Calcium phosphates (CaP) represent an important class of osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterials. As proof-of-concept, we show how a multi-component CaP formulation (monetite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium pyrophosphate) guides osteogenesis beyond the physiological envelope. In a sheep model, hollow dome-shaped constructs were placed directly over the occipital bone. At 12 months, large amounts of bone (∼75%) occupy the hollow space with strong evidence of ongoing remodelling. Features of both compact bone (osteonal/osteon-like arrangements) and spongy bone (trabeculae separated by marrow cavities) reveal insights into function/need-driven microstructural adaptation. Pores within the CaP also contain both woven bone and vascularised lamellar bone. Osteoclasts actively contribute to CaP degradation/removal. Of the constituent phases, only calcium pyrophosphate persists within osseous (cutting cones) and non-osseous (macrophages) sites. From a translational perspective, this multi-component CaP opens up exciting new avenues for osteotomy-free and minimally-invasive repair of large bone defects and augmentation of the dental alveolar ridge.
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are used to target cancer cells by means of antibodies directed to tumor-associated antigens, causing the incorporation of a cytotoxic payload into target cells. Here, we characterized the mode of action of ADC costing of a TWEAKR-specific monoclonal antibody conjugated to a small molecule kinesin spindle protein (KSP) inhibitor (KSPi). These TWEAKR-KSPi-ADCs showed strong efficacy in a TWEAKR expressing CT26 colon cancer model in mice. TWEAKR-KSPi-ADCs controlled the growth of CT26 colon cancers in immunodeficient as well as in immunocompetent mice. However, when treated with suboptimal doses, TWEAKR-KSPi-ADCs were still active in immunocompetent but not in immunodeficient mice, indicating that TWEAKR-KSPi-ADCs act - in addition to the cytotoxic mode of action - through an immunological mechanism. Indeed, in vitro experiments performed with a cell-permeable small molecule KSPi closely related to the active payload released from the TWEAKR-KSPi-ADCs revealed that KSPi was capable of stimulating several hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD) on three different human cancer cell lines: cellular release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and high mobility group B1 protein (HMGB1), exposure of calreticulin on the cell surface as well as a transcriptional type-I interferon response. Further, in vivo experiments confirmed that treatment with TWEAKR-KSPi-ADCs activated immune responses via enhancing the infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in tumors and the local production of interferon-γ, interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α. In conclusion, the antineoplastic effects of TWEAKR-KSPi-ADCs can partly be attributed to its ICD-stimulatory properties.
Objective. Patients with underlying heart diseases have a higher risk of dying from Covid-19. It has also been suggested that Covid-19 affects the heart through myocarditis. Despite the rapidly growing research on the management of Covid-19 associated complications, most of the ongoing research is focused on the respiratory complications of Covid-19, and little is known about the prevalence of myocarditis. Design. This study aimed to characterize myocardial involvement by using a panel of antibodies to detect hypoxic and inflammatory changes and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in heart tissues obtained during the autopsy procedure of Covid-19 deceased patients. Thirty-seven fatal COVID-19 cases and 21 controls were included in this study. Results. Overall, the Covid-19 hearts had several histopathological changes like the waviness of myocytes, fibrosis, contract band necrosis, infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, vacuolization, and necrosis of myocytes. In addition, endothelial damage and activation were detected in heart tissue. However, viral replication was not detected using RNA in situ hybridization. Also, lymphocyte infiltration, as a hallmark of myocarditis, was not seen in this study. Conclusion. No histological sign of myocarditis was detected in any of our cases; our findings are thus most congruent with the hypothesis of the presence of a circulating endothelium activating factor such as VEGF, originating outside of the heart, probably from the hypoxic part of the Covid-19 lungs.
Successful translation of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for the treatment of solid tumors has proved to be troublesome, mainly due to the complex tumor microenvironment promoting T cell dysfunction and antigen heterogeneity. Mesothelin (MSLN) has emerged as an attractive target for CAR T cell therapy of several solid malignancies, including ovarian cancer. To improve clinical response rates with MSLN-CAR T cells, a better understanding of the mechanisms impacting CAR T cell functionality in vitro is crucial. Here, we demonstrated superior cytolytic capacity of CD28-costimulated MSLN-CAR T cells (M28z) relative to 4-1BB-costimulated MSLN-CAR T cells (MBBz). Furthermore, CD28-costimulated MSLN CAR T cells displayed enhanced cytolytic capacity against tumor spheroids with heterogeneous MSLN expression compared to MBBz CAR T cells. In this study, we identified CAR-mediated trogocytosis as a potential impeding factor for successful MSLN-CAR T cell therapy due to fratricide killing and contributing to tumor antigen heterogeneity. Moreover, we link antigen-dependent upregulation of LAG-3 with reduced CAR T cell functionality. Taken together, our study highlights the therapeutic potential and bottlenecks of MSLN-CAR T cells, providing a rationale for combinatorial treatment strategies.
