Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
  • Graz, Styria, Austria
Recent publications
Agent-based modelling is a powerful tool when simulating human systems, yet when human behaviour cannot be described by simple rules or maximizing one’s own profit, we quickly reach the limits of this methodology. Machine learning has the potential to bridge this gap by providing a link between what people observe and how they act in order to reach their goal. In this paper we use a framework for agent-based modelling that utilizes human values like fairness, conformity and altruism. Using this framework we simulate a public goods game and compare to experimental results. We can report good agreement between simulation and experiment and furthermore find that the presented framework outperforms strict reinforcement learning. Both the framework and the utility function are generic enough that they can be used for arbitrary systems, which makes this method a promising candidate for a foundation of a universal agent-based model.
The small ribosomal subunit protein Rps15/uS19 is involved in early nucleolar ribosome biogenesis and subsequent nuclear export of pre-40S particles to the cytoplasm. In addition, the C-terminal tail of Rps15 was suggested to play a role in mature ribosomes, namely during translation elongation. Here, we show that Rps15 not only functions in nucleolar ribosome assembly but also in cytoplasmic pre-40S maturation, which is indicated by a strong genetic interaction between Rps15 and the 40S assembly factor Ltv1. Specifically, mutations either in the globular or C-terminal domain of Rps15 when combined with the non-essential ltv1 null allele are lethal or display a strong growth defect. However, not only rps15 ltv1 double mutants but also single rps15 C-terminal deletion mutants exhibit an accumulation of the 20S pre-rRNA in the cytoplasm, indicative of a cytoplasmic pre-40S maturation defect. Since in pre-40S particles, the C-terminal tail of Rps15 is positioned between assembly factors Rio2 and Tsr1, we further tested whether Tsr1 is genetically linked to Rps15, which indeed could be demonstrated. Thus, the integrity of the Rps15 C-terminal tail plays an important role during late pre-40S maturation, perhaps in a quality control step to ensure that only 40S ribosomal subunits with functional Rps15 C-terminal tail can efficiently enter translation. As mutations in the C-terminal tail of human RPS15 have been observed in connection with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, it is possible that apart from defects in translation, an impaired late pre-40S maturation step in the cytoplasm could also be a reason for this disease.
Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves the synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and its stepwise folding into the unique structure present in mature ribosomes. rRNA folding starts already co-transcriptionally in the nucleolus and continues when pre-ribosomal particles further maturate in the nucleolus and upon their transit to the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. While the approximate order of folding of rRNA subdomains is known, especially from cryo-EM structures of pre-ribosomal particles, the actual mechanisms of rRNA folding are less well understood. Both small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and proteins have been implicated in rRNA folding. snoRNAs hybridize to precursor rRNAs (pre-rRNAs) and thereby prevent premature folding of the respective rRNA elements. Ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and ribosome assembly factors might have a similar function by binding to rRNA elements and preventing their premature folding. Besides that, a small group of ribosome assembly factors are thought to play a more active role in rRNA folding. In particular, multiple RNA helicases participate in individual ribosome assembly steps, where they are believed to coordinate RNA folding/unfolding events or the release of proteins from the rRNA. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on mechanisms of RNA folding and on the specific function of the individual RNA helicases involved. As the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the organism in which ribosome biogenesis and the role of RNA helicases in this process is best studied, we focused our review on insights from this model organism, but also make comparisons to other organisms where applicable.
