Sustainable consumption is a growing niche with an increasing number of initiatives aimed at lowering domestic environmental consumption footprints. Third-party assured product eco-labelling has emerged as a key governance mechanism to promote sustainable consumption. However, does the purchasing of eco-labelled products really support a transition towards more sustainable consumption? In this paper, we explore eco-labelling through the lens of the rebound literature. While theorizing of the rebound effect originated in energy economics and has long been centred on eco-efficiency, we extend its rationale to products that are associated with a price premium in return for added environmental quality attributes. Reporting on two inter-related studies into the link between purchasing of environmentally friendly products and different types of environmental resource consumption, we find that eco-labelled products flourish in more affluent economies that are characterized by higher levels of overall resource consumption; and that willingness to consume environmentally friendly products is positively related to higher individual carbon, water and material footprints. Hence, we argue that eco-labelling in its current form is inextricably linked to higher – rather than lower – levels of resource consumption. Consequently, the governance mechanism that underpins eco-labelling is associated with an indirect behavioural consumer rebound effect.
In this multi-study paper, we integrate Social Exchange Theory and the discretionary workplace behavior literature. Specifically, we posit that by breaching their psychological contract (PC) obligations, organizations may trigger negative reciprocity, which in turn may increase deviant behavior. Moreover, we posit that by fulfilling their legitimately PC obligations, organizations may trigger positive reciprocity, which in turn may increase unethical pro-organizational behavior. Across two studies (3-wave field study with traditional breach measure and 2-wave field study with expanded breach measure and polynomial regression), we found repeated evidence for our hypotheses. Specifically, we found that PC breach (Study 1) and PC under-fulfillment (Study 2) are positively related to the enactment of organizational deviance via negative reciprocity. Furthermore, we found that PC fulfillment (Study 1) and high absolute levels of PC fulfillment (Study 2) are positively related to unethical pro-organizational behavior via positive reciprocity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
In this study, we consider as a predictor of gold return predictability, an alternative measure of systematic risk using the tail risk obtained from the four variants (Adaptive, Symmetric absolute value, Asymmetric slope and Indirect GARCH) of the Conditional Autoregressive Value at Risk (CAViaR) of Engle and Manganelli (2004). We conduct distinct analyses for the gold-tail risk nexus for both 1% and 5% VaRs across the in-sample and out-of-sample forecasts. The results of the in-sample predictability indicate contrasting effects of own tail risk and oil tail risk (a proxy for global risk factor) with negative and positive effects, respectively on gold returns reinforcing the safe haven property of the gold market against global risk. Evidence of the out-of-sample predictability supports the inclusion of both own tail risk and oil tail risk over the benchmark model and single-predictor (own tail risk) model for improved out-of-sample forecasts of gold returns. The results leading to these conclusions are robust to alternative proxies for oil price and magnitudes of VaR.
NATO members have been coping with low motivation and morale. Such environments typically have high turnover intentions and neglect behavior. However, safety behavior is paramount for military organizations and neglect behavior can have serious consequences. Social exchanges are often cited as the main reason for these phenomena. We therefore examine turnover intentions and safety compliance behavior of 1,593 airmen from a European NATO Air Force by focusing on different psychological contract (PC) dimensions. We use polynomial regression and response surface analysis. Results show that higher levels of PC fulfillment are related to lower levels of turnover intentions and higher levels of safety compliance behavior. Furthermore, perceptions of PC overfulfillment are negatively associated with turnover intentions, whereas safety compliance is unaffected by positive (overfulfillment) and negative (underfulfillment) PC discrepancies along all PC dimensions. We discuss implications for the PC literature, make suggestions for future research, and provide practical implications. JEL CLASSIFICATIONS: M0 - general; M1 - business administration; C3 - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple VariablesKeyword
In manual assembly systems, workers' differences in terms of skills, level of expertise and perceived physical effort largely affect the assembly line balancing and system performance. Traditional long-term strategic decisions may not respond to workforce changes and needs, resulting in frequent requests for line rebalancing. In this study, we propose a methodological framework and an easy-to-use Assembly Line Worker Assignment and Rebalancing Problem with different options: workers' assignment considering their performance variability, integration of worker dependent physical exertion constraints and possibility to use trainers to assist inexperienced workers. A bi-objective linear programming model is proposed aiming to minimise the cycle time and the number of reassigned tasks to respect the initial design while integrating new workers with different characteristics. The ε-constraint approach is used to build Pareto frontiers for this bi-objective problem. This approach is applied to three real cases. The obtained results show that the developed model can be successfully used in manufacturing companies to help the production managers to deal with workforce turnover and skills heterogeneity.
