Keio University
  • Tokyo, Japan
Recent publications
The graph coloring game is a two-player game in which the two players properly color an uncolored vertex of G alternately. The first player wins the game if all vertices of G are colored, and the second wins otherwise. The game chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum integer k such that the first player has a winning strategy for the graph coloring game on G with k colors. There is a lot of literature on the game chromatic number of graph products, e.g., the Cartesian product and the lexicographic product. In this paper, we investigate the game chromatic number of the strong product of graphs, which is one of major graph products. In particular, we completely determine the game chromatic number of the strong product of a double star and a complete graph. Moreover, we estimate the game chromatic number of some King's graphs, which are the strong products of two paths.
Background and aim The severity of atrophic gastritis is significantly associated with the risk of gastric cancer. Although the current gold standard for assessing the gastric cancer risk is esophagogastroduodenoscopy with a pathological examination, the development of less-invasive biomarkers is warranted for efficient risk stratification of gastric cancer. Serum pepsinogens (PGs) are biomarkers used to predict the extent of gastric mucosal atrophy; however, they are not an accurate reflection of gastric mucosal atrophy after Helicobacter pylori eradication. The present study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of plasma ghrelin levels as a marker for gastric mucosal atrophy, and as a risk stratification marker for gastric cancer, even after H. pylori eradication. Methods Patients who received H. pylori eradication treatment were enrolled in the study. The severity of gastric mucosal atrophy was evaluated both endoscopically and histologically. Serum pepsinogen and plasma ghrelin levels were measured before and at 1, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after treatment. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Keio University School of Medicine (no. 20140102; 8 July 2014). Results Eighteen patients completed the study protocol. Total and acyl plasma ghrelin levels demonstrated no significant change from before treatment to 48 weeks after eradication; however, there was a significant difference between open-type and closed-type atrophic gastritis. The PG I/II ratio increased significantly from 48 weeks after H. pylori eradication. The severity of the histological intestinal metaplasia scores correlated inversely with plasma total ghrelin levels from before to 48 weeks after H. pylori eradication. Conclusion Plasma levels of ghrelin correlate well with the level of gastric mucosal atrophy, even after H. pylori eradication. • KEY MESSAGES • Ghrelin plasma levels are associated with the progression of endoscopic atrophic gastritis, even at 48 weeks after H. pylori eradication. • Ghrelin plasma levels are also associated with increased severity of histological intestinal metaplasia 48 weeks after H. pylori eradication. • Pepsinogen I/II ratios increased immediately after H. pylori eradication and are inappropriate for assessing atrophic gastritis after H. pylori eradication.
The oncogenic MUC1-C protein drives dedifferentiation of castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells in association with chromatin remodeling. The present work demonstrates that MUC1-C is necessary for expression of IFNGR1 and activation of the type II interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) pathway. We show that MUC1-C→ARID1A/BAF signaling induces IFNGR1 transcription and that MUC1-C-induced activation of the NuRD complex suppresses FBXW7 in stabilizing the IFNGR1 protein. MUC1-C and NuRD were also necessary for expression of the downstream STAT1 and IRF1 transcription factors. We further demonstrate that MUC1-C and PBRM1/PBAF are necessary for IRF1-induced expression of (i) IDO1, WARS and PTGES, which metabolically suppress the immune tumor microenvironment (TME), and (ii) the ISG15 and SERPINB9 inhibitors of T cell function. Of translational relevance, we show that MUC1 associates with expression of IFNGR1, STAT1 and IRF1, as well as the downstream IDO1, WARS, PTGES, ISG15 and SERPINB9 immunosuppressive effectors in CRPC tumors. Analyses of scRNA-seq data further demonstrate that MUC1 correlates with cancer stem cell (CSC) and IFN gene signatures across CRPC cells. Consistent with these results, MUC1 associates with immune cell-depleted "cold" CRPC TMEs. These findings demonstrate that MUC1-C integrates chronic activation of the type II IFN-γ pathway and induction of chromatin remodeling complexes in linking the CSC state with immune evasion.
