Adventitious roots (AR) arise from nonroot parts of plants, in response to stress and wounding. Gas transport and mineral-nutrient uptake are the key functions of adventitious rooting. Phytohormones play a significant role in the formation of adventitious roots. While auxin and ethylene promote AR formation, cytokinin, gibberellin, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid inhibit AR formation. Strigolactones are a special class of phytohormones, earlier classified as the repressors of AR development, are now known to modulate species-specific responses. The interaction of strigolactones (SL) with the other hormones regulates the development of AR. Besides regulating AR formation, SL is important for hyphal branching, seed germination, leaf shape and senescence, and secondary growth of plants. Furthermore, SLs act by imparting tolerance to biotic stress conditions, like root-knot nematode and leafy gall syndrome, and abiotic stress responses to drought, chilling, and salinity stress. Therefore, the present chapter is primarily focused on strigolactones-mediated adventitious roots formation.
Purpose: Bio-effects following thermal treatments are a function of the achieved temperature profile in tissue, which can be estimated across tumor volumes with real-time MRI thermometry (MRIT). Here, we report on expansion of a previously developed small-animal microwave hyperthermia system integrated with MRIT for delivering thermal ablation to subcutaneously implanted tumors in mice. Methods: Computational models were employed to assess suitability of the 2.45 GHz microwave applicators for delivering ablation to subcutaneous tumor targets in mice. Phantoms and ex-vivo tissues were heated to temperatures in the range 47-67 °C with custom-made microwave applicators for validating MRIT with the proton resonance frequency shift method against fiberoptic thermometry. HAC15 tumors implanted in nude mice (n = 6) were ablated in vivo and monitored with MRIT in multiple planes. One day post ablation, animals were euthanized, and excised tumors were processed for viability assessment. Results: Average absolute error between temperatures from fiberoptic sensors and MRIT was 0.6 °C across all ex-vivo ablations. During in-vivo experiments, tumors with volumes ranging between 5.4-35.9 mm3 (mean 14.2 mm3) were ablated (duration: 103-150 s) to achieve 55 °C at the tumor boundary. Thermal doses ≥240 CEM43 were achieved across 90.7-98.0% of tumor volumes for four cases. Ablations were incomplete for remaining cases, attributed to motion-affected thermometry. Thermal dose-based ablative tumor coverage agreed with viability assessment of excised tumors. Conclusions: We have developed a system for delivering microwave ablation to subcutaneous tumors in small animals under MRIT guidance and demonstrated its performance in-vivo.
Microwave ablation (MWA) is becoming an increasingly important minimally invasive treatment option for localized tumors in many organ systems due to recent advancements in microwave technology that have conferred many advantages over other tumor ablation modalities. Despite these improvements in technology and development of applicators for site-specific tumor applications, the vast majority of commercially available MWA applicators are generally designed to create large-volume, symmetric, ellipsoid or spherically-shaped treatment zones and often lack the consistency, predictability, and spatial control needed to treat tumor targets near critical structures that are vulnerable to inadvertent thermal injury. The relatively new development and ongoing translation of directional microwave ablation (DMWA) technology, however, has the potential to confer an added level of control over the treatment zone shape relative to applicator position, and shows great promise to expand MWA's clinical applicability in treating tumors in challenging locations. This paper presents a review of the industry-standard commercially available MWA technology, its clinical applications, and its limitations when used for minimally-invasive tumor treatment in medical practice followed by discussion of new advancements in experimental directional microwave ablation (DMWA) technology, various techniques and approaches to its use, and examples of how this technology may be used to treat tumors in challenging locations that may otherwise preclude safe treatment by conventional omni-directional MWA devices.
Background: Insulinomas are the most common tumour of the endocrine pancreas in dogs. These malignant tumours have a high metastatic rate and limited chemotherapeutic options. The multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib malate has benefit in the treatment of metastatic insulinoma in people. Toceranib phosphate, an analogous veterinary agent, may provide benefit for dogs. Methods: A retrospective study describing the extent and duration of clinical outcomes and adverse events (AEs) in dogs diagnosed with insulinoma and receiving toceranib. Results: Records for 30 dogs diagnosed with insulinoma and having received toceranib were identified from a medical record search of five university and eight referral hospitals. The median progression-free interval and overall survival time were 561 days (95% confidence interval (CI): [246, 727 days]) and 656 days (95% CI: [310, 1045 days]), respectively. Of the dogs for which the canine Response evaluation criteria for solid tumours tool could be applied, the majority (66.7%) showed either a complete response, partial response or stable disease. Time to clinical progression was associated with prior intervention and type of veterinary practice. Larger dogs were at increased risk for disease progression and death. No novel AEs were reported. Conclusions: Most dogs diagnosed with insulinoma and receiving toceranib appeared to have a clinical benefit. Randomised, prospective studies are needed to better elucidate and objectively quantify the potential effect and survival benefit of toceranib therapy for management of insulinoma in dogs.