Background Clinical endpoints for upcoming therapeutic trials in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are increasingly urgent. Cognitive composite scores are often used as endpoints but are lacking in genetic FTD. We aimed to create cognitive composite scores for genetic frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as well as recommendations for recruitment and duration in clinical trial design. Methods A standardized neuropsychological test battery covering six cognitive domains was completed by 69 C9orf72 , 41 GRN , and 28 MAPT mutation carriers with CDR® plus NACC-FTLD ≥ 0.5 and 275 controls. Logistic regression was used to identify the combination of tests that distinguished best between each mutation carrier group and controls. The composite scores were calculated from the weighted averages of test scores in the models based on the regression coefficients. Sample size estimates were calculated for individual cognitive tests and composites in a theoretical trial aimed at preventing progression from a prodromal stage (CDR® plus NACC-FTLD 0.5) to a fully symptomatic stage (CDR® plus NACC-FTLD ≥ 1). Time-to-event analysis was performed to determine how quickly mutation carriers progressed from CDR® plus NACC-FTLD = 0.5 to ≥ 1 (and therefore how long a trial would need to be). Results The results from the logistic regression analyses resulted in different composite scores for each mutation carrier group (i.e. C9orf72 , GRN , and MAPT ). The estimated sample size to detect a treatment effect was lower for composite scores than for most individual tests. A Kaplan-Meier curve showed that after 3 years, ~ 50% of individuals had converted from CDR® plus NACC-FTLD 0.5 to ≥ 1, which means that the estimated effect size needs to be halved in sample size calculations as only half of the mutation carriers would be expected to progress from CDR® plus NACC FTLD 0.5 to ≥ 1 without treatment over that time period. Discussion We created gene-specific cognitive composite scores for C9orf72 , GRN , and MAPT mutation carriers, which resulted in substantially lower estimated sample sizes to detect a treatment effect than the individual cognitive tests. The GENFI-Cog composites have potential as cognitive endpoints for upcoming clinical trials. The results from this study provide recommendations for estimating sample size and trial duration.
Balance dysfunction is a disabling symptom in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Evidence suggests that exercise can improve balance performance and induce neuroplastic effects. We hypothesised that a 10-week balance intervention (HiBalance) would improve balance, other motor and cognitive symptoms, and alter task-evoked brain activity in people with PD. We performed a double-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) where 95 participants with PD were randomised to either HiBalance ( n = 48) or a control group ( n = 47). We found no significant group by time effect on balance performance ( b = 0.4 95% CI [−1, 1.9], p = 0.57) or on our secondary outcomes, including the measures of task-evoked brain activity. The findings of this well-powered, double-blind RCT contrast previous studies of the HiBalance programme but are congruent with other double-blind RCTs of physical exercise in PD. The divergent results raise important questions on how to optimise physical exercise interventions for people with PD. Preregistration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03213873.
Background DNA repair deficiency disorders are rare inherited diseases arising from pathogenic (disease-causing) variants in genes involved in DNA repair. There are no standardized diagnostic assays for the investigation of pathological significance of unknown variants in DNA repair genes. We hypothesized that our assays for measuring in vitro patient blood cell hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents can be used to establish the pathological significance of unknown variants in DNA repair genes. Six patients with variants in the DNA repair genes PRKDC (two siblings), DCLRE1C (two siblings), NBN , and MSH6 were included. Here, we used the cell division assay (CDA) and the γ-H2AX assay, which were both developed and clinically validated by us, to measure patient cell hypersensitivity in response to ionizing radiation, mitomycin C, cytarabine and doxorubicin. Results Radiation hypersensitivity was detected in the two patients with variants in the PRKDC gene ( p < 0.0001 for both at 3.5 Gy), and the two patients with DCLRE1C variants ( p < 0.0001 at 3.5 Gy for sibling 1 and p < 0.0001 at 1 Gy for sibling 2). The cells from the patients with the PRKDC variant were also deficient in removing γ-H2AX ( p < 0.001). The cells from the patient with variants in the NBN gene were hypersensitive to mitomycin C ( p = 0.0008) and deficient in both induction and removal of γ-H2AX in response to radiation. Conclusions The combination of the CDA and the γ-H2AX assay is useful in investigating the significance of unknown variants in some DNA repair genes.