Background Sex-biased dispersal is a common and widespread phenomenon that can fundamentally shape the genetic structure of the social environments in which animals live. For animals that live in and move between social groups, sex-biased dispersal can result in an asymmetry in the degree of relatedness among cohabiting males and females, which can have strong implications for their social evolution. In this study, we measured the relatedness structure within and across groups of a wild population of Neolamprologus multifasciatus , a highly-social, shell-dwelling cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. In total, we genotyped 812 fish from 128 social groups at 20 microsatellite loci. Neolamprologus multifasciatus live at high densities, and also experience strong ecological constraints on free movement throughout their habitat. At the same time, they exhibit sex differences in the degree of reproductive competition within their groups and this makes them an excellent model system for studying the factors associated with sex-biased dispersal. Results Social groups of N. multifasciatus consist of multiple males and females living together. We found that cohabiting females were unrelated to one another (Lynch-Ritland estimates of relatedness = 0.045 ± 0.15, average ± SD), while males shared much higher, albeit variable, levels of relatedness to other males in their groups (0.23 ± 0.27). We uncovered a pronounced decline in relatedness between males living in separate groups as the spatial separation between them increased, a pattern that was not evident in females. Female dispersal was also markedly constrained by the distribution and availability of nearby territories to which they could emigrate. Conclusions Our results indicate female-biased dispersal in N. multifasciatus. Our study also highlights how the spatial distribution of suitable dispersal destinations can influence the movement decisions of animals. We also emphasize how sex-biased dispersal can influence the relatedness structure of the social environment in which individuals interact and compete with one another.
Background Physical activity is a health-relevant lifestyle factor associated with various benefits on physical and mental health. Several meta-analyses indicated effects of acute and chronic physical activities on elementary cognitive functions such as executive control processes, memory, and attention. Meta-analytic evidence on the effects of physical activity on creative idea generation, which involves a conglomerate of these elementary cognitive functions, is largely missing. Objective A twofold approach was used to evaluate (1) if there is an association between habitual physical activity and creative ideation and (2) if physical activity interventions (acute and chronic) enhance creative ideation performance. Methods Multilevel meta-analytic methods were applied to (1) evaluate the cross-sectional association between creative ideation performance and measures of habitual physical activity and (2) the effect of physical activity on creative ideation performance. Indicators of creative ideation (fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, or composite score), creativity domain (verbal, figural), population (adults, children), gender, study quality, and publication year served as moderator variables for both meta-analyses. Analyses of intervention studies additionally examined the moderator variables study design (between, within), time of measurement (during, after), and implementation of intervention (acute, chronic). Results The applied meta-analytic multilevel analysis indicated a medium effect for cross-sectional studies ( r = 0.22, SE = 0.06, p = 0.002, 95% CI [0.10–0.34]) based on 17 effects sizes from seven studies. The pooled effects of 28 intervention studies, providing 115 effect sizes, indicated a medium effect size of Hedges’ g = 0.47 (SE = 0.09, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.30–0.65]). Furthermore, a stronger effect was observed for chronic interventions of several days or weeks in comparison with acute interventions of one single bout. Conclusion This study adds important new meta-analytic evidence on the beneficial role of physical activity beyond mental and physical health outcomes: Physical activity has a positive impact on creative ideation, which expands the literature on the role of physical activity in more elementary cognitive functions such as executive control, memory, and attention. Moderator analyses suggested that chronic interventions showed stronger effects than single bouts of physical activity. Rigorously conducted randomized controlled intervention studies and more cross-sectional studies are needed to broaden the evidence in this nascent field of research.
Background Sustainable production and consumption are two important issues, which mutually interact. Whereas individuals have little direct influence on the former, they can play a key role on the latter. This paper describes the subject matter of sustainable consumption and outlines its key features. It also describes some international initiatives in this field. Results By means of an international survey, the study explores the emphasis given to sustainable consumption during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the degree of preparedness in individuals to engage in the purchase of green and sustainably manufactured products. The main results indicate that the pandemic offered an opportunity to promote sustainable consumption; nevertheless, the pandemic alone cannot be regarded as a ‘game changer’ in this topic. Conclusions Apart from an online survey with responses from 31 countries, which makes it one of the most representative studies on the topic, a logit model was used to analyse the main variables that affect the probability of pro-environmental consumption behaviour because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper lists some of the technological and social innovations that may be needed, so as to guide more sustainable consumption patterns in a post-pandemic world.
