Background: Acute ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and mortality globally, with increasing incidence in Africa, as the continent is already burdened with infectious diseases. Rapid diagnosis and efficient treatment are crucial, as even a slight delay to reperfuse the brain significantly affects the recovery outcome. Neuroimaging is vital for optimal care and thrombolytic or endovascular therapy in specialised stroke care units. This review aims to discuss the burden of acute ischemic stroke in Africa and how healthcare systems have tried to reduce the incidence and improve outcomes for the disease. Methodology: Data was collected from online databases and medical journal published on PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, ScienceDirect and Embase bibliographical data. All articles related to acute ischemic stroke in Africa were considered. Results: The medical care for acute ischemic stroke in Africa is far from optimal with little adherence to recommended protocols. There is a lack of public awareness of the disease, imaging infrastructure, personnel, stroke care units and recovery facilities, due to poor funding. Poor knowledge of stroke signs and symptoms results in delay in treatment and poor prognosis. Conclusion: We urge African leaders and private entities to invest in stroke care by building appropriate infrastructures, providing medical equipments, implementing guidelines, and sustainable follow-up systems. Telehealth is a suggested strategy to mitigate the scarcity of health personnel, and international and national efforts to increase treatment affordability should be doubled. Further extensive research on the impact of acute ischemic stroke on the African continent population is encouraged.
In this study, we found that patients with hypoparathyroidism had a problem with calcium medication compliance, and this problem increased with the duration of the disease. We also showed that patients are concerned about the possible side effects of drugs. Introduction: In this study, we aimed to evaluate adherence to active vitamin D and calcium replacement in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism. Methods: To elucidate the medication adherence, we performed a questionnaire survey using the six-item "Medication adherence questionnaire"(MAQ). The first, second, and sixth questions reflect the motivation status of the patients whereas the third, fourth, and fifth questions reflect the knowledge about the medication that is received. The responses are scored and patients are classified regarding their motivation to and knowledge about the particular drug. Results: Totally, 64 patients (male: 12/female: 52; mean age 48.6±11.6 years) who had post-operative hypoparathyroidism were included in our study. Median disease durance was 60 months (min-max: 12-295 months). We found that motivation score of calcium usage was significantly lower compared to vitamin D usage (p<0.001). The calcium motivation score was reversely correlated with disease duration (r= -0.256 and p=0.046). The most common worry about calcium usage was nephrotoxicity, and the most common worries about calcitriol treatment were kidney damage and polyuria. One-third of the patients were taking oral calcium and calcitriol less than the recommended dose. Conclusion: One-third of patients lack motivation to use calcium whereas half of the patients experiences anxiety about drug-related side effects. This is a preliminary study showing that vital calcium and active vitamin D intake may be interrupted due to side effect anxiety.
The study explores the role of the COVID-19 pandemic on foreign direct investment in 12 emerging countries for the period between 2014 and 2021. The world pandemic uncertainty index is used, and panel quantile regression approach is employed to analyze the effect of the pandemic on foreign investment inflows. Unlike the conditional mean regression analysis, panel quantile regression gauges the independent variables at the different locations of the dependent variable. For this reason, it provides a more comprehensive illustration of the impact of the independent variables on dependent variables. The results show that the pandemic has an inverse effect on foreign direct investment in low- and middle-foreign investment receiving countries, while the effect is insignificant in high-foreign investment receiving countries. Apparently, the health crisis has been further harmful to the countries that have weaker economic structures.
The aim of the study was to identify Pseudoalteromonas strain OS-9 and evaluate its anti-Vibrio potential. Based on the morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strain was identified as Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. Experiments designed with Box Behnken showed that cell density and cell-free supernatant activity were simultaneously maximum at 30°C, pH 7, and 90 h. The coefficient values obtained from the response surface methodology regression equations determined that pH was more effective on responses than other physical variables. The cell-free supernatant of P. haloplanktis OS-9 extracted under optimized conditions was only effective on Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacteria and especially on Vibrio. Among Vibrio spp., the strongest inhibitory effect was observed against V. rotiferianus. At the maximum cell density (10.48 OD), the strain OS-9 showed the maximum inhibitory effect against V. rotiferianus (26.42 mm zone diameter). In coculture assay, the growth of V. rotiferianus was inhibited after 96 h with an initial level of 1.0 × 106 CFU ml-1 by the strain OS-9. These results indicated that P. haloplanktis strain OS-9 could be considered as a potential Vibrio bio-controlling agent.
