Kanda University of International Studies
Recent publications
An undergraduate student evaluates his four-year self-directed language learning journey at a university in Japan, and—together with the learning advisor he shared his learning journals with—puts forward a proposition about how the process of transformational learner development works. The paper begins with a year-by-year autoethnographic account of self-directed study, through analysis of journal entries. Next, the authors draw on Kato and Mynard’s (2015) Learning Trajectory in Transformational Advising to develop a revised model. This model hypothesizes that following a transformational experience, learners need to rebuild their worldview, which can be a draining process. This reconceptualization of what happens after a transformational learning experience is of use to educators and course designers, in order to ensure learners are given appropriate support, and to students in assisting them to understand their current situations.
La Licenciatura en la Enseñanza del Español como Segunda Lengua (LEES) y la Licenciatura en la Enseñanza del Inglés (LEI) de la Universidad de [xxx] prepara a futuros docentes para impartir clases en una lengua extranjera / segunda lengua (L2). Tres egresados de dichos programas realizaron una investigación-acción sobre las clases de inglés (ESP por sus siglas en inglés) o español para fines específicos (EFE por sus siglas en español) que enseñaban a alumnos de baile, música y literatura, como parte de su proyecto de titulación. El objetivo principal del presente estudio es explorar sus experiencias docentes con respecto a sus reflexiones sobre el diseño e implementación de los cursos. El análisis temático de los datos arrojados por medio de entrevistas profundas semiestructuradas reveló que, aparte que los participantes disfrutaron la impartición las sesiones por su propia afinidad con los ámbitos donde se desempeñaron, las licenciaturas se podrían beneficiar de incluir una asignatura enfocada en el área de la enseñanza de una L2 para fines específicos.
The present study takes a self-determination theory perspective (Ryan & Deci, 2017) to explore the connections linking advising in language learning and basic psychological need satisfaction, and ways participation in advising can enhance learner well-being and flourishing. This study addresses a gap in research into advising by focusing on its role as psychological support for the language learner. The study adopts a concurrent triangulation mixed-methods approach to explore the advising experience of 96 Japanese language learners using an adapted version of the basic psychological needs satisfaction and frustration questionnaire (BPNSF; Chen et al., 2015) alongside an interpretative analysis of learner self-reports. The quantitative results show advising perceived as need-supportive, while the qualitative analysis identified examples of autonomous functioning, personal growth, and caring relationships as antecedents of need satisfaction. Together the findings suggest advising has an important role in supporting language learners in ways that underpin flourishing and enhance learner well-being.
Compared to face-to-face lectures, where the teacher can respond immediately through conversation alone, the number of questions from students increases in asynchronous distance lectures, since they are sent by email or posted on a forum. In addition, if the information in a student's question is unclear, the teacher is burdened with extra interactions, such as asking the student questions. We propose the question database with an improved user interface that allows students to write their questions using the Moodle module. We analyse the number of questions and answers in asynchronous distance lectures to see if the extra communication between teacher and student could be reduced.
Employing an ecological framework, this study explores learners’ visual representation of their language learning practices and environments beyond the classroom in an Australian context. Specifically, this study’s aim is to better understand the features of individual language learning environments, the role of self-reflection, and the affordances involved in the construction of these environments. One hundred and seventy international students enrolled in English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (ELICOS) in Sydney drew mind maps on “Activities to improve my English in Australia.” The mind maps were analyzed thematically using NVivo 11 software and subsequent themes were developed. Findings showed individual differences in features of language learning environments, learners’ perceptions of their affordances, and insight into the degree of learner agency as seen from the visualization. This article closes by discussing the implications for using such visual materials in second language pedagogy in order to understand student language learning beyond the classroom.
This Element is a guide to task-based language teaching (TBLT), for language instructors, teacher educators, and other interested parties. The work first provides clear definitions and principles related to communication task design. It then explains how tasks can inform all stages of curriculum development. Diverse, localized cases demonstrate the scope of task-based approaches. Recent research illustrates the impact of task design (complexity, mode) and task implementation (preparation, interaction, repetition) on various second language outcomes. The Element also describes particular challenges and opportunities for teachers using tasks. The epilogue considers the potential of TBLT to transform classrooms, institutions, and society.