Background Technological innovations have allowed the use of miniature apparatus that can easily control and program heat and cold stimulations using Peltier elements. The wearable thermo-device has a potential to be applied to conventional contrast bath therapy. This study aimed to examine the effects of alternating heat and cold stimulation (HC) using a wearable thermo-device on subjective and objective improvement of shoulder stiffness. Methods Twenty healthy young male individuals (20.3 ± 0.6 years) participated in this study. The interventions were randomly conducted under four conditions, including HC, heat stimulation, cold stimulation, and no stimulation on their bilateral trapezius muscle, after a 30-min typing task. Each intervention was administered at least 1 week apart. The analyzed limb was the dominant arm. Muscle hardness was assessed using a portable muscle hardness meter, as well as the skin temperature over the stimulated area. After each condition, the participants were asked for feedback regarding subjective improvement in refreshed feelings, muscle stiffness, and muscle fatigue using an 11-point numerical rating scale. Results With regard to muscle hardness, only the HC condition significantly decreased from 1.43 N to 1.37 N ( d = 0.44, p < 0.05). Additionally, reduced muscle hardness in HC condition was associated with the degree of skin cooling during the intervention (cold max: r = 0.634, p < 0.01; cold change: r = −0.548, p < 0.05). Subjective improvement in refreshed feelings, muscle stiffness, and muscle fatigue was determined in the HC and heat stimulation conditions compared with the no stimulation condition ( p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Moreover, the HC condition showed significantly greater improvements in muscle stiffness and fatigue compared to the cold stimulation condition ( p < 0.05). Conclusions The current study demonstrated that HC promoted not only better subjective symptoms, such as muscle stiffness and fatigue, but also lesser muscle hardness. Furthermore, an association was observed between the degree of skin temperature cooling and reduced muscle hardness during HC. Further investigations on the ratio and intensity of cooling should be conducted in the future to establish the optimal HC protocol for muscle stiffness or fatigue. Trial registration UMIN000040620 . Registered 1 June 2020
This prospective multicenter study, established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and involving 27 institutions, aimed to compare postoperative outcomes between laminoplasty (LM) and posterior fusion (PF) for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), in order to address the controversy surrounding the role of instrumented fusion in cases of posterior surgical decompression for OPLL. 478 patients were considered for participation in the study; from among them, 189 (137 and 52 patients with LM and PF, respectively) were included and evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, the JOA Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ), and radiographical measurements. Basic demographic and radiographical data were reviewed, and the propensity to choose a surgical procedure was calculated. Preoperatively, there were no significant differences among the participants in terms of patient backgrounds, radiographical measurements (K-line or cervical alignment on X-ray, OPLL occupation ratio on computed tomography, increased signal intensity change on magnetic resonance imaging), or clinical status (JOA score and JOACMEQ) after adjustments. The overall risk of perioperative complications was found to be lower with LM (odds ratio [OR] 0.40, p = 0.006), and the rate of C5 palsy occurrence was significantly lower with LM (OR 0.11, p = 0.0002) than with PF. The range of motion (20.91° ± 1.05° and 9.38° ± 1.24°, p < 0.0001) in patients who had PF was significantly smaller than in those who had LM. However, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference among the participants in JOA score, JOA recovery rate, or JOACMEQ improvement at two years. In contrast, OPLL progression was greater in the LM group than in the PF group (OR 2.73, p = 0.0002). Both LM and PF for cervical myelopathy due to OPLL had resulted in comparable postoperative outcomes at 2 years after surgery.