Plastics manufactured to fulfil the unique demands of civilization accumulate in the sea due to their durability. Microplastics (MP) pose a greater threat than macroplastics as they can easily enter the aquatic environment and be hard to detect. MPs potentially impact several components of the marine life and food chain. This study determined MP distribution and characterization by collecting sediment from 47 different stations and surface seawater (SSW) from 29 stations in 2019 along the Turkish coast of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Potential MP particles were stained with Nile-Red and verified using ATR-FTIR. While MP abundance in the sediment ranged between 118±97 and 1688±746 MPs kg-1, it varied between 0.18±0.10 MPs m-3 and 2.21±1.75 MPs m-3 in SSW. The MP abundance showed significant spatial variation (p<0.05). The polymer type in the samples was determined by ATR-FTIR. In both water and sediments, polyethylene was the most common MP type (>59%), while fragment was the most common MP form (>57.6%), and more than 65% of overall MPs were less than 1500 µm. The spatial pattern of MPs in the sediments and SSW was affected by the population, the magnitude of the tourism sector, the rim current, and circulation. The monitoring data presented here can provide a remarkable projection of the current trend and form a basis for future MP pollution prevention.
Wildfire is a key ecological event that alters vegetation and soil quality attributes including biochemical attributes at spatial scale. This knowledge can provide insights into the development of better rehabilitation or restoration strategies that depend on the ecological dynamics of vegetation, fungi, and animals. The present study aimed to understand the causes and consequences of spatial variability of soil organic carbon, microbial biomass C concentrations, and soil quality indices as impacted by wildfire in a red pine forest. This study was conducted using kriging and inverse distance neighborhood similarity (IDW) interpolations methods. The carbon stocks were significantly (P = 0.002) higher in burned areas compared to those of unburned areas by 255% whereas microbial biomass carbon and microbial respiration were significantly (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.02) lower in burned areas by 66% and 90%, The Pearson's correlation analysis showed that carbon stocks were positively correlated with pH (0.61), total nitrogen (0.60) and ash quantity (0.41), but negatively correlated with microbial biomass carbon (− 0.46) and nitrogen (− 0.61), and microbial respiration (− 0.48). The IDW interpolation method better-predicted pH, bulk density, and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen compared to kriging interpolation, whereas the kriging interpolation method was better than IDW interpolation for the other studied soil properties. We concluded that pH, EC, SOC, C/N, MR, MBC/SOC, and MBC/MBN can be reliable indicators to monitor the effect of wildfire on forest soils. The wildfire event increased soil carbon stocks, TN, pH, and q CO 2 , but decreased MBC and MBN.