Background Flexibility is an important component of physical fitness for competitive and recreational athletes. It is generally suggested that flexibility training should start from childhood (6–11 years of age) to optimize joint range of motion (ROM) increases; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent. Objective To examine whether there is a difference in the effect of stretching training on flexibility during childhood (6–11 years of age) and adolescence (12–18 years of age). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched PubMed Central, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and SPORTDiscus, to conduct this systematic review. Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials were eligible. No language and date of publication restrictions were applied. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane RoB2 and ROBINS-I tools. Meta-analyses were conducted via an inverse variance random-effects model. GRADE analysis was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Results From the 2713 records retrieved 28 studies were included in the meta-analysis ( n = 1936 participants). Risk of bias was low in 56.9% of all criteria. Confidence in cumulative evidence was moderate. We found that stretching was effective in increasing ROM in both children (SMD = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.77–1.41; Z = 6.65; p < 0.001; I ² = 79%) and adolescents (SMD = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.70–1.10; Z = 8.88; p < 0.001; I ² = 81%), with no differences between children and adolescents in ROM improvements ( p = 0.32; I ² = 0%). However, when stretching volume load was considered, children exhibited greater increases in ROM with higher than lower stretching volumes (SMD = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.82–1.60; Z = 6.09; p < 0.001; I ² = 82% and SMD = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.29–0.95; Z = 3.65; p < 0.001; I ² = 0%, respectively; subgroup difference: p = 0.02; I ² = 80.5%), while adolescents responded equally to higher and lower stretching volume loads (SMD = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.47–1.33; Z = 4.08; p < 0.001; I ² = 83%, and SMD = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.69–1.12; Z = 8.18; p < 0.001; I ² = 79%, respectively; subgroup difference: p = 0.98; I ² = 0%). Conclusions Systematic stretching training increases ROM during both childhood and adolescence. However, larger ROM gains may be induced in childhood than in adolescence when higher stretching volume loads are applied, while adolescents respond equally to high and low stretching volume loads. Registration: INPLASY, registration number: INPLASY202190032; https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2021-9-0032/
Monitoring carnivore populations requires sensitive and trustworthy assessment methods to make reasonable and effective management decisions. The Eurasian fish otter Lutra lutra experienced a dramatic population decline throughout Europe during the twentieth century but is currently recovering in both distribution range and population size. In Austria, most assessments on otter distribution have applied a modified version of the so-called “British” or “standard” method utilizing point-wise surveys for otter spraints at predefined monitoring bridges. In this study, we synthesize several recent statewide assessments to compile the current otter distribution in Austria and evaluate the efficiency and sensitivity of the “monitoring bridge” approach in comparison to the “standard” method. The otter shows an almost comprehensive distribution throughout eastern and central Austria, while more western areas (Tyrol and Vorarlberg) are only partially inhabited, likely due to a still ongoing westward expansion. Furthermore, the bridge monitoring method utilizing presence/absence information on otter spraints reveals itself to be a time- and cost- effective monitoring tool with a tolerable loss of sensitivity for large-scale otter distribution assessments. Count data of spraints seem to be prone to observer bias or environmental influences like weather or flooding events making them less suitable for quantitative analyses.
Although recent circular economy literature has emphasized the strategic role played by circular product design in private sector organizations, strategic management literature has so far overlooked the management implications of integrating circular economy strategies into new or existing products. As a result, the implementation of circular product design in private sector organizations remains unclear. The present paper aims to describe the managerial factors necessary for the implementation of value retention strategies during design and to designate a range of conditions under which each factor may arise. Examples of implementation processes (n = 24) were collected via expert interviews and compiled within a comprehensive framework based on general morphological analysis. Hence, implementation processes are represented as a combination of a limited number of process conditions. The framework is also used to describe a taxonomy of process configurations using hierarchical clustering, which indicates a strong influence of corporate sustainability maturity profiles in the implementation configurations observed. The contents of the present work help bridge the gap between strategic management and circular product design literature by providing the building blocks necessary for the integration of value-retention strategies during product planning and development.
Due to ongoing technological innovations, self-enhancement methods are publicly discussed, researched from different perspectives, and part of ethical debates. However, only few studies investigated the acceptance of these methods and its relationship with personality traits and values. The present study investigated to what extent people accept different enhancement methods and whether acceptance can be predicted by Big Five and Dark Triad traits, vulnerable narcissism, and values. In an online survey ( N = 450), we measured personality traits and values. Additionally, participants read scenarios about enhancement methods and answered questions about their acceptance of these scenarios. Factor analysis indicated a general factor of acceptance across scenarios. Correlation analyses showed that high agreeableness, agreeableness-compassion, conscientiousness, conscientiousness-industriousness, and conservation- and self-transcendence values are related to less acceptance of self-enhancement. Moreover, individuals high on Dark Triad traits, vulnerable narcissism, and self-enhancement values exhibit more acceptance. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that said values and Big Five traits explained unique variance in the acceptance of self-enhancement. These findings highlight the importance of considering personality and values when investigating self-enhancement—a topic that is receiving increasing attention by the public, politicians, and scientists.