Background Recently, biosensors have become popular analytical tools for small analytes due to their high sensitivity and wide analytical range. In the present work, development of a novel biosensing method based on tungsten disulfide quantum dots (WS2 QDs)-Au for rapidly and selectively detecting c-Met protein is introduced. As a proof of concept, M13 bacteriophage-based biosensors were used for the electrochemical detection of c-Met protein as a colon cancer biomarker. Method The M13 bacteriophage (virus), as the biorecognition element, was immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes which were modified by WS2 QDs-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The stepwise presence of the WS2 QDs, gold nanoparticles, and immobilized phage on glassy carbon electrodes were confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) technique. Results The designed biosensor was applied to measure the amount of c-Met protein in standard solutions, and consequently the desirable detection limit of 1 pg was obtained. Finally, as a proof of concept, the developed platform was used for the evaluation of c-Met protein in serum samples of colon cancer-suffering patients and the results were compared with the results of the common Elisa kit. Conclusions As an interesting part of this study, some concentrations of the c-Met protein in colon cancer serum samples which could not be determined by Elisa, were easily analyzed by the developed bioassay system. The developed bioassay system has great potential to application in biomedical laboratories. Graphical Abstract
Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles in cancers, but the role and mechanism of HDAC7 in NSCLC have not been fully understood. Methods A total of 319 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent surgery were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemistry and Kaplan–Meier survival analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between HDAC7, fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) expression, and clinicopathologic characteristics. Cell functional experiments were implemented both in vivo and in vitro to investigate the effects on NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis. Recombinant lentivirus–meditated in vivo gene overexpression or knockdown, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blotting, and coimmunoprecipitation assays were applied to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism of HDAC7 in promoting NSCLC progression. Results The elevated expression of HDAC7 or FGF18 was positively correlated with poor prognosis, tumor–node–metastasis (TNM) stage, and tumor differentiation of NSCLC patients. NSCLC patients with co-expressed HDAC7 and FGF18 suffered the worst prognosis. HDAC7 overexpression promoted NSCLC proliferation and metastasis by upregulating FGF18. Conversely, overexpression of FGF18 reversed the attenuated ability in tumor growth and metastasis mediated by downregulating HDAC7. In terms of mechanism, our results suggested that the interaction of HDAC7 with β-catenin caused decreased β-catenin acetylation level at Lys49 and decreased phosphorylation level at Ser45. As a consequence, the HDAC7-mediated posttranslational modification of β-catenin facilitated nuclear transfer and activated FGF18 expression via binding to TCF4. Furthermore, deubiquitinase USP10 interacted with and stabilized HDAC7. The suppression of USP10 significantly accelerated the degradation of HDAC7 and weakened NSCLC growth and migration. Conclusions Our findings reveal that HDAC7 promotes NSCLC progression through being stabilized by USP10 and activating the β-catenin-FGF18 pathway. Targeting this novel pathway may be a promising strategy for further developments in NSCLC therapy.
Background Physical activity (PA) decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially among older adults, potentially leading to adverse consequences for their health. However, factors associated with reductions of PA during the pandemic have not been examined in a population-based sample of older adults. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the association of pre-pandemic physical, mental, social and lifestyle factors with reductions in PA in older adults during the first wave of COVID-19, and whether the associations differed by age and sex. Methods A population-based sample of 624 participants aged 65-99 years were identified from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) COVID19 Study. Information on pre-pandemic factors was collected through clinical examinations, interviews, and self-administered questionnaires in 2016-2019. Changes in light and intense PA during the first wave of the pandemic (May-September 2020) were self-reported. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models, stratified by age (<70 vs. >80 years) and sex. Results There was an association between pre-pandemic levels of higher depressive symptom burden (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.6, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.1-6.4, <70 years), and impaired balance (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.8, >80 years old) with reductions in light-intensity PA. Furthermore, the presence of musculoskeletal disease (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9, <70 years; OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.4, men), moderate/high levels of neuroticism (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.6, <70 years; OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.5, women), and poor levels of social support (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-4.3, >80 years) were related to reductions in higher-intensity PA. Those who were current smokers (OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, <70 years; OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.06-0.7, women), or had impaired balance (OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8, >80 years) were less likely to reduce their levels of higher-intensity PA. Conclusions For future pandemics or waves of COVID-19, development of strategies is warranted for older individuals with psychiatric- or physical illness/dysfunction, as well as those with poor social support to counteract reductions in physical activities.
