The Gallup World Poll was used to develop a global index of anti-immigrant xenophobia. The data were collected in 151 countries between 2016 and 2020. Results suggest that xenophobia has stronger associations with cultural variables (e.g., power distance and allocentrism) and well-being variables (e.g., eudaimonic well-being and positive affect) than with economic and social indicators (e.g., national wealth, perceived injustice, and good governance). Globalization is not significantly correlated with xenophobia. Results indicate that this new global index is a valid measure that provides an up-to-date assessment of national xenophobia with much broader coverage than previous indices.
Background A targeted co-administration system of docetaxel (DTX) and curcumin (CUR) using a PEG-modified RIPL peptide (IPLVVPLRRRRRRRRC)-conjugated nanostructured lipid carrier (P/R-NLC) was constructed to exert synergistic anticancer effects against chemoresistant breast cancer. Results DTX- or CUR-loaded NLCs and P/R-NLCs were prepared using the solvent emulsification–evaporation method. NLCs showed homogeneous spherical morphology with nano-sized dispersion (< 210 nm) with zeta potential varying from − 16.4 to − 19.9 mV. DTX or CUR was successfully encapsulated in the NLCs: encapsulation efficiency (> 95%); drug loading (8 − 18%). All NLC formulations were stable for 4 weeks under the storage conditions at 4 °C. Drug release was diffusion-controlled, revealing the best fit to the Higuchi equation. DTX- or CUR-loaded formulations showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity. The DTX/CUR combination (1:3 w/w) in P/R-NLC formulations exhibited the strongest synergism in both MCF7 and MCF7/ADR cells with combination index values of 0.286 and 0.130, respectively. Co-treatment with DTX- or CUR-P/R-NLCs increased apoptosis in both cell lines exhibited the superior synergistic inhibitory effect on MCF7/ADR three-dimensional spheroids. Finally, in OVCAR3-xenografted mouse models, co-treatment with DTX- or CUR-loaded P/R-NLCs significantly suppressed tumor growth compared to the other treatment groups. Conclusions Co-administration of DTX/CUR (1:3 w/w) using P/R-NLCs induced a synergistic effect against chemoresistant cancer cells. Graphical Abstract
Petroleum-based foams are used in packaging applications where thermal insulation and shock absorption are needed. However, their associated environmental problems motivate the development of bio-based alternatives. Here, biocomposite foams were prepared using soy protein concentrate (SPC) and alkali-treated hemp fibers. The hemp fibers were treated with 6% NaOH to remove non-cellulose components. The foams were coated by dipping in a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) solution. A concentration of 4% PLA was determined to be optimal for the coating. The mechanical and water barrier properties of the PLA-coated foams were evaluated. The compression modulus, compression strength, and bulk density of the PLA-coated foams were 1045.7 kPa, 2022.5 kPa, and 118.6 mg/mL, respectively, being significantly higher than those of the uncoated foams (404.0 kPa, 590.7 kPa, and 69.4 mg/mL). The moisture uptake and water uptake of the PLA-coated foams were significantly decreased by the coating procedure, indicating 16.2% and 138.3%, respectively. By contrast, the uncoated foams had a moisture uptake and water uptake of 31.8% and 1399.3%, respectively. The observed improvement in mechanical and water barrier properties is likely due to the hydrophobic nature of PLA.
The financial services sector is characterised by a high level of consumer perceived risk and irrational behaviour in decision-making, which is predominantly influenced by the effect of communication and the application of heuristics as a function of communication in consumer decision-making. This situation promotes marketing communication as one of the most essential activities that financial institutions rely on to mitigate the perceived risks and to satisfy consumers’ quest in understanding financial products. Hence the importance of this research is to establish the effects of marketing communication on consumer purchasing behaviour in emerging economies that are experiencing expanded financial markets but limited corresponding research insight. To achieve the aim of this study, the research uses data from 360 customers of selected financial institutions in Ghana. The hypotheses are tested using the structural equations modelling technique. The results of the study reveal marketing communication strategies evaluated have positive and significant impacts on consumer purchase behaviour. However, amongst the marketing communication strategies tested advertising and celebrity endorsement were found to have an insignificant relationship with consumer purchase behaviour. The study offers practical and theoretical insights into understanding the dynamics and nuances of the integrated marketing communication mix and how they influence the purchase behaviours of consumers.