The envelope (E) protein of flaviviruses is functionally associated with viral tissue tropism and pathogenicity. For yellow fever virus (YFV), viscerotropic disease primarily involving the liver is pathognomonic for wild-type (WT) infection. In contrast, the live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) strain 17D does not cause viscerotropic disease and reversion to virulence is associated with neurotropic disease. The relationship between structure-function of the E protein for WT strain Asibi and its LAV derivative 17D strain is poorly understood; however, changes to WT and vaccine epitopes have been associated with changes in virulence. Here, a panel of Asibi and 17D infectious clone mutants were generated with single-site mutations at the one membrane residue and each of the eight E protein amino acid substitutions that distinguish the two strains. The mutants were characterized with respect to WT-specific and vaccine-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) binding to virus plus binding of virus to brain, liver, and lung membrane receptor preparations (MRPs) generated from AG129 mice. This approach shows that amino acids in the YFV E protein domains (ED) I and II contain the WT E protein epitope, which overlap with those that mediate YFV binding to mouse liver. Furthermore, amino acids in EDIII associated with the vaccine epitope overlap with those that facilitate YFV binding mouse brain MRPs. Taken together, these data suggest that the YFV E protein is a key determinant in the phenotype of WT and 17D vaccine strains of YFV.
Current theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) propose that memory abnormalities are central to the development and persistence of symptoms. While the most notable memory disturbances in PTSD involve memory for the trauma itself, individuals often have trouble remembering aspects of everyday life. Further, people with PTSD may have difficulty segmenting ongoing activity into discrete units, which is important for our perception and later memory of the activity. The current study investigated whether PTSD diagnosis and symptom severity predicted event segmentation and memory for everyday activities. To do so, 63 people with PTSD and 64 controls with a trauma history watched, segmented, and recalled videos of everyday activities. Viewers with higher PTSD symptom severity showed lower agreement on locations of event boundaries and recalled fewer fine-grained actions than did those with lower symptom severity. These results suggest that PTSD symptoms alter event segmentation, which may contribute to subsequent memory disturbances.
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal disease of domestic and wild swine caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). The disease currently circulates in Africa, Europe, Asia and on the island of Hispaniola. The ongoing epizootics in Europe and Asia have produced millions of animal deaths and severe economic losses. No effective vaccine is available for ASF, making rapid and accurate detection of ASFV essential for disease mitigation strategies. Currently available diagnostics for ASFV possess significant limitations related to assay performance, deployability, and/or turn-around time; therefore there is an unmet need for pen-side diagnostic tests with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. A chromatographic lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed for the detection of ASFV antigen in EDTA-treated whole blood using monoclonal antibodies targeting the viral p30 protein. The assay requires only water to perform and provides results in 25 min, making it well-suited for field use. The LFIA was capable of detecting genotype I and genotype II strains of ASFV in EDTA blood from experimentally infected pigs at varying time-points after infection, though it was unable to detect a genotype X ASFV strain. Diagnostic sensitivity correlated with clinical disease severity, body temperature, and viral DNA levels, and was over 90% in animals showing moderate to severe ASF-related symptoms after challenge with virulent genotype II virus. The LFIA also showed a robust diagnostic specificity of over 98%, which is essential to field testing for a high consequence to foregin animal disease. The LFIA targeting the viral p30 protein can reliably detect ASFV in whole blood from animals showing moderate to severe clinical signs of infection with virulent genotype I and II isolates, making it a promising candidate for use as a field-deployable antigen detection assay. Additional evaluation using field samples and different virus strains is required to further assess the utility of this rapid diagnostic test.