A bottom-up technology rich model ETEM-Qatar is used to assess different scenarios for a transition to zero-net emissions in Qatar. The key technologies involved in the transition include electric mobility, hydrogen, carbon capture and storage and direct air capture. Through numerical simulations it is shown that Qatar could (i) start immediately to foster hybrid and electric cars for mobility, (ii) develop electricity generation from solar sources, (iii) develop carbon-free hydrogen production, (iv) introduce carbon capture and storage in all industrial sectors and, (v) develop actively direct air capture with carbon capture and storage to produce emission permits to be sold on an international carbon market. In the long-term, carbon-free hydrogen exports and emission permit sales could contribute to compensate the gas exports revenue losses that are expected in a global zero-net emissions context.
An instance of the Protected Shortest Simple Path Problem with Must-Pass Nodes (PSSPP-MPN) is specified by an edge-weighted directed graph with dedicated source, destination, and additional must-pass nodes. The goal is to find two vertex-disjoint paths, such that the former one is simple, visits all the must-pass nodes, and has the minimum transportation cost. In this paper, we show that the PSSPP-MPN is strongly NP-hard even for subsets of must-pass nodes of arbitrary fixed size and propose a novel problem-specific branch-and-bound algorithm for this problem. Results of competitive numerical evaluation against the public dataset ’Rome99’ from the 9th DIMACS Implementation Challenge show that the proposed algorithm notably outperforms the state-of-the-art MIP-optimizer Gurobi both by accuracy and execution time.
In comparison to the traditional usage of robots, Cobotization (Human-Robot collaboration) can be considered as an effective way to increase the productivity of assembly lines while ensuring job security and flexibility. However, successful implementation of human-robot collaboration scenarios requires adapted decision support tools. Workforce diversity can be mentioned as one of the factors that should be included to study its impact on both the performance of the production system and on ergonomics. Accordingly, in this research, a new bi-objective optimization model for the collaborative assembly line with Cobots is proposed to simultaneously minimize the cycle time and the physical workload of human operators. The workforce diversity of human operators is modeled through experience level and physical ability. To analyze the benefits of the developed model, a comparison between the different solutions from the Pareto front is conducted. The results show that the utilization of Cobots can reduce both cycle time and physical workload in the assembly line.
The outcome of the famous 1976 Judgment of Paris, a blind wine tasting of ten wines by nine French judges, brought American wines to the forefront of the wine business. A Californian wine, the 1973 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars S.L.V. Cabernet Sauvignon, was declared the winner, surpassing four highly prized French wines (Château Mouton-Rothschild 1970, Château Montrose 1970, Château Haut-Brion 1970, and Château Léoville Las Cases 1971). We collect ratings from experts for (almost) all vintages of the same ten wines over the years 1968–2021 and find that the Stag's Leap Cabernet Sauvignon is far from being first. We conclude that either the 1973 vintage was overrated by the experts who tasted it in 1976, or 1973 was merely an outlier in this winery.
Impression management (IM) concerns can lead to significant psychological consequences, potentially engendering unethical behavior. Therefore, adopting the stressor–strain–outcome framework, this study explores the effects of IM concerns on unethical behavior through wellbeing, and whether IM on social media (i.e., Instagram) triggers fatigue and results in unethical behavior at work. The findings of two empirical studies (n = 480 and n = 299) in different settings (Kuwait and the UK) suggest that women experience higher effects from IM concerns compared with men in Kuwait, while no gender differences are found in the UK. The results also confirm that impression management on social media platforms triggers fatigue, in turn increasing unethical behavior at work. This study contributes to the IM literature by capturing the effect of Instagram activities on workplace behavior.
Last year, Chile updated its Nationally Determined Contributions, moving from intensity-based emissions reductions to an effective emissions target. This paper aims to assess the economic and environmental impacts of this change in the current context of high uncertainty Chile faces with social protests and the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the computable general equilibrium model GEMINI-E3, we performed a sensitivity analysis assuming different levels of economic growth through 2030. Though at first glance the revised commitments appear more ambitious, we found that they could lead to higher emissions in low-growth scenarios. The results show that intensity-based emissions targets indeed become less stringent when assuming high levels of economic growth and thus may result in highly uncertain effective emissions in 2030. On the other hand, given the uncertainty surrounding Chilean economic growth, the updated commitments would be politically more amenable as it would lead to lower welfare losses. In addition, we analyze different redistribution schemes of a CO 2 tax and we show that a per capita redistribution rule makes the CO 2 tax more progressive and thus fiscally more acceptable.
We explore the predictive value of the various indices developed to capture COVID-19 pandemic for daily stock return predictability of 24 Emerging Market economies (based on data availability). We identify eight measures of COVID-19 indices, namely, the uncertainty due to pandemics and epidemics (UPE) index, Global Fear Index (GFI), COVID index, vaccine index, medical index, travel index, uncertainty index and aggregate COVID-19 sentiment index. We find that, out of the considered measures, the GFI consistently offers the best out-of-sample forecast gains followed by the aggregate COVID-19 sentiment index while the UPE index offers the least predictability gains. The outcome generally improves after controlling for oil price but the ranking of forecast performance remains the same and robust to multiple forecast horizons and alternative forecast evaluation methods. We infer that the relative predictive powers of the indices are proportional to the extent to which the indices truly measure the pandemic.