Las narrativas sobre los bombardeos atómicos en más de siete décadas han confrontado en la opinión pública las posiciones de los vencedores y las víctimas de la guerra. Este trabajo repasa el origen de esta confrontación, el discurso oficial, así como algunos intentos espontáneos de reconciliación, con una visión más humana. En tiempos de pandemia, la vulnerabilidad de los sobrevivientes de las bombas atómicas (hibakusha) conduce a una reconsideración de sus testimonios directos, así como a la revisión crítica de su papel –más allá de la retórica– en acciones efectivas por la paz y el desarme nuclear.
In this article self-determination theory (SDT) is used as a framework to explore ways in which ‘advising in language learning’ (advising) can be understood to support language learners’ basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. These are defined in SDT as nutrients essential for integration, growth, healthy development and well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2017). SDT posits that social learning contexts in which learners’ basic psychological needs are supported facilitate and sustain autonomous functioning, more effective learning and performance, strengthen adaptability, promote awareness, and foster greater wellness (Reeve, 2016; Ryan & Deci, 2017; Vansteenkiste et al., 2019). While a growing body of research provides insight into ways advising promotes and is supportive of autonomous language learning and transformation (Kato & Mynard, 2016; Mynard, forthcoming), more specific studies are believed to be needed to develop a deeper understanding of the potential of its supportive role in this area. To address this gap, this study investigates how learners’ perceptions of their experiences in advising can be understood from an SDT perspective. Findings from a qualitative analysis of a self-reporting questionnaire suggests that participation in advising has potential to provide support for the satisfaction of language learners’ basic psychological needs. Drawing on the theoretical underpinnings of SDT to interpret this evidence within the context of one-to-one advising, the author argues that advising in language learning can play an important role in providing an autonomy-supportive climate which can foster satisfaction of learners’ needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness.
The complexity of language teaching and learning requires teachers to be able to reflect on their own practices, adapt to different situations, and seek solutions that may meet the needs and interests of their students (Borges, 2019; Borges & Magno e Silva, 2019). Moreover, teachers ought to make their learners' experiences more meaningful and personal in the classroom. In regard to this, teacher education should involve reflections on empathy, so that pre-service teachers can develop the ability to listen actively, welcome their students' perspectives, and put themselves in their shoes (Mercer, 2016). Teacher education should also entail reflection on autonomy, in a way that pre-service teachers can exercise their agency in their own education, as well as create conditions for the development of autonomy in their classrooms. With that in mind, this study aims to investigate pre-service language teachers' transformation during two teaching methodology courses at a university in Northern Brazil. Data were generated through teaching diaries and in-class reflections, which were then analyzed qualitatively (Saldaña, 2021). The findings indicate that pre-service teachers not only became aware of the importance of encouraging their learners' autonomy, but they also became aware of learning autonomously themselves. The diaries also revealed how considering empathy in their practices was pivotal to fostering learner autonomy in the classroom. Implications for language teacher education are discussed.
The International Space Station (ISS) provides a precious opportunity to study plant growth and development under microgravity (micro-G) conditions. In this study, four lines of Arabidopsis seeds (wild type, wild-type MCA1-GFP, mca1-knockout, and MCA1-overexpressed) were cultured on a nylon lace mesh placed on Gelrite-solidified MS-medium in the Japanese experiment module KIBO on the ISS, and the entanglement of roots with the mesh was examined under micro-G and 1-G conditions. We found that root entanglement with the mesh was enhanced, and root coiling was induced under the micro-G condition. This behavior was less pronounced in mca1-knockout seedlings, although MCA1-GFP distribution at the root tip of the seedlings was nearly the same in micro-G-grown seedlings and the ground control seedlings. Possible involvement of MCA1 in the root entanglement is discussed.