Hypoxemia and multiple organ dysfunction are significant contributors to mortality in patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS). P50, the oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated, is a measure of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity, and its alteration might have implications for tissue hypoxia and organ dysfunction. The purpose of this single-center, retrospective study was to evaluate P50 levels in PARDS and to determine the association between P50 and clinical outcomes. The study included 212 children diagnosed with PARDS according to the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference definition who required invasive mechanical ventilation and had arterial blood gas results of hemoglobin oxygen saturation < 97% at the time of diagnosis. P50 levels were calculated using Doyle’s method, and organ dysfunction was assessed using the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score. Most patients exhibited more than one dysfunctional extrapulmonary organ at PARDS onset. P50 increased with increasing PARDS severity (mild (26.6 [24.9–29.6]), moderate (26.8 [25.0–29.5]), and severe PARDS (29.1 [26.1–32.4] mmHg; P = 0.025). Moreover, P50 demonstrated a significant positive association with extrapulmonary organ dysfunction score (β = 0.158, P = 0.007) and risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.056; 95% confidence interval, 1.015–1.098; P = 0.007), irrespective of initial PARDS severity. The relationship between P50 and mortality was largely mediated by extrapulmonary organ dysfunction. A high P50 value at the time of PARDS diagnosis may be associated with mortality via dysfunctional extrapulmonary organs. Future studies should consider P50 as a potential candidate index for risk stratification of PARDS patients.
Purpose: Renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all childhood cancers. These include Wilms tumor (WT), clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRTK), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and other rare tumors. We investigated the epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors in Korea. Materials and methods: From January 2001 to December 2015, data of pediatric patients (0-18 years) newly-diagnosed with renal tumors at 26 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among 439 patients (male, 240), the most common tumor was WT (n=342, 77.9%), followed by RCC (n=36, 8.2%), CCSK (n=24, 5.5%), MRTK (n=16, 3.6%), CMN (n=12, 2.7%), and others (n=9, 2.1%). Median age at diagnosis was 27.1 months (range 0-225.5) and median follow-up duration was 88.5 months (range 0-211.6). Overall, 32 patients died, of whom 17, 11, 1, and 3 died of relapse, progressive disease, second malignant neoplasm, and treatment-related mortality. Five-year overall survival and event free survival were 97.2% and 84.8% in WT, 90.6% and 82.1% in RCC, 81.1% and 63.6% in CCSK, 60.3% and 56.2% in MRTK, and 100% and 91.7% in CMN, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The pediatric renal tumor types in Korea are similar to those previously reported in other countries. WT accounted for a large proportion and survival was excellent. Non-Wilms renal tumors included a variety of tumors and showed inferior outcome, especially MRTK. Further efforts are necessary to optimize the treatment and analyze the genetic characteristics of pediatric renal tumors in Korea.
This study examined the between-person and within-person associations between 4 components of subjective well-being (i.e., general life satisfaction, satisfaction with life domains, positive affect, and negative affect) and 2 components of religiosity (i.e., religious salience and religious participation). Data were drawn from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, collected 5 times between 2004 and 2018. The Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model was used to analyze the data. Results showed weak between-person associations between the components of religiosity and subjective well-being. At the within-person level, the cross-lagged associations between religiosity and subjective well-being variables were trivial and nonsignificant. This indicates a lack of robust temporal associations between religiosity and subjective well-being when measured at intervals of a few years.