In this study, the impacts of ZnCl2 and CdCl2 treatments on the structural and optical properties of ZnS/CdS bilayers and on the parameters of CdTe solar cells with ZnS/CdS junction partners were investigated. CdS and ZnS thin films were grown by chemical bath deposition. In the as deposited ZnS/CdS sample, hexagonal CdS and Zn(S,O) phases were formed. After the application of CdCl2 treatment to the sample, ZnO and CdZnS alloys also appeared. In the ZnCl2 treated bilayer, it was observed that the crystal structure of the CdZnS alloy changed from hexagonal to cubic phase. While similar grain structure was observed in the as deposited and the ZnCl2 treated samples; it was seen that CdCl2 treatment significantly affected the grain form and size. CdCl2 treatment resulted in a large increase of Cd-ratio and a more balanced increase Zn-ratio in ZnCl2 treatment. It was determined that ZnCl2 and CdCl2 treatments caused a decrease in the transmittance of the samples. PL spectroscopy revealed the presence of many structural defects such as interstitial zinc, sulfur vacancies, surface states, cadmium vacancies in all bilayer samples. Solar cells with ZnS/CdS, ZnS/CdS (CdCl2-treated) and ZnS/CdS (ZnCl2-treated) junction partners achieved efficiencies of 4.56%, 5.64% and 5.20%, respectively. Solar cell parameters showed that ZnCl2 treatment increased the FF value, while CdCl2 treatment improved the Voc value. An efficiency of 6.01% was obtained from the ZnS/CdS (CdCl2-treated)/CdTe/CdCl2 cell produced by obtaining the highest efficiency with the ZnS/CdS/CdCl2 junction partner. This cell revealed that applying CdCl2 treatment on CdTe significantly increased Voc and Jsc while deteriorating FF.
The fluids added nanoparticle known as nanofluids, are used in various heat transfer systems due to some advantages they provide. The most prominent features are improvement in heat conduction and classical fluid is being replaced with working fluid in micro-channels, heating installations and various other areas where heat transfer is important. In the present study, the hydrodynamic and thermal performance of a plate heat exchanger in a modeled heating system with CuO nanofluid have been analyzed experimentally. The system consists of two basic parts as cooling water circuit and heating main circuit in which CuO nanofluid circulates. The experiments have been conducted at three different flow rate for the nanofluids with volume fractions of 0.27, 0.56, 0.81 and 1.1. The hydrodynamic parameters considered in the study are pumping power and pressure drop, while the thermal parameters are effectiveness of the heat exchanger, heat conduction coefficient and Nu number. The results of the study show that the plate heat exchanger takes the highest value of effectiveness 96% at ϕ = 0.81 in the plate heat exchanger. It has also been determined that the heat convection coefficient increased with the increase in nanopowder mixture ratio in accordance with the data in the literature. In addition, a new correlation for Nusselt number of Nu = 11.3453 ∗ Re0.199194 ∗ Pr0.305504 ∗ ϕ0.00965827 has been proposed for CuO nanofluid including volume fraction (ϕ) as well as Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.
This paper thoroughly reviews the development and characterization of carbon-based form stable organic phase change materials (FS-OPCMs) for latent heat storage applications. The O-PCMs such as paraffin, fatty acids, polyethylene glycols (PEGs), etc., suffer from poor thermal conductivity and flow ability in their molten state, which restricts their many applications. Carbon-based materials are seen as a promising and viable way to overcome these challenges. They have a very high thermal conductivity and can hold liquid phase change materials (PCMs) in their pores. This review provides comprehensive coverage of the carbon structures and their classifications, including carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon nanofiber (CNF), expanded graphite (EG), graphene, graphene oxide (GO), carbonized industrial solid wastes, and other carbon-based materials that can be used as supporting porous materials in developing FS-OPCMs for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. In addition, the thermal and chemical performance of carbon-based FS-OPCMs is extensively investigated and given. The applications of such composites are also discussed and summarized. Finally, the potential of these materials for thermal energy storage is presented. This review provides an in-depth insight into the potential of carbon-based materials for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES).
In this study, an integrated bi-objective objective U-shaped assembly line balancing and parts feeding problem is explored by considering the heterogeneity inherent of workers. An optimization model is developed to formulate the addressed problem. Since the problem includes two different objectives, namely the minimizing the operational cost and maximum workload imbalance, the Pareto-optimal solutions are found by employing the second version of the augmented ε-constrained (AUGMECON2) method. To investigate the impact of qualification of workers on the system performance, a set of scenarios is constructed based on the worker skill levels. Each scenario is determined based on the nature of the worker pool in which workers are assigned to the stations. The optimization model and implemented method are validated through data taken from water-meter and elevator producers. The computational results reveal that the scenarios have a great impact on system performance. In particular, it is revealed that as the skill levels of workers increases, the quality of the Pareto-optimal solutions increase by up to 30% in terms of the comparison metrics. Therefore, an order release mechanism and worker training activities are suggested to be performed to enhance system performance.