This is the protocol for a Campbell systematic review. The objectives are as follows: (a) to quantify the effect sizes for virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD), targeting primary social anxiety symptoms, comorbid anxiety and depression symptoms and improvements in quality of life, when compared to WL, information control, care‐as‐usual and placebo; (b) to compare VRET to in vivo cognitive and cognitive‐behavioral interventions in treating SAD, at posttest and follow‐up, using between‐group design; (c) to identify the key features which are linked to beneficial outcomes in the two formats in treating SAD and (d) to collect and interpret information on differences in treatment uptake, adherence and attrition, as well as clinical significance and therapist‐time in both treatment formats.
Educators and researchers have been struggling for decades to isolate and measure the factors that contribute to science career decisions. However, there are limited instruments available to measure these factors, particularly across different educational levels. This study describes the adaptation and characteristics of the middle school NextGen Scientist Survey as an assessment for elementary students. Internal validity of the survey was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Also, measurement invariance between the surveys for middle school and elementary students and across gender was examined. Confirmatory factor analyses found a 5-factor solution for both surveys. Partial scalar invariance across elementary and middle school students could be confirmed, i.e., the factor means can be compared across groups. Furthermore, full scalar invariance can be assumed for gender. Altogether, the NextGen Scientist Survey is a valid assessment that can be used across elementary and middle school educational levels.
Water is an essential ingredient in transforming primitive mantle-derived (mafic) rocks into buoyant (felsic) continental crust, thereby driving the irreversible differentiation of Earth's lithosphere. The occurrence in Archaean cratons of sodic granites of the tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) series, high-MgO variolitic basalts, high-Mg diorites (sanukitoids) and diamonds with harzburgitic inclusion assemblages, all require the presence of hydrous fluids in Earth's deep crust and upper (lithospheric) mantle since at least the Paleoarchaean (3.6–3.2 billion years ago). However, despite its importance, where and how water was stored in Archaean crust, and how some water was transported into the upper mantle, are poorly understood. Here, we investigate Archaean crustal fluid budgets through calculated phase equilibria for three protolith compositions — a low-MgO mafic (basaltic) composition, a high-MgO (picritic) composition and an ultrahigh-MgO ultramafic (komatiitic) composition — that are representative of mafic to ultramafic magmatic rocks in Archaean greenstone belts. We show that the mode and stability of hydrous minerals, in particular chlorite, is positively correlated with protolith MgO content, such that high-MgO basalts can store up to twice the amount of crystal-bound H2O than low-MgO basalts. Importantly, ultrahigh-MgO rocks such as komatiite can store four times as much H2O, most of which is retained until temperatures exceeding 700 °C. Warmer geotherms in the early Archaean favoured dehydration of hydrated high-MgO and ultramafic rocks in the deep crust, leading to hydration and/or fluid-fluxed melting of overlying basaltic rocks to produce ‘high-pressure’ TTG magmas. Burial of Archaean mafic–ultramafic crust along cooler geotherms resulted in dehydration of ultramafic material within the lithospheric mantle, providing the source of enriched Archaean basalt that was parental to large volumes of ancient TTG-dominated continental crust.