The increased density of the urban population and frequent transportation movement has to lead to parking issues in these areas. Many efforts have been made to efficiently utilize the existing parking facilities. Most of these solutions target the large-scale private and public parking facilities; however, the individual parking facilities are not much explored and exploited for reducing the parking issues. In the last few years, the Online-to-Offline (O2O) model has witnessed huge attention from the research community due to its versatile applications in many domains. The main objective of the O2O model is to create service awareness online, allowing potential users to review different offers and then visit local physical places for purchasing. The security of the users' data has always been considered a crucial factor in any public sharing platform. The blockchain model has been regarded as a solid security platform for many public sharing platforms. This work designed a blockchain framework with a novel data verification and role-based Access control method for securing the parking service data. Several experiments are performed using the sawtooth blockchain tool to investigate the performance of the proposed blockchain framework against the baseline approach concerning latency, meantime testing (MTT), throughput, transaction sending rate (TPS), and average response time (ART). The obtained results confirm that the proposed approach is scalable and feasible for smart parking and other IoT-based applications.
This study develops a robust theoretical framework in order to explain the effect of destination brand experiences in armchair tourism on the brands’ authenticity and the consumers’ loyalty. The study proposes sensory, behavioral, intellectual, and affective subfactors as the four subfactors of the destination brand experience in armchair tourism. The analytical outcome confirmed that the study’s eight hypotheses were supported. Specifically, destination brand experiences in armchair tourism have a meaningful effect on a brand’s authenticity, which in turn has a significant effect on the tourists’ loyalty. The study’s results successfully demonstrated the importance of the destination brand experience in armchair tourism, and it provides meaningful insights into its positive effect on tourists.
Background Post-transplant malignancy (PTM) causes long-term morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HTx) recipients. However, the detailed characteristics or predictors of PTM are not well-known. We evaluated the incidence, characteristics, long-term outcomes, and predictors of de novo PTM using a single center large-volume database. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the types and characteristics of de novo PTM in 989 patients who underwent HTx. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for the PTM prediction model. Results Two hundred and six patients (20.8%) had de novo PTMs (241 cancers) during a median follow-up of 11.5 years. PTM patients were older than non-PTM patients, received immunosuppressive therapy for a longer period, and were more likely to be male and white. Skin cancers were the most frequent types of malignancy (60.6%) followed by prostate (9.5%), lung (7.1%), and breast (4.1%) cancers. Although most cancers (88.8%) were surgically resected at initial presentation, about half (47.3%) recurred or progressed. Patients with skin cancer and non-skin cancer had significantly lower overall survival ( P < 0.001) than patients without cancer. Older age ( P < 0.001), white race ( P = 0.001), and longer time receiving immunosuppressive therapy ( P < 0.001) were independent predictors for PTM. Conclusion Older age, white race, and longer administration of immunosuppressive therapies were independent risk factors for PTM, which was associated with increased mortality. Further research is necessary for the prevention and early detection of PTM in HTx recipients.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are vulnerable to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Immunosuppressive drugs, which are often used to manage IBD, may increase this vulnerability and attenuate vaccine efficacy. Thus, healthcare providers should understand infectious diseases and schedule vaccinations for them to reduce the infection-related burden of patients with IBD. All patients with IBD should be assessed in terms of immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases at the time of IBD diagnosis, and be vaccinated appropriately. Vaccination is becoming more important because of the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global health crisis. This review focuses on recent updates to vaccination strategies for Korean patients with IBD.
