Kampala International University (KIU)
Recent publications
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a cuisine spice of the Apiaceae genus extensively cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. Due to its commercial significance and considerable pharmaceutical industry uses, Fennel is regarded as one of the world's most important medicinal plants while being one of the oldest spice plants. The aim of the study is to discuss pharmacological qualities including antibacterial, antidiabetic, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anticancer, and other activities. Flavonoids, glycosides, and other phytoconstituents found in fennel are utilized as remedies for many illnesses. Fennel contains phenolic chemicals that are beneficial to human health. From this plant, bioactive substances like trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, and quercetin have been identified. Several of these chemicals have been linked to potential human body systems. Fennel may be utilized in the creation of many drugs since it has a variety of pharmacological qualities and their bioactive components are crucial to maintaining human health.
Silica (SiO2), a component of the earth's crust, has been in use for many nanotechnological applications. This review presents one of the newest methods for safer, affordable, and more ecologically friendly production of silica and its nanoparticles from the ashes of agricultural wastes. Production of SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) from different agricultural wastes, including rice husk, rice straw, maize cobs, and bagasse, was systematically and critically discussed. The review also emphasizes current issues and possibilities linked with contemporary technology to raise awareness and stimulate scholars’ insight. Furthermore, the processes involved in isolating silica from agricultural wastes were explored in this work.
Demand-side management, a new development in smart grid technology, has enabled communication between energy suppliers and consumers. Demand side energy management (DSM) reduces the cost of energy acquisition and the associated penalties by continuously monitoring energy use and managing appliance schedules. Demand response (DR), distributed energy resources (DER), and energy efciency (EE) are three categories of DSM activities that are growing in popularity as a result of technological advancements in smart grids. During the last century, the energy demand has grown signifcantly in tandem with the increase in the global population. This is related to the expansion of business, industry, agriculture, and the increasing use of electric vehicles. Because of the sharp increase in global energy consumption, it is currently extremely difcult to manage problems such as the characterization of home appliances, integration of intermittent renewable energy sources, load categorization, various constraints, dynamic pricing, and consumer categorization. To address these issues, it is critical to examine demand-side management (DSM), which has the potential to be a practical solution in all energy demand sectors, including residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural. This paper has provided a detailed analysis of the diferent challenges associated with DSM, including technical, economic, and regulatory challenges, and has proposed a range of potential solutions to overcome these challenges. The PRISMA reviewing methodology is adopted based on relevant literature to focus on the issues identifed as barriers to improving DSM functioning. The optimization techniques used in the literature to address the problem of energy management were discussed, and the hybrid techniques have shown a better performance due to their faster convergence speed. Gaps in future research and prospective paths have been briefy discussed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current DSM implementation and the potential benefts it can ofer for an energy management system. This comprehensive review of DSM will assist all researchers in this feld in improving energy management strategies and reducing the efects of system uncertainties, variances, and restrictions.
Background Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a devastating complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, amputation rate and economic burden. This study aimed at identifying the anatomical distribution and factors associated with severity of DFU in Uganda. Methodology This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted in seven selected referral hospitals in Uganda. A total of 117 patients with DFU were enrolled in this study between November 2021 and January 2022. Descriptive analysis and modified Poisson regression analysis were performed at 95% confidence interval; factors with p-value < 0.2 at bivariate analysis were considered for multivariate analysis. Results The right foot was affected in 47.9% (n = 56) of patients, 44.4% (n = 52) had the DFU on the plantar region of the foot and 47.9% (n = 56) had an ulcer of > 5 cm in diameter. The majority (50.4%, n = 59) of patients had one ulcer. 59.8% (n = 69) had severe DFU, 61.5% (n = 72) were female and 76.9% had uncontrolled blood sugar. The mean age in years was 57.5 (standard deviation 15.2 years). Primary (p = 0.011) and secondary (p < 0.001) school educational levels, moderate (p = 0.003) and severe visual loss (p = 0.011), 2 ulcers on one foot (p = 0.011), and eating vegetables regularly were protective against developing severe DFU (p = 0.03). Severity of DFU was 3.4 and 2.7 times more prevalent in patients with mild and moderate neuropathies (p < 0.01), respectively. Also, severity was 1.5 and 2.5 higher in patients with DFU of 5–10 cm (p = 0.047) and in those with > 10 cm diameter (p = 0.002), respectively. Conclusion Most DFU were located on the right foot and on the plantar region of the foot. The anatomical location was not associated with DFU severity. Neuropathies and ulcers of > 5 cm diameter were associated with severe DFU but primary and secondary school education level and eating vegetables were protective. Early management of the precipitating factors is important to reduce the burden of DFU.
Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been hard to set up due to cost limitations and technical capacity. Conventional Xpert MTB/RIF PT programs use liquid and culture spots which require stringent storage and transportation conditions with cross-contamination chances prevalent. These setbacks prompted the use of dried tube specimens (DTS) for Ultra assay PT. For continuity of PT provision, stability of DTS and compatibility with testing protocols when kept for a long period needs to be established. Methods: DTS were prepared from known isolates inactivated using a hot air oven at 85°C. 100μl of bacterial suspensions were aliquoted and dried inside a Biosafety cabinet. Panel validation was done to establish the baseline Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentration in terms of cycle threshold (Ct) value. DTS aliquots were shipped to participants to test and report within six weeks. The remaining DTS were kept at 2-8°C and room temperature for one year with testing at six months. Twenty (20) DTS samples per set remaining at one year were heated at 55°C for two weeks before testing. The means of the different samples were compared to validation data using paired t-tests. Boxplots were designed to visualize the differences in the medians of the DTS. Results: Overall mean Ct value increased by 4.4 from the validation to testing after one year at the different storage conditions. Samples heated at 55°C showed a 6.4 Ct difference from validation data. Testing done at six months on 2-8°C stored items showed no statistical difference. At all the remaining testing times and conditions, P-values were less than 0.008 although the absolute mean Ct when compared showed slight increments and accommodated differences for the detection of MTB and rifampicin resistance. Median values for samples stored at 2-8°C were lower compared to those at room temperature. Conclusion: DTS stored at 2-8°C remain more stable for one year compared to higher temperatures and can be consistently used as PT materials in more than one PT round for biannual PT providers.
Background Currently, chemotherapy stands out as the major malaria intervention strategy, however, anti-malarial resistance may hamper global elimination programs. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) stands as the drug of choice for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 gene mutations are associated with artemisinin resistance. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating the circulation of P. falciparum k13 gene polymorphisms from Kisii County, Kenya during an era of ACT deployment. Methods Participants suspected to have malaria were recruited. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed using the microscopy method. Malaria-positive patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Blood from participants who tested positive for parasites after day 3 was kept on filter papers. DNA was extracted using chelex-suspension method. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted and the second-round products were sequenced using the Sanger method. Sequenced products were analysed using DNAsp 5.10.01 software and then blasted on the NCBI for k13 propeller gene sequence identity using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). To assess the selection pressure in P. falciparum parasite population, Tajima’ D statistic and Fu & Li’s D test in DnaSP software 5.10.01 was used. Results Out of 275 enrolled participants, 231 completed the follow-up schedule. 13 (5.6%) had parasites on day 28 hence characterized for recrudescence. Out of the 13 samples suspected of recrudescence, 5 (38%) samples were positively amplified as P. falciparum, with polymorphisms in the k13-propeller gene detected. Polymorphisms detected in this study includes R539T, N458T, R561H, N431S and A671V, respectively. The sequences have been deposited in NCBI with bio-project number PRJNA885380 and accession numbers SAMN31087434, SAMN31087433, SAMN31087432, SAMN31087431 and SAMN31087430 respectively. Conclusions WHO validated polymorphisms in the k13-propeller gene previously reported to be associated with ACT resistance were not detected in the P. falciparum isolates from Kisii County, Kenya. However, some previously reported un-validated k13 resistant single nucleotide polymorphisms were reported in this study but with limited occurrences. The study has also reported new SNPs. More studies need to be carried out in the entire country to understand the association of reported mutations if any, with ACT resistance.