Purpose Foot progression angle is a key factor for biomechanical knee load, which is associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during sports-specific tasks. The purpose of the present study was to assess the biomechanics of trunk, pelvis, and lower extremities during a cutting maneuver under different foot progression angles. Methods Nineteen male collegiate athletes (ages 18–24) participated in the present study. Cutting motion was analyzed using eight infrared cameras (250 Hz), two force plates (1250 Hz), and 44 reflective markers. Subjects performed 45-degree side cutting maneuvers under three foot progression angles, including 20 degrees (toe-out: TO), 0 degrees (neutral: TN), and − 20 degrees (toe-in: TI). Peak values of each biomechanical parameters in trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee within a first 40% stance phase and each parameter at the timing of the peak vertical ground reaction force were assessed. A statistical analysis was performed to compare data among the three-foot progression angles using the Friedman test. Results Peak angles of knee abduction, tibial internal rotation, hip internal rotation, and hip adduction were significantly greater for TI position than for TO position ( p < 0.01). Peak moments of knee abduction and tibial internal rotation under TI position were also significantly larger than TO position ( p < 0.01). Moreover, greater peak pelvis-trunk rotation was found for TI position than for TN and TO positions ( p < 0.01). Conclusion From the present study, TI position could lead to an increased risk of ACL injury during a pre-planned cut maneuver, compared to TO position.
Fish consumption has been increasing worldwide as per capita consumption of fish rises along with population growth. At the same time, overfishing is increasing all over the world, causing enormous damage to the ecosystem. There is an urgent need to secure sustainable fishery resources to meet the expanding demand for fish. The present study focused on the cells obtained from fish fins, which were often discarded as food waste, and which had the potential to change their morphology with simple treatments, creating the possibility of processing fish fin cells into clean meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro; artificial, lab-cultured meat using tissue engineering techniques). The fin-derived fibroblast-like cells demonstrated an interesting characteristic; changing the sera or culture media supported differentiation of the fibroblast-like cells to various cell morphologies, such as neurofilaments and adipocytes, etc., without genetic manipulation. Furthermore, it was possible to culture the cells in multi-layered and three-dimensional forms that were suitable for processing and shaping. Taking advantage of the cells’ characteristics, ‘aquatic clean meat’ was produced successfully at the prototype stage. Our results suggest that fish fins, which are often treated as waste material, thus, are easy to procure, simple to process, and could be used to create a sustainable food resource.
Background We assessed the difference in lung motion during inspiration/expiration between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and healthy volunteers using vector-field dynamic x-ray (VF-DXR) with optical flow method (OFM). Methods We enrolled 36 COPD patients and 47 healthy volunteers, classified according to pulmonary function into: normal, COPD mild, and COPD severe. Contrast gradient was obtained from sequential dynamic x-ray (DXR) and converted to motion vector using OFM. VF-DXR images were created by projection of the vertical component of lung motion vectors onto DXR images. The maximum magnitude of lung motion vectors in tidal inspiration/expiration, forced inspiration/expiration were selected and defined as lung motion velocity (LMV). Correlations between LMV with demographics and pulmonary function and differences in LMV between COPD patients and healthy volunteers were investigated. Results Negative correlations were confirmed between LMV and % forced expiratory volume in one second (%FEV 1 ) in the tidal inspiration in the right lung (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, r s = -0.47, p < 0.001) and the left lung ( r s = -0.32, p = 0.033). A positive correlation between LMV and %FEV 1 in the tidal expiration was observed only in the right lung ( r s = 0.25, p = 0.024). LMVs among normal, COPD mild and COPD severe groups were different in the tidal respiration. COPD mild group showed a significantly larger magnitude of LMV compared with the normal group. Conclusions In the tidal inspiration, the lung parenchyma moved faster in COPD patients compared with healthy volunteers. VF-DXR was feasible for the assessment of lung parenchyma using LMV.
Oral glucose ingestion induces systemic changes of many blood metabolites related not only to glucose, but also other metabolites such as amino acids and lipids through many blood hormones. However, the detailed temporal changes in the concentrations of comprehensive metabolites and hormones over a long time by oral glucose ingestion are uncharacterized. We measured 83 metabolites and 7 hormones in 20 healthy human subjects in response to glucose ingestion. We characterized temporal patterns of blood molecules by four features: (i) the decomposability into “amplitude” and “rate” components, (ii) the similarity of temporal patterns among individuals, (iii) the relation of molecules over time among individuals, and (iv) the similarity of temporal patterns among molecules. Glucose and glucose metabolism-related hormones indicated a rapid increase, and citrulline and lipids, which indicated a rapid decrease, returned to fasting levels faster than amino acids. Compared to glucose metabolism-related molecules and lipids, amino acids showed similar temporal patterns among individuals. The four features of temporal patterns of blood molecules by oral glucose ingestion characterize the differences among individuals and among molecules.