Concrete structures are constructed in various geographical environments and climates, and frequently fail to fulfill their original functions over time due to issues such as aging and damage. Research on concrete structure repair materials is being conducted to solve these problems. This study evaluated the durability of a repair material composed of ultra-rapid hardening cement, styrene–butadiene (SB) latex polymer, and wollastonite mineral fiber. The performance targets were as follows: compressive strength of 20 MPa at 1 day of age and 45 MPa at 28 days of age, chloride ion charge passed of less than 1000 Coulombs, carbonation depth of 20 mm or less, and resistance to repeated freezing and thawing (relative dynamic modulus of elasticity) of 80% or more. The ultra-rapid hardening cement:silica sand ratio of 1:1.5 was the experimental variable, and the unit weight of each material in the mix proportion was determined to satisfy the flow requirement of 200 ± 5 mm. This flow ensured sufficient fluidity for spraying, which is the most widely used method for applying repair material. Wollastonite mineral fiber and SB latex polymer were added at 3% and 5% of the unit weight of the binder, respectively. The mechanical property of the repair material was evaluated through compressive strength, and durability was evaluated through chloride ion penetration, alkali resistance, resistance to carbonation, water absorption, and repeated freezing and thawing tests. The compressive strength satisfied both target values, regardless of the addition of SB latex polymer and wollastonite mineral fiber. The chloride ion penetration test, which was used as an indicator of durability, showed that mixtures without SB latex and wollastonite mineral fiber were not satisfied the target charge passed of 1000 Coulombs, while mixtures with latex and mineral fiber reached the target value. Notably, the co-addition of latex and wollastonite fiber showed the highest resistance to chloride ion penetration, alkali ion, carbonation, repeated freezing and thawing, and the least absorption. The results confirmed that the durability of the repair material based on ultra-rapid hardening cement was most effectively improved by the co-addition of SB latex polymer and wollastonite mineral fiber.
We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who presented with progressive aggravation of severe axial neck pain and fever 3 days after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), despite maintaining neutral neck posture during surgery. Laboratory examination revealed markedly elevated C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rates. Computed tomography revealed crown-like calcifications surrounding the odontoid process. We diagnosed crowned dens syndrome (CDS) as the cause of acute-onset neck pain after TURP. The patient was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 5 days, and his symptoms resolved completely. CDS is a rare disease characterized by calcific deposits around the odontoid process with acute onset of severe neck pain and restricted motion. Evidence of inflammation on serological testing and fever are typical of CDS. However, the prevalence and pathophysiology of CDS remain unclear. We hypothesized that systemic inflammation after prostate surgery may have induced a local inflammatory response involving calcification around the odontoid process.
We investigated the effect of prolonged running on joint kinematics and its association with stride complexity between novice and elite runners. Ten elite marathoners and eleven healthy individuals took part in a 20 min submaximal prolonged running experiment at their preferred running speed (PRS). A three-dimensional motion capture system was utilized to capture and calculate the alpha exponent, stride-to-stride fluctuations (SSFs), and stride-to-stride variability (SSV) of spatiotemporal parameters and joint kinematics. In the results, the elite athletes ran at a considerably higher PRS than the novice runners, yet no significant differences were found in respiratory exchange ratio with increasing time intervals. For the spatiotemporal parameters, we observed a significant increase in the step width and length variability in novice runners with increasing time-interval (p < 0.05). However, we did not observe any differences in the alpha exponent of spatiotemporal parameters. Significant differences in SSF of joint kinematics were observed, particularly in the sagittal plane for ankle, knee, and hip at heel strike (p < 0.05). While in mid-stance, time-interval differences were observed in novices who ran with a lower knee flexion angle (p < 0.05). During toe-off, significantly higher SSV was observed, particularly in the hip and ankle for novices (p < 0.05). The correlation analysis of joint SSV revealed a distinct negative relationship with the alpha exponent of step-length and step-width for elite runners, while, for novices, a positive relation was observed only for the alpha exponent of step-width. In conclusion, our study shows that increased step-width variability seen in novices could be a compensatory mechanism to maintain performance and mitigate the loss of stability. On the other hand, elite runners showed a training-induced effective modulation of lower-limb kinematics to improve their running performance.