Scant studies have explored COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among refugees. However, contexts of forced migration may elevate COVID-19 vulnerabilities, and suboptimal refugee immunisation rates are reported for other vaccine-preventable diseases. We conducted a multi-methods study to describe COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among urban refugee youth in Kampala, Uganda. This study uses cross-sectional survey data from a cohort study with refugees aged 16–24 in Kampala to examine socio-demographic factors associated with vaccine acceptability. A purposively sampled cohort subset (n = 24) participated in semi-structured in-depth individual interviews, as did key informants (n = 6), to explore COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Among 326 survey participants (mean age: 19.9; standard deviation 2.4; 50.0% cisgender women), vaccine acceptance was low (18.1% reported they were very likely to accept an effective COVID-19 vaccine). In multivariable models, vaccine acceptance likelihood was significantly associated with age and country of origin. Qualitative findings highlighted COVID-19 vaccine acceptability barriers and facilitators spanning social-ecological levels, including fear of side effects and mistrust (individual level), misinformed healthcare, community and family attitudes (community level), tailored COVID-19 services for refugees (organisational and practice setting), and political support for vaccines (policy environment). These data signal the urgent need to address social-ecological factors shaping COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among Kampala’s young urban refugees. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04631367.
Introduction: The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak poses an important threat to public health but also unique challenges to healthcare workers. The pandemic has resulted into redirection of funds and attention by governments, donors, and stakeholders towards COVID-19 containment efforts, thereby diverting focus from other important issues including sexual and reproductive health. This study was aimed at determining the impact of Covid-19 on antenatal care services at Kampala international university teaching hospital (KIU-TH) between March and May 2020. Methods: This was a retrospective study in which we reviewed records of mothers who attended antenatal care clinic at KIU-TH for the months of March, April and May in both 2019 and 2020. The health workers attached to the antenatal care clinic during the periods filled a questionnaire to report on challenges faced. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Data for 2,379 clients was analyzed in total. The percentage reduction in antenatal care attendance was 7.1% in the year 2020. The services that were significantly affected were fetal heart listening and administration of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria prophylaxis. The main challenges reported were lack of transport means, excessive work and exhaustion plus fear of contracting COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced antenatal care service provision. Measures should be put in place to ensure that antenatal services can be offered appropriately and safely without compromising the clients nor the health care workers during outbreaks
Over time, the use of plant-derived agents in the management of various human health conditions has gained a lot of attention. The study assessed the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction Tamarindus indica leaves (EFTI) during prenatal aluminum chloride exposure. Pregnant rats were divided into 5 groups (n =4); Group I rats were administered 2 ml kg-1 of distilled water (negative control), Group II rats received only 200 mg kg-1 aluminum chloride (positive control), Group III rats were administered 200 mg kg-1 aluminum chloride and 400 mg kg-1 EFTI, Group IV rats were administered 200 mg kg-1 aluminum chloride and 800 mg kg-1 EFTI, Group V rats were administered 200 mg kg-1 aluminum chloride and 300 mg kg-1 Vit E (comparative control). On postnatal day 1, the pups were euthanized, and liver tissues were harvested for the biochemical study (tissue levels of malondialdehyde, caspase-3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferases) and the liver histological examination. The administration of EFTI was marked with significant improvement in the tissue levels of malondialdehyde, caspase-3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferases. There was a marked improvement in histopathological changes associated with prenatal aluminum chloride exposure. In conclusion, the administration of EFTI was protective during prenatal aluminum chloride exposure of the liver in Wistar rats, and is mediated by the anti-lipid peroxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activity of EFTI.