Heat stress during gametogenesis leads to spikelet sterility. To ascertain the role of female reproductive organ (pistil), two rice genotypes N22 and IR64 with contrasting heat stress responses were exposed to control (30 °C) and heat stress (38 °C and 40 °C) during megasporogenesis. Anatomical observations of ovule revealed greater disappearance of megaspore mother cell and nuclei at early stages, and during later stages mature embryo sac without female germ unit, improper positioning of nuclei, and shrunken embryo sac was observed in the sensitive IR64. Under heat stress, a decrease in sugar and starch, increase in H2O2 and malondialdehyde with lower antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded in pistils of both N22 and IR64. Lower accumulation of TCA cycle metabolites and amino acids were noticed in IR64 pistils under heat stress at gametogenesis, whereas N22 exhibited favorable metabolite profiles. At heading, however, N22 pistils had higher carbohydrate accumulation and better ROS homeostasis, suggesting higher recovery after heat stress exposure. In summary, the results indicate that heat stress during megasporogenesis leads to irre‑ versible anatomical and physiological changes in pistil and alters metabolic signatures leading to increased spikelet sterility in rice. Mechanisms identified for enhanced heat tolerance in pistil can help in developing rice varieties that are better adapted to future hotter climate.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells activated with the glycolipid ligand α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) stimulate a wide variety of immune cells that enhance vaccine-mediated immune responses. Several studies have used this approach to adjuvant inactivated and subunit influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines, including to enhance cross-protective influenza immunity. However, less is known about whether α-GalCer can enhance live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines, which usually induce superior heterologous and heterosubtypic immunity compared to non-replicating influenza vaccines. The current study used the swine influenza challenge model to assess whether α-GalCer can enhance cross-protective immune responses elicited by a recombinant H3N2 LAIV vaccine (TX98ΔNS1) encoding a truncated NS1 protein. In one study, weaning pigs were administered the H3N2 TX98ΔNS1 LAIV vaccine with 0, 10, 50, and 100 μg/kg doses of α-GalCer, and subsequently challenged with a heterologous H3N2 virus. All treatment groups were protected from infection. However, the addition of α-GalCer appeared to suppress nasal shedding of the LAIV vaccine. In another experiment, pigs vaccinated with the H3N2 LAIV, with or without 50 μg/kg of α-GalCer, were challenged with the heterosubtypic pandemic H1N1 virus. Pigs vaccinated with the LAIV alone generated cross-reactive humoral and cellular responses which blocked virus replication in the airways, and significantly decreased virus shedding. On the other hand, combining the vaccine with α-GalCer reduced cross-protective cellular and antibody responses, and resulted in higher virus titers in respiratory tissues. These findings suggest that: (i) high doses of α-GalCer impair the replication and nasal shedding of the LAIV vaccine; and (ii) α-GalCer might interfere with heterosubtypic cross-protective immune responses. This research raise concerns that should be considered before trying to use NKT cell agonists as a possible adjuvant approach for LAIV vaccines. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s44149-022-00051-x.
Traditional matrix and tensor completion approaches utilize latent structures in data to impute missing entries. Recent works on distribution system state estimators employing such data imputation techniques have identified the need to incorporate fundamental system equations as constraints to improve state estimation accuracy. As a result, these techniques provide superior state estimation performance compared to their model-free counterparts and conventional state estimators. In practice, the data required for these estimators are provided by sensors/meters deployed in the network. However, prior efforts do not explore the placement of sensors that optimize the performance of the estimators. Moreover, constraints on entries of these matrices and tensors result in specific combinations of known measurements to provide better imputation results than others. Therefore, this work proposes two-meter placement approaches that leverage network parameters and linearized power flow equations to identify sensor locations. These approaches achieve this by iteratively placing sensors with the highest contribution towards minimizing the voltage residual in the selected reference cases. The first approach identifies buses that provide the highest reduction in voltage residuals. In contrast, the second approach identifies locations of a heterogeneous set of sensors that provide the highest reduction in voltage residual. The proposed approaches can also extend existing sensor deployments such as distribution phasor measurement units (D-PMU) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) sensing and measurement devices (e.g., Bellwether meters) to improve state estimation performance. The approaches have been evaluated on the IEEE 33-node distribution system and an unbalanced 3-phase 559-node distribution system.
The propriety of using collegiality or related constructs as an evaluation factor in faculty promotion and tenure (P&T) is strongly contested. The work of many academic librarians requires extensive collaboration among their library colleagues as well as teaching and research faculty who work outside of the library. Given the centrality of communication and cooperation to their success, one might expect that collegiality could manifest differently in their tenure processes than in those of other faculty. Therefore, we surveyed library faculty to learn about their perceptions of the extent to which attributions of collegiality or lack of it influence tenure decisions at their institutions. With a total of 165 respondents, key findings include: 1) approximately 55 % of respondents whose libraries' P&T documents mention the concept of “collegiality” reported that they understood the concept clearly; 2) approximately 42 % of the respondents believe that collegiality should be included in their library's P&T documents; 3) the group that most strongly believed that collegiality should not be included were non-White respondents (58 %). Many of the respondents commented that a complex concept such as collegiality is too easily misused to perpetuate common biases against those who identify as being part of underrepresented groups; and 4) approximately 36 % of the White respondents and 59 % of non-White respondents thought that using collegiality as an evaluation factor would negatively affect underrepresented faculty.
