareness and train health professionals to motivate them to accept and use EMRs in their medical practices.
Polarising microscopy brought about many advancements in the science of liquid crystals and other soft materials, including those of biological origin. Recent developments in optics and computer-based analysis have enabled a new generation of quantitative polarising microscopy which produces spatial maps of the optic axis. Unfortunately, most of the available approaches require a long acquisition time of multiple images which are then analysed to produce the map. We describe a polychromatic polarising microscope, which allows one to map the patterns of the optical axis in a single-shot exposure, thus enabling a fast temporal resolution. We present a comparative analysis of the new microscope with alternative techniques such as a conventional polarising optical microscope and MicroImager of Hinds Instruments.
Seasonal water level fluctuations in floodplain lakes are known to alter carbon transport, yet it is unclear how such changes affect microbially‐mediated carbon metabolism. Poyang Lake is a typical floodplain lake linked to the Yangtze River and is significantly affected by water level fluctuations. In this study, we examined the differences of soil organic matter (SOM) properties, bacterial communities and carbon metabolic functions between dry (March) and wet (August) seasons in lake center, delta, and floodplain from Poyang Lake. Generally, the SOM properties (quantity and quality) and microbially‐mediated carbon metabolism in the three types of sampling areas have undergone greater changes from dry to wet season than bacterial community. Structural equation modeling and variation partition analysis indicated that SOM properties contributed more in shaping the carbon metabolism of microorganisms than bacterial community structures, especially in lake center. Dry‐wet seasonal changes of microbially‐mediated carbon metabolism in lake center were mainly affected by amide C=O1650 and aliphatic C‐H2850, 2924, while the delta and floodplain were mainly affected by aromatic C‐O1234. Furthermore, we also found that bacterial community composition could better explain the effects of seasonal hydrology on carbon metabolism, rather than the diversity and assembly processes. We highlight that studies on tightly‐coupled changes in SOM and microbially‐mediated carbon metabolism can enhance the understanding of soil carbon dynamics across the floodplain lake.
Although often neglected and misunderstood, reading fluency has been identified as a critical competency for proficient reading. In this essay we define fluency, present its uneven history, identify and describe effective methods of instruction and assessment, and explore future questions that scholarly inquiry might address as well as future opportunities for fluency to improve literacy outcomes. A fuller understanding of reading fluency and its importance has the potential for making significant improvements in literacy outcomes for students learning to read English and other world languages.
This chapter focuses on prefigurative hybrid literacies taken up by transnational communities in Puerto Rico, Mexico, and the Mindanao region of the Philippines. Despite their seemingly disparate geographical locations, these three contexts share similar histories of imperialism and colonization, with communities experiencing ontological precarity through constant exposure to economic insecurity, injury, violence, and forced migration (Butler, 2004). This piece illustrates the different ways disenfranchized, nondominant communities engage with prefigurative hybrid practices to create third spaces (Gutierrez, 2008), drawing from multiply-situated knowledges and mobilizing literacies transnationally to prefigure communities of difference joined together by a desire for a more just world.
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• Department of Anthropology
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• Department of Physics
• Liquid Crystal Institute
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