It has not been considered that nephrons regenerate in adult mammals. We present that an organ-derived extracellular matrix in situ induces nephron regeneration in a preclinical model. A porcine kidney-derived extracellular matrix was sutured onto the surface of partial nephrectomy (PN)-treated kidney. Twenty-eight days after implantation, glomeruli, vessels, and renal tubules, characteristic of nephrons, were histologically observed within the matrix. No fibrillogenesis was observed in the matrix nor the matrix-sutured kidney, although this occurred in a PN kidney without the matrix, indicating the structures were newly induced by the matrix. The expression of renal progenitor markers, including Sall1, Six2, and WT-1, within the matrix supported the induction of nephron regeneration by the matrix. Furthermore, active blood flow was observed inside the matrix using computed tomography. The matrix provides structural and functional foundations for the development of cell-free scaffolds with a remarkably low risk of immune rejection and cancerization.
This paper examines whether reducing earthquake risk has positive direct and spillover effects on residential land prices in Tokyo, where the central and metropolitan governments have promoted urban development for earthquake risk reduction. We use two types of earthquake risk measurement: (1) Tokyo’s assessments of community earthquake risk—building collapse risk, fire risk, and combined risk in the years 2002, 2008, 2013, and 2018; and (2) dense urban districts with extremely high risk from earthquakes (DUDs) in 2012, 2015, 2016, and 2017. Our analysis uses spatial panel data models. The results of the standard fixed-effects models (without spatial lags) show that a reduction in all our earthquake risk measures increases land prices. Moreover, the results of the spatial fixed-effects models demonstrate that a reduction in fire risk, combined risk, and DUDs increases land prices not only in a lot’s own district, but also in neighboring districts, suggesting that fire risk mitigation has a positive spillover effect. The total effects in the spatial fixed-effects models are greater than the marginal effects in the standard fixed-effects models, highlighting the importance of addressing spillover effects. Our findings shed new light on the benefits of urban development for earthquake risk reduction.
Background Phlebitis is an important complication occurring in patients with peripheral intravascular catheters (PIVCs). The risk factors for phlebitis in the intensive care unit (ICU) was examined. Methods A secondary analysis of a prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted, involving 23 ICUs in Japan—the AMOR–VENUS study. Consecutive patients aged ≥ 18 years admitted to the ICU with newly inserted PIVCs after ICU admission were enrolled. Characteristics of the ICU, patients, PIVCs, and the drugs administered via PIVCs were recorded. A marginal Cox regression model was used to identify the risk factors associated with phlebitis. Results A total of 2741 consecutive patients from 23 ICUs were reviewed for eligibility, resulting in 1359 patients and 3429 PIVCs being included in the analysis population. The median dwell time was 46.2 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.3–82.9). Phlebitis occurred in 9.1% (95% CI, 8.2–10.1%) of catheters (3.5 cases/100 catheter days). The multivariate analysis revealed that the only factors that increased the risk of developing phlebitis were drugs administered intravenously. This study included 26 drugs, and 4 were associated with increased phlebitis: nicardipine (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.29–2.66), noradrenaline (HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.40–4.20), amiodarone (HR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.75–7.71) and levetiracetam (HR, 5.65; 95% CI, 2.80–11.4). Alternatively, factors significantly associated with a reduced risk of phlebitis were: standardized drug administration measures in the ICU (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17–0.76), 30≤ BMI (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20–0.95), catheter inserted by a doctor as nurse reference (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32–0.94), and upper arm insertion site as forearm reference (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.85). The nitroglycerin was associated with a reduced phlebitis risk (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05–0.92). Conclusion Various factors are involved in the development of phlebitis caused by PIVCs in critically ill patients, including institutional, patient, catheter, and drug-induced factors, indicating the need for appropriate device selection or models of care in the ICU. Trial registration: UMIN-CTR, the Japanese clinical trial registry (registration number: UMIN000028019, July 1, 2017).