This study demonstrated the effects of image brightness on brain activity in neuroscience research, in which the brightness of emotional images had not been taken into account. Electroencephalography recordings from 14 electrode sites of 31 healthy participants were examined during the presentation of original and bright versions of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant images. Power spectra of the recordings were obtained using the short time Fourier transform. The features were extracted from the power spectra for specific time–frequency windows and data obtained from features were classified using support vector machine (SVM), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) algorithms between the original and bright groups for three emotional contents. New features were created with feature combinations providing high classification accuracy. The data obtained from new features were reclassified using SVM, PLSR, k-NN and voting methods between the original and bright groups for three emotional contents. The classification results revealed that the datasets obtained for the original and bright versions of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant images could be separated with 71–81% accuracy. The brightness effect occurred predominantly in the frontal and central regions. This effect was observed in the early time window of visual processing for pleasant and unpleasant images, and in the late time window for neutral images. The findings emphasize that image brightness of affects the power of brain activity and therefore, is an important parameter to be considered in neuroscience research.
The Bouguer gravity data of this study were obtained from the World Gravity Map (WGM 2012) to investigate the sediment thickness beneath the basin of the Tuz Gölü. First of all, the average depths of the intra-sediment intermediate layers and sediment lower boundary topographies of the study area were calculated by taking the amplitude spectrum of gravity anomaly data of the study area. The total horizontal derivative method was used to reveal the discontinuities below the sediment and at the top of the basement. This method was applied to the gravity data caused by the basement units obtained by filtering the gravity anomaly data. Lineaments consisting of high-amplitude values are taken into account in the total horizontal derivative anomaly map to display the discontinuity boundaries at the desired depths. Within the scope of this study carried out in the research area, new discontinuity boundaries were determined. On the other hand, the basement upper surface topography of the study area, namely the sediment lower boundary topography, was mapped using the Parker–Oldenburg inversion algorithm. The accuracy of the depth values calculated by the inverse solution was tested by applying the Normalized Full Gradient (NFG) method to the two specified profiles. The results obtained with these two depth determination methods were approximately similar. Thus, the sediment thickness found using both methods was found to be in the range of 4–10.5 km. Therefore, the sediment thickness calculated from the inverse solution and NFG methods is compatible with each other within the error limits of ± 0.1 km under these two profiles.
Ethnopharmacological relevance The genus Prunella L. (Lamiaceae) is represented by nine species in the world and four species in Turkey. The infusion prepared from the aerial parts of Prunella vulgaris L. is used internally for abdominal pain and as an expectorant, the decoction prepared from all parts is used internally or externally as a wound healing. Aim of the study This study aims to investigate the wound healing potential of Prunella vulgaris L. on the scientific platform. Material and methods The aerial parts of the plant were extracted with 80% methanol. The resulting aqueous methanol extract was partitioned with n-hexane and ethyl acetate, and sub-extracts were obtained. The wound healing effects of the methanol extract and sub-extracts were studied in mice and rats using linear incision and circular excision wound models, and the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using acetic acid-induced capillary permeability test. Isolation studies were performed using the ethyl acetate sub-extract, which exhibited the highest activity. Results Using various chromatographic methods, 6 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate sub-extract. The structures of the compounds were identified as methyl arginolate, ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, methyl 3-epimaclinate, and ethyl rosmarinate by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, 2D-NMR, MS). The wound healing mechanisms of the pure compounds were investigated by performing assays to inhibit the enzymes hyaluronidase, collagenase, and elastase. Ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid were found to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects. Conclusion The experimental study revealed that Prunella vulgaris showed significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities.