Imperata cylindrica is a globally distributed plant known for its antiepileptic attributes, but there is a scarcity of robust evidence for its efficacy. The study investigated neuroprotective attributes of Imperata cylindrica root extract on neuropathological features of epilepsy in a Drosophila melanogaster mutant model of epilepsy. It was conducted on 10-day-old (at the initiation of study) male post-eclosion bang-senseless paralytic Drosophila (parabss1) involved acute (1-3 h) and chronic (6-18 days) experiments; n = 50 flies per group (convulsions tests); n = 100 flies per group (learning/memory tests and histological examination). Administrations were done in 1 g standard fly food, per os. The mutant flies of study (parabss1) showed marked age-dependent progressive brain neurodegeneration and axonal degeneration, significant (P < 0.05) bang sensitivity and convulsions, and cognitive deficits due to up-regulation of the paralytic gene in our mutants. The neuropathological findings were significantly (P < 0.05) alleviated in dose and duration-dependent fashions to near normal/normal after acute and chronic treatment with extract similar to sodium valproate. Therefore, para is expressed in neurons of brain tissues in our mutant flies to bring about epilepsy phenotypes and behaviors of the current juvenile and old-adult mutant D. melanogaster models of epilepsy. The herb exerts neuroprotection by anticonvulsant and antiepileptogenic mechanisms in mutant D. melanogaster due to plant flavonoids, polyphenols, and chromones (1 and 2) which exert antioxidative and receptor or voltage-gated sodium ion channels' inhibitory properties, and thus causing reduced inflammation and apoptosis, increased tissue repair, and improved cell biology in the brain of mutant flies. The methanol root extract provides anticonvulsant and antiepileptogenic medicinal values which protect epileptic D. melanogaster. Therefore, the herb should be advanced for more experimental and clinical studies to confirm its efficacy in treating epilepsy.
Garcinia gummi-gutta, also known as Garcinia cambogia, has been shown to have excellent properties beneficial against many health conditions. The use of Garcinia cambogia in traditional medicine has involved treating gastrointestinal ailments, intestinal parasites, rheumatism, digestive disturbances, among other ethnobotanical applications. The fruit, which resembles a pumpkin in appearance, is presently most often used and heavily promoted as a supplement for weight loss. According to studies, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the main organic acid present in the fruit rind, has anti-obesity properties that include lowering appetite and reducing body fat gain by regulating serotonin levels linked to satiety, increasing fat oxidation, and reducing de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a strong inhibitor of the enzyme adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, which converts citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, a catalyst for the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides. In in vitro and in vivo models, the plant's crude extract or components also have hepatoprotective, anti-cholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. Studies on the phytochemistry of several plant components found that organic acids and xanthones, such as carbogiol and benzophenones, were also present. There are already several G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements available for weight loss, however there are some safety concerns about the potential toxicity of continuous usage of these supplements. The majority of complaints have been in connection with multi-component formulations. G. cambogia has not been positively identified as a possibly harmful aggressor. In this paper, the scientific properties of G. cambogia are discussed in relation to pertinent botanical features, ethnobotanical applications, phytochemistry, biological activity, and toxicity. The study will be very helpful in emphasizing the therapeutic properties and mechanism of this plant and its applications.
Background: Retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) care is a key indicator of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) treatment success as it improves adherence, critical for better treatment outcomes and prevention of drug resistance. HIV treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) is characterized by loss to follow-up, poor ART adherence, and eventual death. This study assessed retention in ART care and the associated factors among ALHIV in Ibanda district, rural South Western Uganda. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study using clinical data from ALHIV enrolled from 2019 to 2020 in eight health facilities in Ibanda district. Data from the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system was extracted to assess the associated factors and participants' status two years after enrollment. Data were analyzed using EPIdata version 3.1 in which Univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazard regression analyses were determined. A hazard ratio (HR) at a 95% confidence interval was obtained, and a P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Eighty-four ALHIV comprising 86.9% (N = 73) females were enrolled. The majority 63.1% (N = 53) resided in semi/peri-urban, and 44.0% (N = 37) stayed less than 5 km from the facility. Only 35.7% (N = 30) were active on ART, while 17 (20.2%) and 36 (42.9%) were lost to follow-up and transfer-outs, respectively. Factors associated with low retention were: ALHIV that moved 5-10Km (HR = 5.371; 95% CI: 1.227-23.5050, p = 0.026), used differential service delivery model was Facility-Based Group (FBG) (HR = 12.419; 95% CI: 4.034-38.236, p < 0.001) and those enrolled on the Young Adolescent Program Support (YAPs) (HR = 4.868; 95CI:1.851-12.803; p = 0.001). Retention reduced with increasing ART duration, ALHIV on (TDF/3TC/EFV) (p < 0.001), lived more than 10Km (p = 0.043) and did not benefit from any intervention (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Results showed low retention in care and the urgent need to strengthen individual case management strategies for ALHIV, thus interventions focusing on peer support are desired.