Because of the great potential for optimization of micro-fin surfaces (< 0.5 mm tall) and the lack of any optimization work encompassing three-dimensional geometries on heat exchanger surfaces, this paper proposes a robust methodology to solve the multi-objective optimization problem with a numerical model and thereby determine the flow physics that characterize the optimal geometries. The micro-fin design variables are considered as micro-fin height, angle, thickness, pitch, length of discontinuity, and number of discontinuities per micro-fin pitch. To reduce computational time, a channel with two-sided periodic domains is presented. A parallelizable numerical model is developed based on Reynolds average Naiver-Stokes equations and a realistic k-ɛ model. The simulation procedure solves convective heat transfer and turbulent flow over micro-fins and solves heat transfer for solid conduction using a constant wall temperature condition to maintain robustness for geometries that do not yield unity fin efficiencies. This study provides a robust methodology to integrate the numerical model into a multi-objective optimization algorithm named non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II to generate the best trade-off solutions between enhancement of Nusselt number and Fanning friction factor of a micro-fin surface to a smooth surface at two Reynold numbers (Re) of 25,000 and 49,000. This study presents a unique intersection of the drag reduction approach and heat transfer enhancement by finding unique operating geometries. For example, a particular optimal design geometry at Re = 49,000 reduced drag by 8% but was also beneficial to heat transfer increasing by 21% compared to a smooth surface. The best micro-fin surface of this study at Re = 49,000 enhanced the efficiency index by 18% compared to the highest reported efficiency index for micro-fin tubes.
This study proposes a numerical model to collect and analyze relationships between flow structures and drag forces on a microfin enhanced surface. We utilized a large eddy simulation (LES) with a localized, dynamic kinetic energy, subgrid-scale model (LDKM) to predict turbulent flow structures. The accuracy of the numerical model was verified by a telescopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Of special note was the strong match of PIV flow structures with numerical flow structures simulated with LES. To detect two main flow structures, lateral and longitudinal, a new method based on the correlation coefficient of velocity fluctuation was developed. Two main types of drag, form, and skin-friction, were discussed and analyzed as occurring on complex near-surface engineered enhancements. Several problems about the relationships were discussed and solved. First, the study determined which drag force dominated the pressure drop (Δp) with different Reynolds numbers. Second, the study analyzed how turbulent flow structures affected form drag and friction drag, respectively. Third, the study explained why the microfins in the paper designed by Webb et al. were better suited for the high Reynold number cases (Reynolds number ≈ 28,000). The goal of the paper was not to find a new Reynolds number-based correlation but to find flow structures responsible for pressure drop and understand the mechanisms causing it.
Cyberbullying theory and research puts much emphasis on the role that anonymity perceptions has in the prediction of online aggression. However, some individuals choose to cyberbully others when identifying information (e.g., their name) is clearly visible to the victim and the online community at large. Two correlational studies with US adults examined one possible reason for this effect: dispositional fear of retaliation (DFoR) – a personality variable characterized by the anxiety related to other's retaliatory behavior. Participants completed measures of perceived anonymity, positive cyberbullying attitudes, cyberbullying perpetration, and DFoR. Results showed DFoR moderated the (a) direct relationship between anonymity perceptions and cyberbullying attitudes and behavior and the (b) mediating role of cyberbullying attitudes in the link between anonymity and cyberbullying perpetration.
In the semiarid pampas region of Argentina, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop undergoes frequent and unpredictable drought stress periods, with high probability of occurrence under future climate change projections. However, the overall frequency of occurrence and timing of different drought stress patterns under current and future climates has not been well investigated for the main peanut region in central Argentina. The aims of this study were to: (i) define the main peanut drought stress patterns and their occurrence (frequency) during the peanut growing season, via a crop growth modeling approach, (ii) test seed yield stability of the formerly defined (in i) drought stress patterns under future climate scenarios, and (iii) analyze the effect of sowing dates on peanut seed yield as a management strategy to mitigate the impact of future climate scenarios for peanut seed yield in the semiarid pampas region of Argentina. The APSIM-peanut growth model was calibrated and validated for local genotypes and production environments. Our study simulated seasonal drought stress patterns at five representative locations across the region under current and future climate scenarios, and tested six sowing dates as a practice to mitigate the impact of climate change. Clustering analysis identified two contrasting environment types (ETs). The high stress ET showed greater frequency of occurrence (>50%) at the southern locations. Future climate conditions increased the frequency of high stress ET by roughly 6% and reduced peanut seed yield by 12%, as average across locations. For both current and future climates, earlier sowing dates maximized peanut seed yield, regardless the locations. Changing sowing date was not an effective practice to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on peanut seed yield. The defined ETs allowed identifying a target population of environments (TPE) having implications for optimizing peanut breeding and management strategies. The projected increase in the frequency of drought stress for all tested locations provides a challenging scenario for sustaining peanut productivity in this region.