Background The transcapillary leakage of albumin is increased by inflammation and major surgery, but whether exogenous albumin also disappears faster is unclear. Methods An intravenous infusion of 3 mL/kg of 20% albumin was given over 30 min to 70 subjects consisting of 15 healthy volunteers, 15 post-burn patients, 15 patients who underwent surgery with minor bleeding, 10 who underwent surgery with major bleeding (mean, 1.1 L) and 15 postoperative patients. Blood Hb and plasma albumin were measured on 15 occasions over 5 h. The rate of albumin disappearance from the plasma was quantitated with population kinetic methodology and reported as the half-life (T 1/2 ). Results No differences were observed for T 1/2 between volunteers, post-burn patients, patients who underwent surgery with minor bleeding and postoperative patients. The T 1/2 averaged 16.2 h, which corresponds to 3.8% of the amount infused per h. Two groups showed plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein of approximately 60 mg/L and still had a similarly long T 1/2 for albumin. By contrast, patients undergoing surgery associated with major hemorrhage had a shorter T 1/2 , corresponding to 15% of the infused albumin per h. In addition, our analyses show that the T 1/2 differ greatly depending on whether the calculations consider plasma volume changes and blood losses. Conclusion The disappearance rate of the albumin in 20% preparations was low in volunteers, in patients with moderately severe inflammation, and in postoperative patients.
Background Necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are rapidly progressing bacterial infections usually caused by either several pathogens in unison (polymicrobial infections) or Streptococcus pyogenes (mono-microbial infection). These infections are rare and are associated with high mortality rates. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms in this heterogeneous group remain elusive. Methods In this study, we built interactomes at both the population and individual levels consisting of host-pathogen interactions inferred from dual RNA-Seq gene transcriptomic profiles of the biopsies from NSTI patients. Results NSTI type-specific responses in the host were uncovered. The S. pyogenes mono-microbial subnetwork was enriched with host genes annotated with involved in cytokine production and regulation of response to stress. The polymicrobial network consisted of several significant associations between different species ( S. pyogenes , Porphyromonas asaccharolytica and Escherichia coli ) and host genes. The host genes associated with S. pyogenes in this subnetwork were characterised by cellular response to cytokines. We further found several virulence factors including hyaluronan synthase, Sic1, Isp, SagF, SagG, ScfAB-operon, Fba and genes upstream and downstream of EndoS along with bacterial housekeeping genes interacting with the human stress and immune response in various subnetworks between host and pathogen. Conclusions At the population level, we found aetiology-dependent responses showing the potential modes of entry and immune evasion strategies employed by S. pyogenes , congruent with general cellular processes such as differentiation and proliferation. After stratifying the patients based on the subject-specific networks to study the patient-specific response, we observed different patient groups with different collagens, cytoskeleton and actin monomers in association with virulence factors, immunogenic proteins and housekeeping genes which we utilised to postulate differing modes of entry and immune evasion for different bacteria in relationship to the patients’ phenotype.
In rod-shaped bacteria, morphological plasticity occurs in response to stress, which blocks cell division to promote filamentation. We demonstrate here that overexpression of the patatin-like phospholipase variant CapV Q329R , but not CapV, causes pronounced sulA -independent pyridoxine-inhibited cell filamentation in the Escherichia coli K-12-derivative MG1655 associated with restriction of flagella production and swimming motility. Conserved amino acids in canonical patatin-like phospholipase A motifs, but not the nucleophilic serine, are required to mediate CapV Q329R phenotypes. Furthermore, CapV Q329R production substantially alters the lipidome and colony morphotype including rdar biofilm formation with modulation of the production of the biofilm activator CsgD, and affects additional bacterial traits such as the efficiency of phage infection and antimicrobial susceptibility. Moreover, genetically diverse commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains and Salmonella typhimurium responded with cell filamentation and modulation in colony morphotype formation to CapV Q329R expression. In conclusion, this work identifies the CapV variant CapV Q329R as a pleiotropic regulator, emphasizes a scaffold function for patatin-like phospholipases, and highlights the impact of the substitution of a single conserved amino acid for protein functionality and alteration of host physiology.
