Katholieke Hogeschool VIVES
Recent publications
Background The Biopsychosocial (BPS) model is recognized and widely accepted in the field of health care, particularly in rehabilitation. However, in clinical practice the applicability of the BPS model is a challenge for many professionals. Method This study aimed to explore the factors that impact the perception of rehabilitation professionals about the BPS model in Ukraine. In addition, the job satisfaction assessment was done to measure whether rehabilitation specialists in Ukraine fulfil their professional roles according to their expectations and values. Participants were 346 rehabilitation specialists from Ukraine who completed the Bio-Psycho-Social Scale (BPS) for Use in Healthcare and the Global Job Satisfaction Scale (GJSS). The ANOVA was used to investigate the outcome differences between the two scales. Results The highest proportion of responders in this study represented state health services. The BPS subscale outcomes on “assessment and reporting” and “professional knowledge and skills” were significantly higher for specialists from a private sector. The global job satisfaction scale outcomes did not differ between responders from the private and state health sector. The perception of professionals networks was associated with greater job satisfaction. Conclusions The findings suggest that conception of the BPS approach in rehabilitation system of Ukraine varies across the private and state settings. The professional network plays important role in job satisfaction of rehabilitation professionals in Ukraine. Future research focusing on education strategies to effectively train professionals to apply biopsychosocial approach to practice is of critical importance to prepare rehabilitation specialists in Ukraine.
The potential of whole genome duplication to increase plant biomass yield is well-known. In Arabidopsis tetraploids, an increase in biomass yield was accompanied by a reduction in lignin content and, as a result, a higher saccharification efficiency was achieved compared with diploid controls. Here, we evaluated whether the results obtained in Arabidopsis could be translated into poplar and whether the enhanced saccharification yield upon alkaline pretreatment of hairpin-downregulated CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 (hpCAD) transgenic poplar could be further improved upon a whole genome duplication. Using a colchicine treatment, wild-type (WT) Populus tremula x P. alba cv. INRA 717-1B4, a commonly used model clone in tree biotechnology research, and hpCAD tetraploids were generated and grown in the greenhouse. In parallel, WT tetraploid poplars were grown in the field. In contrast to Arabidopsis, a whole genome duplication of poplar had a negative impact on the biomass yield of both greenhouse- and field-grown trees. Strikingly, field-grown WT tetraploids developed a brittle apex phenotype, i.e., their tip broke off just below the apex. In addition, the chromosome doubling altered the biomass composition of field-grown, but not of greenhouse-grown tetraploid poplars. More specifically, the lignin content of field-grown tetraploid poplars was increased at the expense of matrix polysaccharides. This increase in lignin deposition in biomass is likely the cause of the observed brittle apex phenotype, though no major differences in stem anatomy or in mechanical properties could be found between di- and tetraploid WT poplars grown in the field. Finally, without biomass pretreatment, the saccharification efficiency of greenhouse- and field-grown WT diploids was not different from that of tetraploids, whereas that of greenhouse-grown hpCAD tetraploids was higher than that of greenhouse-grown diploids. Upon alkaline pretreatment, the saccharification yield of diploids was similar to that of tetraploids for all genotypes and growth conditions tested. This study showed that a whole genome duplication in hybrid WT and hpCAD poplar did neither result in further improvements in biomass yield, nor in improved biomass composition and, hence, saccharification performance.