Background and purpose Pain experiences in childhood are very likely to be reflected in adulthood. The early evaluation of the concept of pain in children may eventually lead to. better patient outcomes in the future. Therefore, we aimed to culturally and developmentally adapt the Concept of Pain Inventory for Children (COPI) for Turkish children. Methods This descriptive, correlational study was conducted with 239 post-operative children aged 8–12 years between June and December 2021. The research adhered to COSMIN guidelines. The data were collected using a descriptive information form and the COPI. Factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and item–total score analysis were used for the data analysis. Results The resulting unidimensional scale consists of 12 items in Turkish. The scale explained 65% of the total variance. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of items ranged from 0.64 to 0.91. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of items ranged from 0.66 to 0.92. Goodness of fit indexes were found to be as follows: Normed Fit Index >0.90; Incremental Fit Index >0.90; Comparative Fit Index >0.90; and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation <0.08. The total Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the scale was 0.78 (reliable). Conclusions The 12-item Turkish translation of the COPI was deemed valid and reliable in 8–12-year-old children in a post-operative setting. Practice implications Evaluation of children's pain concepts during childhood may contribute to the identification of conceptual gaps for pain science education.
This study considers the chemical composition of an endemic endangered Erodium species (E. hendrikii), which grows naturally in the Turkish flora. The non-polar compounds and fatty acids from air-dried above-ground parts of the plant were analyzed using GC–MS, while phenolic acids and flavonoids were evaluated using UHPLC-MS/MS. Palmitic acid (5.23 mg/g dw) followed by linoleic acid (3.81 mg/g dw) were the major fatty acids, and n-hexadecanal (60.75%, dw) followed by n-tetradecanal (12.99%, dw) were the main non-polar compounds identified in the plant. The major phenolic acids (nmol/g dw) in the plant were protocatechuic acid (90.07) in free, ferulic acid (430.90) in ester, gallic acid (2450.51) in glycoside, and ester-bound (527.05) forms. The crude extract was represented by the highest caffeic acid (3189.56) content. In addition, hesperidin (259.56 nmol/g dw) was determined as the major flavonoid in the crude extract. This crude extract was further fractioned via solid-phase extraction and its three further partial fractions were obtained using water, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The methanol fraction yielded the highest antioxidant capacity among the fractions. A strong correlation and linear regression were determined between the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity values of the crude extract and the three further partial fractions of the plant. These findings represent the first data concerning the phytochemical composition of E. hendrikii Alpinar and may be useful in the future development of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for food preservatives against problems of food deterioration.
A violacein-producing bacterium was isolated from a mud sample collected near a hot spring on Kümbet Plateau in Giresun Province and named the GK strain. According to the phylogenetic tree constructed using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the GK strain was identified and named Janthinobacterium sp. GK. The crude violacein pigments were separated into three different bands on a TLC sheet. Then violacein and deoxyviolacein were purified by vacuum liquid column chromatography and identified by NMR spectroscopy. According to the inhibition studies, the HIV-1 RT inhibition rate of 1 mM violacein from the GK strain was 94.28% and the CoV-2 spike RBD:ACE2 inhibition rate of 2 mM violacein was 53%. In silico studies were conducted to investigate the possible interactions between violacein and deoxyviolacein and three reference molecules with the target proteins: angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, and SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain. Ligand violacein binds strongly to the receptor ACE2, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, and SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain with a binding energy of −9.94 kcal/mol, −9.32 kcal/mol, and −8.27 kcal/mol, respectively. Deoxyviolacein strongly binds to the ACE2, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, and SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain with a binding energy of −10.38 kcal/mol, -9.50 kcal/mol, and −8.06 kcal/mol, respectively. According to these data, violacein and deoxyviolacein bind to all the receptors quite effectively. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and HIV-1-RT inhibition studies with violacein and deoxyviolacein were performed for the first time in the literature. Graphical abstract