Background The ETS transcription factor GABPA has long been thought of as an oncogenic factor and recently suggested as a target for cancer therapy due to its critical effect on telomerase activation, but the role of GABPA in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is unclear. In addition, ccRCC is characterized by metabolic reprograming with aberrant accumulation of L-2-hydroxyglurate (L-2HG), an oncometabolite that has been shown to promote ccRCC development and progression by inducing DNA methylation, however, its downstream effectors remain poorly defined. Methods siRNAs and expression vectors were used to manipulate the expression of GABPA and other factors and to determine cellular/molecular and phenotypic alterations. RNA sequencing and ChIP assays were performed to identify GABPA target genes. A human ccRCC xenograft model in mice was used to evaluate the effect of GABPA overexpression on in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis. ccRCC cells were incubated with L-2-HG to analyze GABPA expression and methylation. We carried out immunohistochemistry on patient specimens and TCGA dataset analyses to assess the effect of GABPA on ccRCC survival. Results GABPA depletion, although inhibiting telomerase expression, robustly enhanced proliferation, invasion and stemness of ccRCC cells, whereas GABPA overexpression exhibited opposite effects, strongly inhibiting in vivo metastasis and carcinogenesis. TGFBR2 was identified as the GABPA target gene through which GABPA governed the TGFβ signaling to dictate ccRCC phenotypes. GABPA and TGFBR2 phenocopies each other in ccRCC cells. Higher GABPA or TGFBR2 expression predicted longer survival in patients with ccRCC. Incubation of ccRCC cells with L-2-HG mimics GABPA-knockdown-mediated phenotypic alterations. L-2-HG silenced the expression of GABPA in ccRCC cells by increasing its methylation. Conclusions GABPA acts as a tumor suppressor by stimulating TGFBR2 expression and TGFβ signaling, while L-2-HG epigenetically inhibits GABPA expression, disrupting the GABPA-TGFβ loop to drive ccRCC aggressiveness. These results exemplify how oncometabolites erase tumor suppressive function for cancer development/progression. Restoring GABPA expression using DNA methylation inhibitors or other approaches, rather than targeting it, may be a novel strategy for ccRCC therapy.
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unconventional T cells with innate-like capacity to rapidly respond to microbial infection via MR1-restricted antigen recognition. Emerging evidence indicate that they can also act as rapid sensors of viral infection via innate cytokine activation. However, their possible role in the immune response to mRNA vaccination is unknown. Here, we evaluated the involvement of MAIT cells in individuals vaccinated with the BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. MAIT cell levels, phenotype and function in circulation were preserved and unperturbed through day 35 post-vaccination in healthy donor (HD) vaccinees, as well as people living with HIV (PLWH) or with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Unexpectedly, pre-vaccination and post-vaccination levels of MAIT cells correlated positively with the magnitude of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses in the HD vaccinees. This pattern was largely preserved in the PID group, but less so in the PLWH group. Furthermore, in the HD vaccinees levels of MAIT cell activation and cytolytic potential correlated negatively to the adaptive antigen-specific immune responses. These findings indicate an unexpected association between MAIT cell compartment characteristics and the immune response magnitude to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine.
Background Severe COVID-19 is characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine release syndrome (cytokine storm) which causes high morbidity and mortality. Recent observational and clinical studies suggest famotidine, a histamine 2 receptor (H2R) antagonist widely used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, attenuates the clinical course of COVID-19. Because evidence is lacking for a direct antiviral activity of famotidine, a proposed mechanism of action is blocking the effects of histamine released by mast cells. Here we hypothesized that famotidine activates the inflammatory reflex, a brain-integrated vagus nerve mechanism which inhibits inflammation via alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) signal transduction, to prevent cytokine storm. Methods The potential anti-inflammatory effects of famotidine and other H2R antagonists were assessed in mice exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine storm. As the inflammatory reflex is integrated and can be stimulated in the brain, and H2R antagonists penetrate the blood brain barrier poorly, famotidine was administered by intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes. Results Famotidine administered IP significantly reduced serum and splenic LPS-stimulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6 concentrations, significantly improving survival. The effects of ICV famotidine were significantly more potent as compared to the peripheral route. Mice lacking mast cells by genetic deletion also responded to famotidine, indicating the anti-inflammatory effects are not mast cell-dependent. Either bilateral sub-diaphragmatic vagotomy or genetic knock-out of α7nAChR abolished the anti-inflammatory effects of famotidine, indicating the inflammatory reflex as famotidine’s mechanism of action. While the structurally similar H2R antagonist tiotidine displayed equivalent anti-inflammatory activity, the H2R antagonists cimetidine or ranitidine were ineffective even at very high dosages. Conclusions These observations reveal a previously unidentified vagus nerve-dependent anti-inflammatory effect of famotidine in the setting of cytokine storm which is not replicated by high dosages of other H2R antagonists in clinical use. Because famotidine is more potent when administered intrathecally, these findings are also consistent with a primarily central nervous system mechanism of action.