African Jointfir (Gnetum africanum) and Editan (Lasianthera africana) leaves are two leafy green veggies with several nutritional and medicinal properties. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a form of neurodegeneration that is believed to cause dementia in affected individuals. The quest for alternative treatments has necessitated the exploitation of plants' secondary metabolites. Plant alkaloids have recently demonstrated relevance in the management of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders; although there is limited information on the neuroprotective properties of alkaloids from various tropical green leafy vegetables with neuroprotective potentials. As a result, this study examined the cholinesterase inhibitory activity and antioxidant potential of alkaloid extracts from the leaves of African Jointfir (G. africanum) and Editan (L. africana). Standard solvent extraction techniques were used to prepare alkaloid extracts. After that, these extracts were characterized using high‐performance liquid chromatography. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay for the extracts was also carried out. Subsequently, the alkaloid extracts were included in the diets of these flies (2 and 10 μg/g) for 7 days. Thereafter, treated fly homogenates were assayed for cholinesterase, monoamine oxidase, and antioxidant enzymes (specifically, glutathione‐S‐transferase catalase, and superoxide dismutase) activities, in addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, reactive oxygen species, and total thiol contents. The extracts showed considerable anticholinesterase, antioxidant, and antimonoamine oxidase capabilities, according to the study's findings. Also, HPLC characterization revealed that desulphosinigrin (597,000 ng/100 g) and atropine (44,200 ng/100 g) are the predominating phytochemicals in Editan and African Jointfir respectively. These extracts could serve as potential sources of nutraceuticals with neuroprotective properties which can be used in the treatment/management of Alzheimer's disease. This study reveals that alkaloid extracts from Editan (Lasianthera africana) and African Jointfir (Gnetum africanum) could possess antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities in Drosophila melanogaster. Desulphosinigrin and atropine were revealed through high‐performance liquid chromatography to be the predominating plant chemicals in L. africana and G. africanum, respectively. Alkaloid extracts from both plants exhibited outstanding lipid peroxidative ability.
The central argument of this paper was to examine the intervention of Multinational Corporations toward improving tertiary education. Tertiary education in Nigeria is undoubtedly challenged; among these issues are inadequate funding and mismanagement of funds, infrastructural problem, and ongoing strike by university lecturers. A qualitative method of data collection and analysis was used for the study. Interviews were conducted, and NVivo software was utilized in the transcription, coding, and analysis of data from the interview. This was supported by the secondary data, including journals, relevant books, periodicals, newspaper reports, internet sources, government releases, and CSR reports. The findings reveal that per Sustainable Development Goals for education (SDG 4: Quality Education), Etisalat has considerably improved Nigeria’s Tertiary education. This includes the Etisalat telecommunications engineering postgraduate program. The scholarship was also provided for university lecturers to improve their capacity. It has empowered the local lecturers to learn cutting-edge competence in telecommunication engineering. Since its inception, the merit scholarship award has improved the knowledge of STEM among Nigeria’s tertiary institutions. This study adds to the literature on the role of non-state actors, especially Multinational Corporations, in developing the education sector in Nigeria and achieving sustainable development goals around the globe.