In the present study, we elucidated the effect of grain-based (GB) diet containing both soluble and insoluble fibers and purified ingredients-based (PIB) diet containing only insoluble fiber, namely cellulose on mice gut microbiome using whole shotgun based metagenomic sequencing. Although the fiber content in both diet types is the same (5%) the presence of soluble fiber only in the GB diet differentiates it from the PIB diet. The taxonomic analysis of sequenced reads reveals a significantly higher enrichment of probiotic Lactobacilli in the GB group as compared to the PIB group. Further, the enhancement of energy expensive cellular processes namely, cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning, and transcription is observed in the GB group which could be due to the metabolization of the soluble fiber for faster energy production. In contrast, a higher abundance of cellulolytic bacterial community namely, the members of family Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and the metabolism functions are found in the PIB group. The PIB group shows a significant increase in host-derived oligosaccharide metabolism functions indicating that they might first target the host-derived oligosaccharides and self-stored glycogen in addition to utilising the available cellulose. In addition to the beneficial microbial community variations, both the groups also exhibited an increased abundance of opportunistic pathobionts which could be due to an overall low amount of fiber in the diet. Furthermore, backtracing analysis identified probiotic members of Lactobacillus , viz., L. crispatus ST1 , L. fermentum CECT 5716 , L. gasseri ATCC 33323 , L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri 100-23 in the GB group, while Bilophila wadsworthia 3_1_6 , Desulfovibrio piger ATCC 29098 , Clostridium symbiosum WAL-14163 , and Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 in the PIB group. These data suggest that Lactobacilli , a probiotic community of microorganisms, are the predominant functional contributors in the gut of GB diet-fed mice, whereas pathobionts too coexisted with commensals in the gut microbiome of the PIB group. Thus at 5% fiber, GB modifies the gut microbial ecology more effectively than PIB and the inclusion of soluble fiber in the GB diet may be one of the primary factors responsible for this impact.
Chronic inflammation is currently considered as a molecular basis of metabolic syndrome. Particularly, obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue is the origin of chronic inflammation of metabolic syndrome. Adipose tissue contains not only mature adipocytes with large lipid droplets, but also a variety of stromal cells including adipocyte precursors, vascular component cells, immune cells, and fibroblasts. However, crosstalk between those various cell types in adipose tissue in obesity still remains to be fully understood. We focus on two innate immune receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle). We provided evidence that adipocyte-derived saturated fatty acids (SFAs) activate macrophage TLR4 signaling pathway, thereby forming a vicious cycle of inflammatory responses during the development of obesity. Intriguingly, the TLR4 signaling pathway is modulated metabolically and epigenetically: SFAs augment TLR4 signaling through the integrated stress response and chromatin remodeling, such as histone methylation, regulates dynamic transcription patterns downstream of TLR4 signaling. Another innate immune receptor Mincle senses cell death, which is a trigger of chronic inflammatory diseases including obesity. Macrophages form a histological structure termed “crown-like structure (CLS)”, in which macrophages surround dead adipocytes to engulf cell debris and residual lipids. Mincle is exclusively expressed in macrophages forming the CLS in obese adipose tissue and regulates adipocyte death-triggered adipose tissue fibrosis. In addition to adipose tissue, we found a structure similar to CLS in the liver of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the kidney after acute kidney injury. This review article highlights the recent progress of the crosstalk between immune and metabolic systems in metabolic syndrome, with a focus on innate immune receptors.
