Karlstads Universitet
  • Karlstad, Sweden
Recent publications
Geometric phase is a concept of central importance in virtually every branch of physics. In this paper, we show that the evolution time of a cyclically evolving quantum system is restricted by the system's energy resources and the geometric phase acquired by the state. Specifically, we derive and examine three tight lower bounds on the time required to generate any prescribed Aharonov-Anandan geometric phase. The derivations are based on recent results on the geometric character of the Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin quantum speed limits.
Background Recent research indicates that understanding how children and youth perceive mental health, how it is manifests, and where the line between mental health issues and everyday challenges should be drawn, is complex and varied. Consequently, it is important to investigate how children and youth perceive and communicate about mental health. With this in mind, our goal is to synthesize the literature on how children and youth (ages 10—25) perceive and conceptualize mental health. Methods We conducted a preliminary search to identify the keywords, employing a search strategy across electronic databases including Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Sociological abstracts and Google Scholar. The search encompassed the period from September 20, 2021, to September 30, 2021. This effort yielded 11 eligible studies. Our scoping review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA-ScR Checklist. Results As various aspects of uncertainty in understanding of mental health have emerged, the results indicate the importance of establishing a shared language concerning mental health. This is essential for clarifying the distinctions between everyday challenges and issues that require treatment. Conclusion We require a language that can direct children, parents, school personnel and professionals toward appropriate support and aid in formulating health interventions. Additionally, it holds significance to promote an understanding of the positive aspects of mental health. This emphasis should extend to the competence development of school personnel, enabling them to integrate insights about mental well-being into routine interactions with young individuals. This approach could empower children and youth to acquire the understanding that mental health is not a static condition but rather something that can be enhanced or, at the very least, maintained.
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the qualities of Miscanthus pellets blended with pine sawdust at various ratios ( Miscanthus /pine sawdust—0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) and relate them to energy generation potential under typical production conditions of the widely used bioenergy production technologies according to literature. Samples of each material were milled to the required sizes and blended in the proportions mentioned above. Water was added (6%) to each mixture to achieve a uniform moisture content of 10% on wet basis. The mixtures were then subjected to pressure agglomeration in the form of mechanical compression using a single pellet press so that homogeneously sized fuel pellets were obtained. Thereafter, the pure and blended pellet samples were examined using a range of analytical techniques to reveal any alterations in characteristics important to the utilization of the pellets as a green energy source. The results showed that, although temperature variations generally caused an estimated 6% moisture loss on a wet basis during pelleting with positive influence on the features of the pellets, the quality of the pellets in terms of ash composition (2–4%), hardness (41–46 kg/pellet), and heating value (20–21 MJ/kg) was in general more desirable for the blended pellets than for pure Miscanthus pellet. Structural analysis also revealed low levels of hydrophobic groups in the blends relative to pure Miscanthus , which were consistent with the fractions of pine sawdust and were also the reason for the pellets’ increased hardness.
Conditions early in ontogeny can have considerable effects later on in life. Many salmonids spawn during the autumn, and temperature during subsequent embryogenesis may have far‐reaching effects on life‐history traits, especially when considering ongoing climate change. Even biotic conditions during embryogenesis, such as predation threat, may affect later life stages. Here, we examined how predator odours and increased temperatures affect embryonic growth and development of a fish (brown trout Salmo trutta ). We found that embryos had lower body mass and greater yolk volume close to hatching when subjected to predator odours. Trout embryos incubated at temperatures representing natural winter conditions were larger than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, although the latter hatched earlier. Fry sizes at emergence did not differ between treatments, perhaps because of compensatory growth during spring. This study shows that predator presence can have similar effects on embryonic growth of salmonids as warming winters, with possible impact later in ontogeny.
In this paper, we derive the maximal subspace of natural numbers $$\left\{ n_{k}:k\ge 0\right\} ,$$ n k : k ≥ 0 , such that the restricted maximal operator, defined by $${\sup }_{k\in {\mathbb {N}}}\left| \sigma _{n_{k}}F\right| $$ sup k ∈ N σ n k F on this subspace of Fejér means of Walsh–Fourier series is bounded from the martingale Hardy space $$H_{1/2}$$ H 1 / 2 to the Lebesgue space $$L_{1/2}.$$ L 1 / 2 . The sharpness of this result is also proved.
The aim of the article is to explore whether and how local civil society – grounded in bottom-up activities – responds to a top-down initiative with expectations of sustainable transformation. The focus of our research is the possible role of civil society organizations as agents in collaborations aiming for a forest-based bioeconomy. The research was conducted in a local area within the sparsely populated Swedish region of Värmland, characterized by a strong tradition of forestry. The study is explorative and uses qualitative methods: interviews with representatives of local civil society actors, participant observations of local meetings and workshops, and document analyses. Our results suggest that general policy expectations concerning the inclusion of civil society become vague when operationalized in documents at the regional level, and lack clarity concerning the roles expected from civil society. Civil society organizations (CSOs) contribute in a multitude of ways to local social, economic, and environmental sustainability. However, the inclusion of CSOs as full actors in collaborations requires a greater knowledge of the traditions and structure of Swedish civil society, as well as its conditions and challenges in different local contexts.
Background: To evaluate an innovative class I compression stocking with predetermined uniform pressure in comparison to a graduated class III compression stocking system, regarding edema reduction, interface pressure, and patient comfort. Method: Twenty-five patients with chronic venous disease, were randomized: 12 to investigational stocking, 13 to comparator stocking. Data collected at baseline and after 14 days. Results: Edema was significantly equal reduced to follow-up; mean -129.0 cm3 (SD 105; p = .004, Class I) and -223.7 cm3 (SD 120; p = .002, Class III), respectively. The investigational stocking lost significantly less compression pressure than the comparator stocking (p ≤ .013). Participants in both groups perceived significant improvement regarding leg heaviness, leg swelling, and feelings of tightness and tingling (p ≤ .016). Conclusion: The innovative investigational class I stocking appears to offer similar edema reduction and benefits to the comparator class III stocking. However, a larger and prolonged study is required. The study was registered in the ISRCTN-registry, ISRCTN17356077, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN17356077.