Background Medical nutrition therapy may be associated with clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay. We wanted to assess nutrition practices in European intensive care units (ICU) and their importance for clinical outcomes. Methods Prospective multinational cohort study in patients staying in ICU ≥ 5 days with outcome recorded until day 90. Macronutrient intake from enteral and parenteral nutrition and non-nutritional sources during the first 15 days after ICU admission was compared with targets recommended by ESPEN guidelines. We modeled associations between three categories of daily calorie and protein intake (low: < 10 kcal/kg, < 0.8 g/kg; moderate: 10–20 kcal/kg, 0.8–1.2 g/kg, high: > 20 kcal/kg; > 1.2 g/kg) and the time-varying hazard rates of 90-day mortality or successful weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Results A total of 1172 patients with median [Q1;Q3] APACHE II score of 18.5 [13.0;26.0] were included, and 24% died within 90 days. Median length of ICU stay was 10.0 [7.0;16.0] days, and 74% of patients could be weaned from invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients reached on average 83% [59;107] and 65% [41;91] of ESPEN calorie and protein recommended targets, respectively. Whereas specific reasons for ICU admission (especially respiratory diseases requiring IMV) were associated with higher intakes (estimate 2.43 [95% CI: 1.60;3.25] for calorie intake, 0.14 [0.09;0.20] for protein intake), a lack of nutrition on the preceding day was associated with lower calorie and protein intakes (− 2.74 [− 3.28; − 2.21] and − 0.12 [− 0.15; − 0.09], respectively). Compared to a lower intake, a daily moderate intake was associated with higher probability of successful weaning (for calories: maximum HR 4.59 [95% CI: 1.5;14.09] on day 12; for protein: maximum HR 2.60 [1.09;6.23] on day 12), and with a lower hazard of death (for calories only: minimum HR 0.15, [0.05;0.39] on day 19). There was no evidence that a high calorie or protein intake was associated with further outcome improvements. Conclusions Calorie intake was mainly provided according to the targets recommended by the active ESPEN guideline, but protein intake was lower. In patients staying in ICU ≥ 5 days, early moderate daily calorie and protein intakes were associated with improved clinical outcomes. Trial registration NCT04143503 , registered on October 25, 2019. Graphical abstract
Background Transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR amyloidosis) is a rare, life-threatening disease caused by the accumulation of variant or wild-type (ATTRwt amyloidosis) transthyretin amyloid fibrils in the heart, peripheral nerves, and other tissues and organs. Methods Established in 2007, the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Outcomes Survey (THAOS) is the largest ongoing, global, longitudinal observational study of patients with ATTR amyloidosis, including both inherited and wild-type disease, and asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic TTR mutations. This descriptive analysis examines baseline characteristics of symptomatic patients and asymptomatic gene carriers enrolled in THAOS since its inception in 2007 (data cutoff: August 1, 2021). Results This analysis included 3779 symptomatic patients and 1830 asymptomatic gene carriers. Symptomatic patients were predominantly male (71.4%) and had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of symptom onset of 56.3 (17.8) years. Val30Met was the most common genotype in symptomatic patients in South America (80.9%), Europe (55.4%), and Asia (50.5%), and more patients had early- versus late-onset disease in these regions. The majority of symptomatic patients in North America (58.8%) had ATTRwt amyloidosis. The overall distribution of phenotypes in symptomatic patients was predominantly cardiac (40.7%), predominantly neurologic (40.1%), mixed (16.6%), and no phenotype (2.5%). In asymptomatic gene carriers, mean (SD) age at enrollment was 42.4 (15.7) years, 42.4% were male, and 73.2% carried the Val30Met mutation. Conclusions This 14-year global overview of THAOS in over 5000 patients represents the largest analysis of ATTR amyloidosis to date and highlights the genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of the disease. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier : NCT00628745.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.