For the sustainable development of multinational companies, one of the crucial issues for headquarters (HQ) is to value and integrate the knowledge acquired by expatriates during their international assignments. This chapter aims to investigate the Reverse Knowledge Transfer (RKT) of diversity management practices in multinational companies (MNCs). More specifically, we explore the factors that may hinder expatriates’ willingness and engagement in the RKT. With the data collected in French subsidiaries in Singapore, by capturing how French expatriates perceive and practice diversity management while working in the French subsidiaries in Singapore, and what organizational supports have been put in place to ease the RKT, the findings reveal the expatriates’ silence and the reasons behind the weak transfer of their diversity management knowledge to HQ. The results highlight the importance for both HQ and expatriates to pay attention to the reverse transfer of diversity management knowledge. Concrete policies and practices that foster RKT are outlined at the end of the chapter.
This study tests both the in-sample and out-of-sample predictive value of oil tail risk for the tail risk of US Dollar exchange rates (USD/CAD, USD/GBP and USD/JPY), where the conditional autoregressive value at risk (CAViaR) of the Engle and Manganelli (2004) is used to estimate the tail risks under 1% and 5% VaRs. Thereafter , we construct a predictive model using the best fit tail risks while the predictive value of the oil tail risk is evaluated for both the in-sample and out-of-sample forecasts. We find evidence of a positive association between the oil tail risk and the USD tail risks when the USD/CAD, USD/GBP are considered, where downtowns in the oil markets are capable of causing instabilities in the U.S. foreign exchange market while it is negative for USD/JPY albeit at 5% VaR, suggesting the safe haven property of the latter during oil crisis. Accounting for the dynamics of oil tail risk in the predictive model of the tail risks of USD exchange rates improves both the in-sample and out-of-sample forecasts and the outcome leading to these conclusions is insensitive to the choice of oil price proxy and the magnitude of VaR.
The literature on intergenerational transmission of poverty—ITP—suggests that higher income levels and improved educational attainment of parents tend to impact on children's future welfare. This paper tests the ITP proposition, in the framework of the quantity–quality model, using the 2015/16 Botswana Multiple Topic Indicator Survey data. Results reveal that the ITP assumption is strongly valid—the probability of attaining secondary education by an adolescent—proxy for escaping the poverty trap—is determined by family socio‐economic characteristics. That is, while welfare improvements among current adults are desirable, they could also be impactful on children's tendency to or not escape the poverty trap.
In the popular imagination sex sells. Yet, marketing theory has relatively little to say about sexuality per se. Drawing on Žižek’s metaphor of critical theory as ‘short-circuiting’ the dominant discourse, we conceptualise marketing as a field that theorises sexuality only in a series of ‘closed circuits’. Knowledge becomes hierarchical when some topics, such as sexuality, are denied the theoretical freedom to roam in wider open circuits alongside other ‘mainstream’ marketing topics. We identify four ways in which certain topics are enclosed: theoretical, empirical, institutional and neo-colonial. We then seek to short-circuit this state of affairs by bringing together a heterogeneous group of scholars interested in sexuality. By crossing their critical insights like unexpected connections in a circuit, we create sparks of inspiration that challenge the contents, contexts and concepts that relate to marketing theories of sexuality. Our paper makes a specific theoretical contribution in arguing for sexuality to be treated as a phenomenon worth studying and theorising in its own right. However, it also makes a wider methodological and epistemological contribution in showing how various topics within marketing theory might be short-circuited to help flatten the hierarchies of knowledge created by closed and open circuits.
Purchasing and supply management (PSM) plays a pivotal role in increasing overall competitiveness as buyers interact with innovative suppliers and internal teams. The competence-based view encourages buyers to specialise in a few core competencies, but less is known about the range of competencies needed for innovation. Thus, this article aims to understand the individual competencies that PSM professionals need to bring added value to innovation. To address this gap, our research is first based on the findings of the state of the art. Then, mixed-methods research is conducted. It consists of exploratory analysis based on five in-depth case studies including 23 interviews complemented with an extended survey of 138 PSM professionals highly experienced in innovation. These professionals rated the importance of 31 competencies, out of which 18 were revealed thanks to the qualitative phase. The results of the second phase highlighted and expanded some competencies known and shown new ones. ARTICLE HISTORY
We study a rescheduling problem in paced aircraft assembly lines with specific resource and precedence constraints. We develop an efficient model based on constraint programming to provide rapidly rescheduling solutions to managers. We propose original optimisation criteria and show that their use outperforms the classic criteria in terms of solution time and quality. We validate our approach through experiments run on industrial problem instances of large scale and derive useful managerial insights from this experimental study.
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