Wood pellets produced from fresh sawdust can form and release uncontrolled gases during bulk storage, a tendency referred to as off-gassing. This study investigated the off-gassing tendencies of Scots pine wood pellets made from separated sapwood and heartwood sawdust. The effects of drying temperature, raw material storage, as well as varying proportions of sapwood and heartwood were also investigated. There was a strong linear correlation between off-gassing and sapwood content, with correlation coefficient (R) values greater than 0.9 at p < 0.001 for all the off-gases. An increase in sapwood content of the feedstock led to a significant increase in off-gassing of CO2, CO, and CH4, and O2 consumption. The drying temperature of the raw material had a significant effect on off-gassing of both sapwood (F(8, 26) = 51.32, p < 0.05) and heartwood (F(8, 26) = 334.1, p < 0.05) pellets. Increasing the drying temperature for heartwood resulted in increased off-gassing, while for sapwood, the off-gassing reduced. Storage of sapwood raw material before pelletization reduced the off-gassing of wood pellets, whereas for heartwood, it had no significant impact. Based on the results, it is suggested that a biological process, in combination with the chemical oxidation of fatty acids, lay behind the off-gassing of wood pellets.
Privacy engineering, as an emerging field of research and practice, comprises the technical capabilities and management processes needed to implement, deploy, and operate privacy features and controls in working systems. For that, software practitioners and other stakeholders in software companies need to work cooperatively toward building privacy-preserving businesses and engineering solutions. Significant research has been done to understand the software practitioners' perceptions of information privacy, but more emphasis should be given to the uptake of concrete privacy engineering components. This research delves into the software practitioners' perspectives and mindset, organisational aspects, and current practices on privacy and its engineering processes. A total of 30 practitioners from nine countries and backgrounds were interviewed, sharing their experiences and voicing their opinions on a broad range of privacy topics. The thematic analysis methodology was adopted to code the interview data qualitatively and construct a rich and nuanced thematic framework. As a result, we identified three critical interconnected themes that compose our thematic framework for privacy engineering “in the wild”: (1) personal privacy mindset and stance, categorised into practitioners' privacy knowledge, attitudes and behaviours; (2) organisational privacy aspects, such as decision-power and positive and negative examples of privacy climate; and, (3) privacy engineering practices, such as procedures and controls concretely used in the industry. Among the main findings, this study provides many insights about the state-of-the-practice of privacy engineering, pointing to a positive influence of privacy laws (e.g., EU General Data Protection Regulation) on practitioners' behaviours and organisations' cultures. Aspects such as organisational privacy culture and climate were also confirmed to have a powerful influence on the practitioners' privacy behaviours. A conducive environment for privacy engineering needs to be created, aligning the privacy values of practitioners and their organisations, with particular attention to the leaders and top management's commitment to privacy. Organisations can also facilitate education and awareness training for software practitioners on existing privacy engineering theories, methods and tools that have already been proven effective.
Objective: To investigate individual effects of a three-week sleep robot intervention in adults with ADHD and insomnia, and to explore participants' experiences with the intervention. Methods: A proof-of-concept study with a mixed-methods design (n = 6, female = 4) where a repeated ABA single-case study was combined with interviews. Data were collected with the Consensus Sleep Diary, wrist actigraphy, questionnaires on symptoms of insomnia, arousal, emotional distress, and ADHD, and through individual interviews. Results: Visual analysis of the sleep diary and actigraphy variables did not support any effects from the robot intervention. Half of participants reported clinically relevant reductions on the Insomnia Severity Index from pre- to post-intervention. No changes regarding ADHD or arousal. Thematic analysis of the interviews resulted in three themes: (1) A pleasant companion, (2) Too much/not enough, and (3) A new routine. Conclusion: Adjustments of the intervention ought to be made to match the needs of patients with both ADHD and insomnia before the next trial is conducted.
Objectives Chronic pain is often associated with lower function. Self-criticism is associated with depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore if fusing acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and compassion focused therapy (CFT), could improve psychological wellbeing and disability in chronic pain patients with high levels of self-criticism in comparison to a wait-list control group. Methods Individuals with chronic pain (n=71) were randomly assigned to an 8-week internet-based intervention focused on acceptance and compassion or a wait-list condition. Primary treatment outcomes were Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale, and Pain Disability Index. Secondary outcomes were Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Quality of Life Inventory, Multidimensional Pain Inventory and Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire. Results Missing data at post-intervention was 22.5%. Intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted using linear mixed-models. Results revealed greater levels of acceptance and self-compassion for the treatment group, which were primary outcomes, with effect sizes ranging from small to large and these results were maintained at six-month follow-up. Rates of clinically significant improvements were also greater for the treatment group in comparison to the wait-list control group on acceptance and compassion. The treatment group also improved in the third primary outcome, pain disability. Significant differences were found in several of the secondary outcomes, in favour for the treatment group. Discussion Internet-based ACT with CFT components shows promise as a viable treatment option in the management of chronic pain.
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Sergej Moroz
  • Department of Engineering and Physics
Andrea C. Schalley
  • Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies
Niclas Bernhoff
  • Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
Bestoun S. Ahmed
  • Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
Elsy Athlin
  • Department of Health Sciences
Karlstad, Sweden