Thermal energy storage (TES) through the use of construction materials incorporating phase change materials (PCMs) can prevent temperature fluctuations and allow energy saving in buildings. With this background, aim of this work is to develop new kind eco-friendly foam concrete (FC) containing lauryl alcohol (LA)-impregnated rice husk ash (RHA) composite PCM. RHA, an agricultural waste product, was used as a carrier material to eliminate the leakage problem of LA. Thus, leakage-free composite PCM (LFCPCM) was first prepared, and then such an RHA-based LFCPCM was integrated with cementitious FC for the first time in this study. The fabricated novel FCs were subjected to detailed examinations in terms of morphological, mechanical, physical, and TES properties. The DSC outcomes indicated that LFCPCM showed melting phase change at 19.97 °C and had a latent heat TES capacity of 99.60 J/g, while the PCM into FC-LFCPCM50 melted at 20.01 °C and had a latent heat TES capacity of 16.55 J/g. Solar thermoregulation performance test results revealed that compared to the reference FC (RFC), the FC-LFCPCM50 wallboard provided about 1.29 °C warmer indoor temperature during the cold weather hours, whereas the room center temperature was about 2.8 °C lower during the daytime in hot weather conditions. An energy-saving of 14.28 kW h per day is obtained by FC-LFCPCM50 wallboard. The carbon emission equivalences of this energy-saving amount account for 38 kg-CO2, 37.7 kg-CO2, and 6.19 kg-CO2 for coal, natural gas, and electricity, respectively. These results suggest that the fabricated novel FC-LFCPCM50 can be effectively evaluated as green building materials for thermo-regulation and energy saving of buildings.
Surficial marine sediment samples were collected along the southeastern Black Sea (Trabzon) coast. The sampling was conducted in June 2019 from eleven stations, with the depths varying between 8 and 30 m. Metal concentrations (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, and Cr) were evaluated in four different sediment size fractions; 0.063 mm (F1), 0.125 mm (F2), 0.25 mm (F3), and 0.5 mm (F4). Geoaccumulation Index (IGEO), Sediment Enrichment Factor (SEF), Ecological Risk (Er), and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) were used to determine potential anthropogenic hotspots. Temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and total organic carbon were determined to assess the variation across the sampling area. The highest metal concentrations (Cu:113.4 ± 45.1; Pb:85.9 ± 28.9; Zn: 138.6 ± 18.8; Ni:37.8 ± 7.6; As:14.1 ± 3.6; and Cr: 29.9 ± 5.4 ppm) were obtained in the smallest sediment fraction 0.063 mm (F1). The fractions of sediment structure were polluted by Cu, Pb, and As from moderate and severe levels according to IGEO and SEF.
Dehydrins (DHNs) are stress proteins involved in the development of protective reactions in plants against dehydration. The relationship between DHNs and morphological responses such as leaf rolling in plants exposed to water deficit is not well known. In this study, we detected how variations in DHN levels affect the leaf rolling response in maize exposed to osmotic stress in relation to the antioxidant system and ABA level. In this context, we altered the DHN levels in maize seedlings by treatment with bio-regulators (salicylic acid and abscisic acid) under PEG6000-free and PEG6000-induced osmotic stress. When the DHN levels were increased by the bio-regulators (25 µM SA and 100 µM ABA), the relative expression level of the Zea mays dehydrin COR410 gene increased in the seedlings, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leaf rolling grade decreased. Moreover, induction of DHNs caused increases in the antioxidant enzyme activity and content of antioxidant substances, and very high amounts of endogenous abscisic acid. When DHN level was suppressed by a bio-regulator (200 µM SA) in the maize seedlings, dehydrin COR410 expression level decreased, while ROS and the leaf rolling grade increased. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activity and content of antioxidant substances decreased in the seedlings, while the amount of abscisic acid increased. Taken all together, an increase in DHN level by bio-regulator treatment can stimulate the antioxidant system, enable abscisic acid regulation, and thus reduce leaf rolling through decreased ROS levels. The results also indicated that DHNs may be involved in the signal pathways inducing expression of some genes related to leaf rolling response, possibly by modulating ROS levels, in maize seedlings exposed to osmotic stress.
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