The Biopsychosocial (BPS) model is recognized and widely accepted in the field of health care, particularly in rehabilitation. However, in clinical practice the applicability of the BPS model is a challenge for many professionals. Method. This study aimed to explore the factors that impact the perception of rehabilitation professionals about the BPS model in Ukraine. In addition, the job satisfaction assessment was done to measure whether rehabilitation specialists in Ukraine fulfil their professional roles according to their expectations and values. Participants were 346 rehabilitation specialists from Ukraine who completed the Bio-Psycho-Social Scale (BPS) for Use in Healthcare and the Global Job Satisfaction Scale (GJSS). The ANOVA was used to investigate the outcome differences between the two scales. Results. The highest proportion of responders in this study represented state health services. The BPS subscale outcomes on “assessment and reporting” and “professional knowledge and skills” were significantly higher for specialists from a private sector. The global job satisfaction scale outcomes did not differ between responders from the private and state health sector. The perception of professionals networks was associated with greater job satisfaction. Conclusions. The findings suggest that conception of the BPS approach in rehabilitation system of Ukraine varies across the private and state settings. The professional network plays important role in job satisfaction of rehabilitation professionals in Ukraine. Future research focusing on education strategies to effectively train professionals to apply biopsychosocial approach to practice is of critical importance to prepare rehabilitation specialists in Ukraine.
Lignocellulosic biomass is recalcitrant toward deconstruction into simple sugars mainly due to the presence of lignin. By engineering plants to partially replace traditional lignin monomers with alternative ones, lignin degradability and extractability can be enhanced. Previously, the alternative monomer curcumin has been successfully produced and incorporated into lignified cell walls of Arabidopsis by the heterologous expression of DIKETIDE-CoA SYNTHASE (DCS) and CURCUMIN SYNTHASE2 (CURS2). The resulting transgenic plants did not suffer from yield penalties and had an increased saccharification yield after alkaline pretreatment. Here, we translated this strategy into the bio-energy crop poplar. Via the heterologous expression of DCS and CURS2 under the control of the secondary cell wall CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A8-B promoter (ProCesA8-B), curcumin was also produced and incorporated into the lignified cell walls of poplar. ProCesA8-B:DCS_CURS2 transgenic poplars, however, suffered from shoot-tip necrosis and yield penalties. Compared to that of the wild-type (WT), the wood of transgenic poplars had 21% less cellulose, 28% more matrix polysaccharides, 23% more lignin and a significantly altered lignin composition. More specifically, ProCesA8-B:DCS_CURS2 lignin had a reduced syringyl/guaiacyl unit (S/G) ratio, an increased frequency of p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units, a decreased frequency of p-hydroxybenzoates and a higher fraction of phenylcoumaran units. Without, or with alkaline or hot water pretreatment, the saccharification efficiency of the transgenic lines was equal to that of the WT. These differences in (growth) phenotype illustrate that translational research in crops is essential to assess the value of an engineering strategy for applications. Further fine-tuning of this research strategy (e.g., by using more specific promoters or by translating this strategy to other crops such as maize) might lead to transgenic bio-energy crops with cell walls more amenable to deconstruction without settling in yield.
This paper estimates the impact of labor market rigidities on labor misallocation. To this end, we use a recent policy change in Belgium, leading to an increase in employment protection for blue-collar workers and a decrease in employment protection for white-collar workers. The wedge between marginal product and marginal cost - the gap - is used as a measure for misallocation. Using a rich data set of the universe of Belgian firms, evidence shows that a firm with 90% blue-collar workers experienced after the policy change an increase in the gap of 3,300 euro relative to a firm with 10% of blue-collar workers.
The increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) has become a global health concern. Evidence shows that people who use psychoactive substances employ different strategies to minimise the harmful consequences of their use. However, most of the research investigating these protective behaviours focusses on the use of illicit drugs or alcohol. The goal of this paper is to improve the understanding of young adults’ nonmedical use practices of prescription drugs, perceptions about risks associated with use, and protective behavioural strategies (PBS), including the type of information they consult and rely on regarding prescription drugs. In order to gather in-depth insights into these issues, we conducted semi-structured interviews among young adults who have used prescription drugs nonmedically in Belgium. The PBS employed by the young adults encompass a spectrum of strategies that aim to minimise the negative consequences associated with NMUPD. They were mainly used to avoid acute side effects and long-term negative consequences. Reflecting on young adults’ own PBS and perceptions may be informative for developing harm reduction initiatives in the context of NMUPD.