Background: Some academic organizations recommended that physicians intubate patients with COVID-19 with a relatively lower threshold of oxygen usage particularly in the early phase of pandemic. We aimed to elucidate whether early intubation is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality among patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who required intubation. Methods: A multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted at 66 hospitals in Japan where patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 were treated between January and September 2020. Patients who were diagnosed as COVID-19 with a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test and intubated during admission were included. Early intubation was defined as intubation conducted in the setting of ≤ 6 L/min of oxygen usage. In-hospital mortality was compared between patients with early and non-early intubation. Inverse probability weighting analyses with propensity scores were performed to adjust patient demographics, comorbidities, hemodynamic status on admission and time at intubation, medications before intubation, severity of COVID-19, and institution characteristics. Subgroup analyses were conducted on the basis of age, severity of hypoxemia at intubation, and days from admission to intubation. Results: Among 412 patients eligible for the study, 110 underwent early intubation. In-hospital mortality was lower in patients with early intubation than those with non-early intubation (18 [16.4%] vs. 88 [29.1%]; odds ratio, 0.48 [95% confidence interval 0.27-0.84]; p = 0.009, and adjusted odds ratio, 0.28 [95% confidence interval 0.19-0.42]; p < 0.001). The beneficial effects of early intubation were observed regardless of age and severity of hypoxemia at time of intubation; however, early intubation was associated with lower in-hospital mortality only among patients who were intubated later than 2 days after admission. Conclusions: Early intubation in the setting of ≤ 6 L/min of oxygen usage was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19 who required intubation. Trial Registration None.
Although dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have been so far classified according to the difference in their fibers (Aβ, Aδ, and C), this classification should be further subdivided according to gene expression patterns. We focused on oxytocin (OXT) and its related receptors, because OXT plays a local role in DRG neurons. We measured the mRNA levels of OXT, OXT receptor (OXTR), vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), and piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (Piezo2) in single DRG neurons by using real-time PCR, and then performed a cluster analysis. According to the gene expression patterns, DRG neurons were classified into 4 clusters: Cluster 1 was characterized mainly by Piezo2, Cluster 2 by TRPV1, Cluster 4 by OXTR, and neurons in Cluster 3 did not express any of the target genes. The cell body diameter of OXT-expressing neurons was significantly larger in Cluster 1 than in Cluster 2. These results suggest that OXT-expressing DRG neurons with small cell bodies (Cluster 2) and large cell bodies (Cluster 1) probably correspond to C-fiber neurons and Aβ-fiber neurons, respectively. Furthermore, the OXT-expressing neurons contained not only TRPV1 but also Piezo2, suggesting that OXT may be released by mechanical stimulation regardless of nociception. Thus, mechanoreception and nociception themselves may induce the autocrine/paracrine function of OXT in the DRG, contributing to alleviation of pain.
Background The prevalence of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been increasing rapidly worldwide. However, guidelines or clinical studies do not provide sufficient data on ECPR practice. The aim of this study was to provide real-world data on ECPR for patients with OHCA, including details of complications. Methods We did a retrospective database analysis of observational multicenter cohort study in Japan. Adult patients with OHCA of presumed cardiac etiology who received ECPR between 2013 and 2018 were included. The primary outcome was favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge, defined as a cerebral performance category of 1 or 2. Results A total of 1644 patients with OHCA were included in this study. The patient age was 18–93 years (median: 60 years). Shockable rhythm in the initial cardiac rhythm at the scene was 69.4%. The median estimated low flow time was 55 min (interquartile range: 45–66 min). Favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge was observed in 14.1% of patients, and the rate of survival to hospital discharge was 27.2%. The proportions of favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge in terms of shockable rhythm, pulseless electrical activity, and asystole were 16.7%, 9.2%, and 3.9%, respectively. Complications were observed during ECPR in 32.7% of patients, and the most common complication was bleeding, with the rates of cannulation site bleeding and other types of hemorrhage at 16.4% and 8.5%, respectively. Conclusions In this large cohort, data on the ECPR of 1644 patients with OHCA show that the proportion of favorable neurological outcomes at hospital discharge was 14.1%, survival rate at hospital discharge was 27.2%, and complications were observed during ECPR in 32.7%.
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Noriko Hiroi
  • Department of Biosciences and Informatics
Daisuke Fujisawa
  • Department of Neuropsychiatry
Masahiro Shibuta
  • Faculty of Science and Technology
Takemitsu Morikawa
  • Department of Sociology
Shunsuke Kimura
  • Faculty of pharmacy
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Tokyo, Japan