We apply regular arrays of plasmonic nanodisks to enhance light emission from an organic white light-emitting diode (WOLED). To achieve broadband enhancement, we apply, first, aluminum as a nanodisk material with moderate loss throughout the whole visible spectral range. Second, broadband light coupling is mediated by surface lattice resonances from a multipitch array built from two superimposed gratings with different grating constants formed by elliptic and circular nanodisks. To demonstrate the viability of this concept, the grating structure was embedded in the hole transport layer of a solution-processed phosphorescent WOLED exhibiting a current efficiency of 2.1 cd/A at 1000 cd/m ² . The surface lattice resonances in the grating raise the current efficiency of the device by 23% to 2.6 cd/A at 1000 cd/m ² , while the device emission changes from a neutral white to a warm white appearance with CIE1931 (x,y) coordinates of (0.361, 0.352) and (0.404, 0.351), respectively. The WOLED was characterized in detail optically by extinction and angle-resolved photoluminescence and as well by electroluminescence measurements for its opto-electronic characteristics. The experimental results agree well with finite-difference time domain simulations that aim at a better understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms. In summary, our work presents a novel versatile approach for achieving broadband enhancement of light emission in WOLEDs over a wide spectral range.
Efficient chemoenzymatic routes toward the synthesis of both enantiomers of adrenergic b-blockers were accomplished by identifying a central chiral building block, which was first prepared using lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution (KR, Amano PS-IM) as the asymmetric step at a five gram-scale (209 mM conc.). The enantiopure (R)-chlorohydrin (>99% ee) subsequently obtained was used for the synthesis of a series of model (R)-(+)-b-blockers (i.e., propranolol, alprenolol, pindolol, carazolol, moprolol, and metoprolol), which were produced with enantiomeric excess in the range of 96-99.9%. The pharmaceutically relevant (S)-counterpart, taking propranolol as a model, was synthesized in excellent enantiomeric purity (99% ee) via acetolysis of the respective enantiomerically pure (R)-mesylate by using cesium acetate and a catalytic amount of 18-Crown-6, followed by acidic hydrolysis of the formed (S)-acetate. Alternatively, asymmetric reduction of a prochiral ketone, namely 2-(3-chloro-2-oxopropyl)-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione, was performed using lyophilized E. coli cells harboring overexpressed recombinant alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus kefir (E. coli/Lk-ADH-Lica) giving the corresponding chlorohydrin with >99% ee. Setting the stereocenter early in the synthesis and performing a 4-step reaction sequence in a 'one-pot two-step' procedure allowed the design of a 'step-economic' route with a potential dramatic improvement in process efficiency. The synthetic method can serve for the preparation of a broad scope of enantiomerically enriched b-blockers, the chemical structures of which rely on the common a-hydroxy-N-isopropylamine moiety, and in this sense, might be industrially attractive.
The effects of mental fatigue have been studied in relation to specific percentages of maximal aerobic or anaerobic efforts, maximal voluntary contractions or the performance of sport specific skills. However, its effects on tremor, dexterity and force steadiness have been only marginally explored. The present work aimed at filling this gap. In twenty-nine young individuals, measurement of postural, kinetic and isometric tremor, pinch force steadiness and finger and hand dexterity were performed before and after either 100 min of mental fatigue or control tasks. During the interventions blood pressure, oxygen saturation and heart rate and perceived effort in continuing the task were recorded every 10 minutes. Tremor was analysed in both time (standard deviation) and frequency domain (position, amplitude and area of the dominant peak) of the acceleration signal. Finger dexterity was assessed by Purdue pegboard test and hand dexterity in terms of contact time in a buzz wire exercise. Force steadiness was quantified as coefficient of variation of the force signal. Postural, kinetic and isometric tremors, force steadiness and dexterity were not affected. Higher oxygen saturation values and higher variability of heart rate and blood pressure were found in the intervention group during the mental fatigue protocol (p < .001). The results provide no evidence that mental fatigue affects the neuromuscular parameters that influence postural, kinetic or isometric tremor, force steadiness and dexterity when measured in single-task conditions. Increased variability in heart rate may suggest that the volunteers in the intervention group altered their alert/stress state. Therefore, it is possible that the alterations that are commonly observed during mental fatigue, and that could have affected tremor, steadiness and dexterity only last for the duration of the cognitive task and are not detectable anymore soon after the mental task is terminated.
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8,399 members
Martina Schweiger
  • Institute of Molecular Biosciences
Siegfried J. Bauer
  • Department of Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology/Institute of Physics
Friedrich M. Zimmermann
  • Department of Geography and Regional Sciences
Christian Promitzer
  • Department of History
Erich Weichselgartner
  • Cognitive Science Section Psychology
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