Plant organ size and shape are major agronomic traits that depend on cell division and expansion, which are both regulated by complex gene networks. In several eudicot species belonging to the rosid clade, organ growth is controlled by a repressor complex consisting of PEAPOD (PPD) and KINASE-INDUCIBLE DOMAIN INTERACTING (KIX) proteins. The role of these proteins in asterids, which together with the rosids constitute most of the core eudicot species, is unknown. We used CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to target SlKIX8 and SlKIX9 in the asterid model species tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and analyzed loss-of-function phenotypes. Loss of function of SlKIX8 and SlKIX9 led to the production of enlarged, dome-shaped leaves and these leaves exhibited increased expression of putative SlPPD target genes. Unexpectedly, kix8 kix9 mutants carried enlarged fruits with increased pericarp thickness due to cell expansion. At the molecular level, protein interaction assays indicated that SlKIX8 and SlKIX9 act as adaptors between the SlPPD and SlTOPLESS co-repressor proteins. Our results show that KIX8 and KIX9 are regulators of organ growth in asterids and can be used in strategies to improve important traits in produce such as thickness of the fruit flesh.
Lignins are cell‐wall‐located aromatic polymers that provide strength and hydrophobicity to woody tissues. Lignin monomers are synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway, wherein CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE (CSE) converts caffeoyl shikimate into caffeic acid. Here, we explored the role of the two CSE homologs in poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba). Reporter lines showed that the expression conferred by both CSE1 and CSE2 promoters is similar. CRISPR‐Cas9‐generated cse1 and cse2 single mutants had a wild‐type lignin level. Nevertheless, CSE1 and CSE2 are not completely redundant, as both single mutants accumulated caffeoyl shikimate. In contrast, the cse1 cse2 double mutants had a 35% reduction in lignin and associated growth penalty. The reduced lignin content translated into a four‐fold increase in cellulose‐to‐glucose conversion upon limited saccharification. Phenolic profiling of the double mutants revealed large metabolic shifts, including an accumulation of p‐coumaroyl, 5‐hydroxyferuloyl, feruloyl and sinapoyl shikimate, in addition to caffeoyl shikimate. This indicates that the CSEs have a broad substrate specificity, which was confirmed by in vitro enzyme kinetics. Taken together, our results suggest an alternative path within the phenylpropanoid pathway at the level of the hydroxycinnamoyl shikimates, and show that CSE is a promising target to improve plants for the biorefinery.
Supporting teachers professionally, both in their teaching skills and the inclusion of technology, is one of the few direct interventions to help them grow. Currently, few instruments assessing these perceptions exist, and evidence on their validity is sparse. Hence, this paper presents the development and validation of an instrument assessing teachers’ perceived institutional support for online and blended learning professional development. A sample of 317 adult education teachers completed the eight-item instrument. Overall, the reliability, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the presented scale can be used to determine how teachers perceive institutional support for online and blended learning professional development and provides evidence supporting a validity argument. Recommendations for the academic and practical use of the ISOBL questionnaire are made.
Background The progress and recovery of a patient with mania during hospitalization is differently seen by professionals working at an admission ward and by relatives of the patient. Professionals often indicate that the situation of the patient is improving while relatives estimate the improvement to be minimal in relation to the recovery of the patient. Objective(s) To develop an intervention to give professionals at an admission ward an impression of the patient in a euthymic mood state to provide professionals with information to plan and conduct individualized patient centred care. Methods Professionals, patients, and relatives were individually interviewed about the preferable content and use of a film in which patients’ shows their ‘euthymic being’. Content analysis was performed. Results An outline for the content and use of the film was developed. Conclusions The intervention holds promise for clinical practice, but further development and testing is necessary.