The emergence and transmission of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) have been recognized as a major public health concern. Here, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and its correlation with the mechanisms of resistance in CRKP isolates by compiling studies on the molecular epidemiology of CRKP strains worldwide. CRKP is increasing worldwide, with poorly characterized epidemiology in many parts of the world. Biofilm formation, high efflux pump gene expression, elevated rates of resistance, and the presence of different virulence factors in various clones of K. pneumoniae strains are important health concerns in clinical settings. A wide range of techniques has been implemented to study the global epidemiology of CRKP, such as conjugation assays, 16S-23S rDNA, string tests, capsular genotyping, multilocus sequence typing, whole-genome sequencing-based surveys, sequence-based PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. There is an urgent need to conduct global epidemiological studies on multidrug-resistant infections of K. pneumoniae across all healthcare institutions worldwide to develop infection prevention and control strategies. In this review, we discuss different typing methods and resistance mechanisms to explore the epidemiology of K. pneumoniae pertaining to human infections.
The safety of tea AgNPs Physiology of nanoparticles Green tea synthesis silver nanoparticles antibiotic resistance Camellia sinensis prunus africana A B S T R A C T Information on the basic changes associated with green tea small molecules in acute inflammation is deficient. The purpose of the study was to characterize and establish the effects of green tea silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) following inflammation in BALB/c male mice. In this study, green tea silver nitrate nanoparticles were characterized and the extract were made up to constitute high (100%), medium (10%), and low (1%) concentrations for administration. Acute inflammation was induced in groups I-V of the experimental rodents by injecting 0.5 ml/kg of fresh egg albumin on the subplantar surface of the right hind paw and animals were monitored for 36 h. Group I-III were administered 100%, 10%, 1% green tea nanoparticles extract while group IV was given diclofenac. Group V was the positive control while group VI was the negative control that received the vehicle. Paw edema was measured at a 2 h interval for 3 days, while the pain was assessed by measuring the locomotion activity using the voluntary wheel running and the anxiety-like behavior. Hypersensitivity was measured through the temperature sensation experiment and a non-linear regression analysis was done. Here, synthesized green tea AgNPs registered an
Introduction The incidence of road traffic accidents (RTAs) is on the rise contributing to the global burden of mortality as a major global health threat. It has been estimated that 93% of RTAs and more than 90% of the resulting deaths occur in low and middle income countries. Though death due to RTAs has been occurring at an alarming rate, there is paucity of data relating to incidence and predictors of early mortality. This study was aimed at determining the 24 hour mortality and its predictors among RTA patients attending selected hospitals in western Uganda. Methods This was a prospective cohort that consecutively enrolled 211 RTA victims admitted and managed in emergency units of 6 hospitals in western Uganda. All patients who presented with a history of trauma were managed according to the advanced trauma life support protocol (ATLS). The outcome regarding death was documented at 24 hours from injury. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 for windows. Results Majority of the participants were male (85.8%) aged 15–45 years (76.3%). The most common road user category was motorcyclists (48.8%). The 24 hour mortality was 14.69%. At multivariate analysis, it was observed that a motorcyclist was 5.917 times more likely to die compared to a pedestrian (P = 0.016). It was also observed that a patient with severe injury was 15.625 times more likely to die compared to one with a moderate injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion The incidence of 24 hour mortality among road traffic accident victims was high. Being motorcycle rider and severity of injury according to Kampala trauma score II predicted mortality. Motorcyclists should be reminded to be more careful while using the road. Trauma patients should be assessed for severity, and the findings used to guide management.