Binary transgender and nonbinary people face interpersonal and societal discrimination which can contribute to minority stress and negative mental health. Thus, it is important that family therapists understand what factors contribute to psychological well-being to be able to offer helpful and inclusive therapy services to these communities. This study addresses a gap in the literature regarding differences in factors contributing to psychological well-being between binary transgender and nonbinary people as well as understanding these factors in a predominantly People of Color (POC) sample. Utilizing secondary data from the Social Justice Sexuality Project (Battle and DeFreece in Women Gend Fam Color 2(1):1–31. https://doi.org/10.5406/womgenfamcol.2.1.0001, 2014; Battle et al. in Social justice sexuality survey: cumulative codebook, City University of New York-Graduate Center, New York, 2012), this study examined the relationships between perceived family support, religiosity, community connectedness and psychological well-being in a sample of binary transgender and nonbinary people. Results from a multiple group path analysis show that perceived family support, religiosity and being connected to an LGBT community were significantly associated with psychological well-being for binary transgender people, while only LGBT community connectedness was significantly associated with psychological well-being for nonbinary people. Implications for family therapists include helping families support binary transgender and nonbinary family members, deconstructing non-affirming religious messages about gender identity and connecting clients to affirmative religions and religious leaders, and being knowledgeable about community resources for binary transgender and nonbinary POC.
Currently, manufactured ammonia relies on natural gas or coal, which releases harmful carbon emissions. We investigate the viability of a small-scale “green” ammonia plant where renewable electricity is used to provide hydrogen via electrolysis and nitrogen via air liquefaction to a Haber–Bosch system to synthesize ammonia. The relatively small scale, and measures such as continuous preheating, are envisioned to provide response times on the order of minutes rather than the days required by prevalent large-scale, fossil fuel-based ammonia plants. A green ammonia plant can serve as a demand-responsive load and long-term energy storage mechanism (through chemical energy storage in ammonia). We investigate its functional and economic viability within an agricultural community microgrid, which is a new contribution to this area of study. This paper proposes a coordinated operational mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model of an electricity distribution system and an electricity-run, green ammonia plant enabled by the Haber–Bosch process. Case studies in both grid-connected and islanded modes are performed on an agricultural community microgrid based on a modified Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) 69-node electricity distribution system coupled with a flexible, small-scale ammonia plant and direct ammonia fuel cell. Results indicate the ammonia plant can adequately serve as a demand response resource and positively impact the distribution locational marginal price (DLMP) by reducing or removing voltage violations and line congestion in the system. Studies showed this coupling decreased electricity costs of the ammonia plant by nearly a third, with ammonia profits increasing 17%. Further, in an emergency, the direct ammonia fuel cell can provide essential power. This cooperation among the food–energy–water (FEW) network offers a unique solution to the challenge of a more efficient interconnection of renewable energy (RE) resources to the grid. Additionally, this work has the potential to reduce grid dependence on fossil fuels and aid in the decarbonization of ammonia production.
Globally, the valorisation of food waste into digestate through the process of anaerobic digestion is becoming increasingly popular. As a result, a large amount of food-waste digestate will need to be properly utilised. The utilisation of anaerobic digestion for fertiliser and alternative uses is essential to obtain a circular bioeconomy. The review aims to examine the environmental management of food-waste digestate, the value of digestate as a fertiliser and soil conditioner, and the emerging uses and improvements for post-anaerobic digestion reuse of digestate. Odour emissions, contaminants in food waste, emission and leaching of nutrients into the environment, and the regulations, policies, and voluntary initiatives of anaerobic digestion are evaluated in the review. Food-waste digestate can provide essential nutrients, carbon, and bio-stimulants to soils and increase yield. Recently, promising research has shown that digestates can be used in hydroponic systems and potentially replace the use of synthetic fertilisers. The integration of anaerobic digestion with emerging uses, such as extraction of value-added products, algae cultivation, biochar and hydrochar production, can further reduce inhibitory sources of digestate and provide additional economic opportunities for businesses. Moreover, the end-product digestate from these technologies can also be more suitable for use in soil application and hydroponic use.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.