Background African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal viral hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs that threatens livelihoods and food security. In Africa, ASF virus (ASFV) circulates in sylvatic (transmission between warthogs and soft argasid ticks) and domestic (transmission between domestic pigs) cycles, with outbreaks resulting from viral spill-over from sylvatic cycle. The present study investigated ASFV transmission patterns through virus genotyping. Results Genotypes II, IX, X, XV and XVI of ASFV were found to circulate and maintained by transmission between domestic pigs. Methods In addition to archived samples, tissue samples were collected from domestic pigs during outbreaks at different locations in Tanzania between 2015 and 2017 followed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of B646L gene of ASFV. Conclusion Maintenance of ASFV in the domestic cycle was due to bleach of quarantine and transportation of affected pigs via major highways. Appropriate control measures including sanitary measures at the slaugher slabs and quarantine measures adherence are recommended to prevent ASF emergence and re-emergence in Tanzania. Transportation of pig and pig products for regional market should be controlled to prevent ASFV spreading to other states of the East African Community , as ASFV genotype II has spread beyond its geographical range.
Background African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal viral hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs that threatens livelihoods and food security. In Africa, ASF virus (ASFV) circulates in sylvatic (transmission between warthogs and soft argasid ticks) and domestic (transmission between domestic pigs) cycles, with outbreaks resulting from ASFV spill-over from sylvatic cycle. A number of outbreaks were reported in different parts of Tanzania between 2015 and 2017. The present study investigated ASFV transmission patterns through virus genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. Results ASFV was confirmed to cause outbreaks in sampled domestic pigs. ASFV genotypes II, IX, and X were detected from reported outbreaks in 2015-2017. The current ASFV isolates were similar to those recently documented in the previous studies in Tanzania. The similarities of these isolates suggests for continuous circulation of ASFV with virus maintenance within the domestic pigs. Methods A total of 3120 tissue samples were collected from 2396 domestic pigs during outbreaks at different locations in Tanzania between 2015 and 2017. Partial sequencing of the B646L (p72) gene was conducted for diagnostic confirmation and molecular characterization of ASFV. Phylogenetic analysis to study the relatedness of current ASFV with those that caused previous outbreaks in Tanzania and representatives of all known 24 ASFV was performed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood model with 1000 bootstrap replications in MEGA 6.0. Conclusions Genetic analysis confirmed the circulation of ASFV genotypes II, IX, and X by partial B646L (p72) gene sequencing. The similarities of current isolates to previously isolated Tanzanian isolates and pattern of disease spread suggest for continuous circulation of ASF with virus’ maintenance in the domestic pigs. Although certain viral genotypes seem to be geographically restricted into certain zones within Tanzania, genotype II seems to expand its geographical range northwards with the likelihood of spreading to other states of the East African Community. The spread of ASFV is due to breach of quarantine and transportation of affected pigs via major highways. Appropriate control measures including zoosanitary measures and quarantine measures adherence are recommended to prevent ASF domestic circulation in Tanzania.
Background African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal viral hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs that threatens livelihoods and food security. In Africa, ASF virus (ASFV) circulates in sylvatic (transmission between warthogs and soft argasid ticks) and domestic (transmission between domestic pigs) cycles, with outbreaks resulting from ASFV spill-over from sylvatic cycle. A number of outbreaks were reported in different parts of Tanzania between 2015 and 2017. The present study investigated ASFV transmission patterns through viral DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.ResultsASFV was confirmed to cause disease in sampled domestic pigs. ASFV genotypes II, IX, and X were detected from reported outbreaks in 2015-2017. The current ASFV isolates were similar to those recently documented in the previous studies in Tanzania. The similarities of these isolates suggests for continuous circulation of ASFV with virus maintenance within the domestic pigs.MethodsA total of 3120 tissue samples were collected from 2396 domestic pigs during outbreaks at different locations in Tanzania between 2015 and 2017. Partial sequencing of the B646L (p72) gene was conducted for diagnostic confirmation and molecular characterization of ASFV. Phylogenetic analysis to study the relatedness of current ASFV with those that caused previous outbreaks in Tanzania and representatives of all known 24 ASFV was performed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood model with 1000 bootstrap replications in MEGA 6.0.Conclusions Genetic analysis confirmed the circulation of ASFV genotypes II, IX, and X by partial B646L (p72) gene sequencing. The similarities of current isolates to previously isolated Tanzanian isolates and pattern of disease spread suggest for continuous circulation of ASF with virus’ maintenance in the domestic pigs. Although certain viral genotypes seem to be geographically restricted into certain zones within Tanzania, genotype II seems to expand its geographical range northwards with the likelihood of spreading to other states of the East African Community. The spread of ASFV is due to breach of quarantine and transportation of infected pigs via major highways. Appropriate control measures including zoosanitary measures and quarantine enforcement are recommended to prevent ASF domestic circulation in Tanzania.