Since 2020, language learning environments have had to swiftly transition from traditional face-to-face learning to remote learning contexts. This chapter interrogates factors related to students' willingness to communicate (WTC) in online-mediated discussions in a Japanese university classroom. Using a self-determination theory framework to conduct a thematic analysis of data collected from focus group discussions and the written reflections of English L2 learners (N=19), three main factors were found to contribute to a lack of WTC. Two of the three are unique to online learning: disruptive environmental factors and a thwarting of relatedness between classmates. The third factor, a perceived lack of communicative ability, although not unique to online learning, was amplified by the online environment. In order to address these factors, which contribute to a lack of WTC, a number of teaching interventions aimed at fostering communicative online classrooms are introduced.
Social Network Analysis (SNA) has enabled researchers to understand and optimize the key dimensions of collaborative learning. A majority of SNA research has so far used static networks, ie, aggregated networks that compile interactions without considering when certain activities or relationships occurred. Compressing a temporal process by discarding time, however, may result in reductionist oversimplifications. In this study, we demonstrate the potentials of temporal networks in the analysis of on-line peer collaboration. In particular, we study: (1) social interactions by analysing learners' collaborative behaviour, part of a case study in which they worked on academic writing tasks, and (2) cognitive interactions through the analysis of students' self-regulated learning tactics. The study included 123 students and 2550 interactions. By using temporal networks, we show how to analyse the longitudinal evolution of a collaborative network visually and quantitatively. Correlation coefficients with grades, when calculated with time-respecting temporal measures of central-ity, were more correlated with learning outcomes than traditional centrality measures. Using temporal networks to analyse the co-temporal and longitudinal development, reach, and diffusion patterns of Funding information None
This paper discusses the nature of non-standard questions in English, German, and Japanese. I will first introduce some basic properties of non-standard questions and then show that non-standard questions can be classified into the speaker-oriented type and the addressee-oriented type. It is suggested that the addressee-oriented non-standard questions can be further classified into the counter-expectation type and the aggressive question type.
This paper reports on the development and piloting of Classmoto, an online application designed to measure learner engagement. The application enables teachers to collect real-time analytics of student social, affective, and cognitive engagement. The results are immediately visible to the teacher. We investigated and reported on the engagement levels of 124 learners over a period of 15 weeks. Our analysis explores learners’ perceptions of the usefulness of evaluating their engagement and the experiences of four teachers using the application in their courses. This paper demonstrates how engagement measures such as Classmoto can be used to innovate classroom teaching and learning. It also highlights limitations in the application, with recommendations for future development for the measurement of engagement.
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To assist second language learners in becoming effective, aware, and reflective participants in higher education, support can be provided by integrating structured awareness raising approaches in the language curriculum. Drawing on self-regulation principles, such a structured awareness raising curriculum is most notably sustained by reflective one-to-one dialogue, also known as advising in language learning (ALL). While previous studies have shown that students who received this kind of support in face-to-face settings were able to successfully develop effective learning strategies, little research has demonstrated to what extent students can develop these strategies, supported by ALL, when learning online. This study shows how four groups of second language majors (n = 252) demonstrate knowledge and control of learning and learning strategies when discussing their planning and progress with peers online. This study draws on Google Classroom data (posts and comments: n = 957) collected over two semesters. Using digital conversation analysis and social network analysis, students were found to demonstrate (1) awareness of approaches to learning, (2) awareness of facilities, roles, and resources, and (3) awareness of self when collaborating with peers. This study shows how ALL can support students in effectively applying different learning strategies when engaged in computer-supported collaborative work.
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247 members
Jo Mynard
  • Self-Access Learning Center / Faculty of Global Liberal Arts
Mayu Konakahara
  • English Department
Tim Murphey
  • Research Institute for Learner Autonomy Education (RILAE): Visiting Professor
Scott J. Shelton-Strong
  • Self-Access Learning Center - Research Institute for Learner Autonomy Education
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Japan