Ultraviolet (UV) is widely used in daily life as well as in industrial manufacturing. In this study, a single-step postprocess to improve the sensitivity of a graphene-based UV sensor is studied. We leverage the advantage of electric-field-assisted on-demand printing, which is simply applicable for mounting functional polymers onto various structures. Here, the facile printing process creates optical plano-convex geometry by accelerating and colliding a highly viscous droplet on a micropatterned graphene channel. The printed transparent lens refracts UV rays. The concentrated UV photon energy from a wide field of view enhances the photodesorption of electron-hole pairs between the lens and the graphene sensor channel, which is coupled with a large change in resistance. As a result, the one-step post-treatment has about a 4× higher sensitivity compared to bare sensors without the lenses. We verify the applicability of printing and the boosting mechanism by variation of lens dimensions, a series of UV exposure tests, and optical simulation. Moreover, the method contributes to UV sensing in acute angle or low irradiation. In addition, the catalytic lens provides about a 9× higher recovery rate, where water molecules inside the PEI lens deliver fast reassembly of the electron-hole pairs. The presented method with an ultimately simple fabrication step is expected to be applied to academic research and prototyping, including optoelectronic sensors, energy devices, and advanced manufacturing processes.
Background: Cerebral edema (CE) at admission is a surrogate marker of 'early brain injury' (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Only recently has the focus on the changes in CE after SAH such as delayed resolution or newly developed CE been examined. Among several factors, an early systemic inflammatory response has been shown to be associated with CE. We investigate inflammatory markers in subjects with early CE which does not resolve, i.e., persistent CE after SAH. Methods: Computed tomography scans of SAH patients were graded at admission and at 7 days after SAH for CE using the 0-4 'subarachnoid hemorrhage early brain edema score' (SEBES). SEBES ≤ 2 and SEBES ≥ 3 were considered good and poor grade, respectively. Serum samples from the same subject cohort were collected at 4 time periods (at < 24 h [T1], at 24 to 48 h [T2]. 3-5 days [T3] and 6-8 days [T4] post-admission) and concentration levels of 17 cytokines (implicated in peripheral inflammatory processes) were measured by multiplex immunoassay. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were step-wisely performed to identify cytokines independently associated with persistent CE adjusting for covariables including age, sex and past medical history (model 1), and additional inclusion of clinical and radiographic severity of SAH and treatment modality (model 2). Results: Of the 135 patients enrolled in the study, 21 of 135 subjects (15.6%) showed a persistently poor SEBES grade. In multivariate model 1, higher Eotaxin (at T1 and T4), sCD40L (at T4), IL-6 (at T1 and T3) and TNF-α (at T4) were independently associated with persistent CE. In multivariate model 2, Eotaxin (at T4: odds ratio [OR] = 1.019, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.002-1.035) and possibly PDGF-AA (at T4), sCD40L (at T4), and TNF-α (at T4) was associated with persistent CE. Conclusions: We identified serum cytokines at different time points that were independently associated with persistent CE. Specifically, persistent elevations of Eotaxin is associated with persistent CE after SAH.
This study aimed to know how the general population recognizes live kidney donation in Korea. Participants were randomly selected from the general population after proportional allocation by region, sex, and age. Selected participants received a questionnaire that included demographic information, socioeconomic and marital statuses, prior recognition of live donor kidney transplantation, expected changes after donation, and the need for support after donor nephrectomy. Among the 1,000 participants from the web-based survey, 83.8% answered they fully understood living donor kidney transplantation, 81.1% knew about them, and 51.1% were willing to donate. Various complications after nephrectomy and deterioration in health after donation were the most significant reasons for those reluctant to donate. Most agreed that the government should provide social and economic support to living kidney donors, especially after exposure to the description of donor nephrectomy. Financial support, including surgery and regular medical check-up costs, was the most preferred government support. The Korean general population seemed aware of the value and safety of kidney donation, although only half of them were willing to donate due to concerns about possible complications. Most participants agreed on social and economic support for living kidney donors, especially surgery-related costs.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.