Background: African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal viral hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs that threatens livelihoods and food security. In Africa, ASF virus (ASFV) circulates in sylvatic (transmission between warthogs and soft argasid ticks) and domestic (transmission between domestic pigs) cycles, with outbreaks resulting from ASFV spill-over from sylvatic cycle. A number of outbreaks were reported in different parts of Tanzania between 2015 and 2017. The present study investigated ASFV transmission patterns through viral DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3120 tissue samples were collected from 2396 domestic pigs during outbreaks at different locations in Tanzania between 2015 and 2017. Partial sequencing of the B646L (p72) gene was conducted for diagnostic confirmation and molecular characterization of ASFV. Phylogenetic analysis to study the relatedness of current ASFV with those that caused previous outbreaks in Tanzania and representatives of all known 24 ASFV was performed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood model with 1000 bootstrap replications in MEGA 6.0. Results: ASFV was confirmed to cause disease in sampled domestic pigs. ASFV genotypes II, IX, and X were detected from reported outbreaks in 2015-2017. The current ASFV isolates were similar to those recently documented in the previous studies in Tanzania. The similarities of these isolates suggests for continuous circulation of ASFV with virus maintenance within the domestic pigs. Conclusions: Genetic analysis confirmed the circulation of ASFV genotypes II, IX, and X by partial B646L (p72) gene sequencing. The similarities of current isolates to previously isolated Tanzanian isolates and pattern of disease spread suggest for continuous circulation of ASF with virus’ maintenance in the domestic pigs. Although certain viral genotypes seem to be geographically restricted into certain zones within Tanzania, genotype II seems to expand its geographical range northwards with the likelihood of spreading to other states of the East African Community. The spread of ASFV is due to breach of quarantine and transportation of infected pigs via major highways. Appropriate control measures including zoosanitary measures and quarantine enforcement are recommended to prevent ASF domestic circulation in Tanzania.
The Bologna reform aimed at creating a more transparent system of comparable degrees. Taking a demand-side viewpoint, we discuss two types of employer perception, namely, whether Belgian employers perceive Bologna as successful in facilitating the comparison of degrees and whether they are satisfied with the knowledge and skills of those of their employees who have acquired the new degrees. The main conclusions are that Belgian employers do not perceive the comparability of degrees as having become more easy, employability of “academic” (research-grounded) bachelors remains problematic, and employers caution against the loss of practical skills. Finally, we elaborate three policy recommendations.
Freeze drying represents the current practice to stabilize mealworms, even though it is an energy demanding technique. Therefore, it was examined in the present study whether microwave drying could be a proper alternative. To this end, the impact of both drying techniques on the proximate composition, vitamin B12 content, fatty acid profile, oxidation status and colour parameters of mealworms was investigated. Furthermore, the influence of the application of vacuum during microwave drying was studied. The different drying technologies resulted in small differences in the proximate composition, while the vitamin B12 content was only reduced by microwave drying. The fat fraction of freeze dried mealworms showed a higher oxidation status than the fat of microwave dried mealworms. Application of a vacuum during the microwave drying process did not appear to offer advantages. This research shows that for mealworms microwave drying can be a proper alternative to freeze drying.
Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) was recently shown to play an essential role in lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and later in Medicago truncatula. However, the general function of this enzyme was recently questioned by the apparent lack of CSE activity in lignifying tissues of different plant species. Here, we show that downregulation of CSE in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × P. alba) resulted in up to 25% reduced lignin deposition, increased levels of p-hydroxyphenyl units in the lignin polymer, and a relatively higher cellulose content. The transgenic trees were morphologically indistinguishable from the WT. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based phenolic profiling revealed a reduced abundance of several oligolignols containing guaiacyl and syringyl units and their corresponding hydroxycinnamaldehyde units, in agreement with the reduced flux towards coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol. These trees accumulated the CSE substrate caffeoyl shikimate along with other compounds belonging to the metabolic classes of benzenoids and hydroxycinnamates. Furthermore, the reduced lignin amount combined with the relative increase in cellulose content in the CSE downregulated lines resulted in up to 62% more glucose released per plant upon limited saccharification when no pretreatment was applied and by up to 86% and 91% when acid and alkaline pretreatments were used. Our results show that CSE is not only important for the lignification process in poplar but is also a promising target for the development of improved lignocellulosic biomass crops for sugar platform biorefineries.
Aim: The STAFF-project investigates in what way 'smart technology' can offer an alternative for physical restraints in nursing homes. A survey is realized aimed at gaining more insight into the vision on and the use of physical restraints and 'smart technology'. Method: Two partly overlapping structured questionnaires were developed and sent to nursing home staff in Flanders (Belgium). One hundred fifty six administrators (managers or assistant-managers) and 238 caregiving staff (nurses, nursing aids, paramedical staff and other) completed the online questionnaire. Results: In general there is a low acceptability of physical restraint use, however, a more nuanced picture of acceptability is present depending on the specific motivation for using physical restraints and on the specific means of physical restraints. About half of the administrators say they use smart technology in the nursing home. The two main reasons for not applying (yet) smart technology are 'too high price for smart technology' and 'inadequate infrastructure of the nursing home'. All respondents underscore the importance of multiple strategies to diminish the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. Conclusion: Physical restraint use is a complex theme and needs a nuanced analysis and management. This study shows that there is still room for improvement in diminishing the use of physical restraints and that nursing homes in Flanders are open to use smart technology.
This paper analyzes the effects of an investment subsidy program for small- and medium-sized enterprises in Flanders from 2004 to 2009. The subsidies were awarded according to a ranking system that favored young, growing and productive firms with a strong cash flow, granting subsidies to the highest scoring firms until the depletion of funds. The nature of this allocation system creates a sharp cutoff in granting the subsidy according to the score, allowing us to estimate the causal impact of the subsidies using a regression discontinuity design. We find a positive effect on firm-level investment, employment, output and productivity for the firms that were granted the subsidy, but only for the small firms. However, the effect is small relative to the cost of the subsidy.
The focus in this contribution is the challenge to develop an efficient and effective learning environment for student teachers, especially with respect to the remote organization of assessment and the remote support of internship for students who follow a distance education program. For both aspects it is examined whether the used methodologies/approaches are in line with the perceptions of different stakeholders (students/lecturers/supervisors). The results reveal that 1) the methodology/approach used to take an exam remotely is in line with perceptions of students, but 2) not all lecturers seem to be convinced about the necessity to give students in distance education control on time, pace and place to take their exams; and they have worries about the workload. Further, the participants perceive a highly led anticipatory reflection assignment as a good instrument to support internship remotely and it seems to be an efficient instrument to support remotely an internship of student teachers. Recommendations are restricted to some suggestions for further research on both aspects.
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1,628 members
Bram Pynoo
  • Department of Social Work (IPSOC)
Evelien De Pauw
  • Department of Social Work (IPSOC)
Lee Claes
  • Department of Social Work (IPSOC)
Dimitri Van Maele
  • Department of Social Work (IPSOC)
Ilse Delbaere
  • Department of Nursing and Midwifery (HIVV)
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