Background: The burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) is on the rise in low-income countries and many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing an epidemic of diabetic complications. Patients who suffer from DM with hyperuricemia have a significantly increased risk of diabetic complications. There is paucity of data on the burden of hyperuricemia in Uganda. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of hyperuricemia, its associated factors, and its effect on the risk of coronary artery disease among out-patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital between May and August 2022 which recruited diabetic participants. A questionnaire was used to obtain patient data. Laboratory investigations were done including serum uric acid levels. SPSS version 22.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: Of the 210 participants, the majority were female (61.4 %) with a mean age of 55.34(12.36) years. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 38.57%. The factors that were independently associated with hyperuricemia were: the presence of systolic hypertension (p=0.047), use of furosemide (p=0.003), alcohol intake (p=0.014), impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p<0.001) and abnormal total cholesterol (p<0.001). There was a significant positive moderately strong correlation between uric acid levels and the Framingham risk score (FRS) (p=<0.001). Conclusion: Regular screening for uric acid levels in diabetic patients should be done to improve health outcomes through early diagnosis and treatment. Diabetic patients should also be educated on the effect of alcohol intake and advised on cessation.
The burden of foodborne diseases and their associated illness/death is a global concern. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) and food safety/quality management are employed to combat this problem. With the existing and emerging food safety/quality management concerns, this study aims to evaluate the traditional and modern/novel approach to improving HACCP, food safety, and quality management in food and agricultural systems. The modern innovations in food safety management were integrated into improving the traditional HACCP system, including its principles, applications, steps, plans, standards, etc., as well as food safety factors and management, for improved safety/quality in food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries. The study identified many factors responsible for food contamination, including chemical contaminants, such as allergens, histamine, cyanogenic glycosides, mycotoxins, toxic elements, etc., biological contaminants, such as Campylobacter, Brucella, viruses, Escherichia coli, prions, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, protozoa, parasitic pathogens, etc., and physical contaminants, such as bone, glass, metal, personal effects, plastic, stones, wood, etc. The results of this study present descriptive preliminary HACCP steps, HACCP principles, safe food handling procedures, ISO 22000, Water quality management, food labelling, etc., with recent modern developments and innovations to ensure food safety and quality management. The study also identified modern/novel technologies for HACCP and food safety management, including light technologies, artificial intelligence (AI), novel freezing (isochoric freezing), automation, and software for easy detection and control of contaminants. With all these understanding and development, the domestic, food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries can be well position to ensure safety and quality of products.
This study demonstrated the therapeutic potentials of Cucumeropsis mannii seed oil (CMSO) capable of alleviating BPA-induced dyslipidemia and adipokine dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of (CMSO) on adipokine dysfunctions and dyslipidemia in Bisphenol-A (BPA)-induced male Wistar rats. Six-week-old 36 albino rats of 100 to 200 g weight were assigned randomly to six groups, which received varied doses of BPA and/or CMSO. The administration of BPA and CMSO was done at the same time for 42 days by oral intubation. The adipokines levels and lipid profile were measured in adipose tissue and plasma using standard methods. BPA induced significant (p < 0.05) increases in triglycerides, cholesterol, leptin, LDL-C, and atherogenic and coronary risk indices in adipose tissue and plasma, as well as decrease in adiponectin and HDL-C levels in Group II animals. BPA administration significantly (p<0.05) elevated Leptin levels and reduced adiponectin levels. BPA plus CMSO reduced triglycerides, cholesterol, leptin, LDL-C, and atherogenic and coronary risk indices while increasing adiponectin levels and HDL-C in adipose tissue and plasma (p < 0.05). The results showed that BPA exposure increased adipose tissue as well as serum levels of atherogenic index, triglycerides, cholesterol, coronary risk index, LDL-C, leptin, and body weight with decreased adiponectin levels and HDL-C. Treatment with CMSO reduced the toxicities caused by BPA in rats by modulating the body weight, adiponectin/leptin levels, and lipid profiles in serum and adipose tissue. This study has shown that CMSO ameliorates BPA-induced dyslipidemia and adipokine dysfunctions. We suggest for further clinical trial to establish the clinical applications.
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1,380 members
Oluwole O. Akiyode
  • Biological Science and Environmental Science
Narayana Goruntla
  • Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice
Ezera Agwu
  • Microbiology and Immunology
Ijeoma Anumaka
  • College of Higher Degrees and Research (CHDR)
Ggaba Road-Kansanga, 256, Kampala, Central, Uganda
Head of institution
Dr. Mouhamad Mpezamihigo