Rapid consumerism and improper waste disposal create widespread environmental degradation through the air, water sources and landfills in India's rural areas. This work develops a health risk prediction model to score villages based on quantitative and qualitative factors. Quantitative observations regarding pollutant levels and qualitative responses are collected from various households. that are risk labelled against WHO standards. The health risk model is designed to correlate the qualitative factors. A total of 2,370 rural households spread across three districts of Karnataka were selected. The study found that the health risk score predicted by the model has a higher significant correlation (0.8) to various existing pollutant factors. The study found that source of drinking water (0.87), quality of drinking water (0.81), drainage canal availability (0.72), type of drainage (0.73), stagnant water (0.71), toilet availability (0.83), maintenance frequency (0.83), cooking fuel type (0.77), cigarette use (0.71), garbage piles up (0.73) and the percentage composition of wastes (0.74) was found to have a higher positive correlation to the health of rural households. The villages with higher health risks can be identified, and suitable mitigation plans can be designed to mitigate the health risk by state authorities. HIGHLIGHTS This work develops a health risk prediction model to score the villages based on quantitative and qualitative factors.; The study found that the health risk score predicted by the model has a higher significant correlation (>0.8) to various existing pollutant factors.;
This study was to assess the raindrop fall speed measurement capabilities of OTT-Parsivel ² disdrometer through comparisons with measurements of a collocated High-speed Optical Disdrometer (HOD). Raindrop fall speed is often assumed to be terminal in relevant hydrological and meteorological applications, and generally predicted using terminal speed - raindrop size relationships obtained from laboratory observations. Nevertheless, recent field studies have revealed that other factors (e.g. wind, turbulence, raindrop oscillations, and collisions) significantly influence raindrop fall speed, necessitating accurate fall speed measurements for many applications instead of reliance on laboratory-based terminal speed predictions. Field observations in this study covered rainfall events with a variety of environmental conditions, including light, moderate, and heavy rainfall events. This study also involved rigorous laboratory experiments to faithfully identify the internal filtering and calculation algorithm of OTT Parsivel ² . Our assessments revealed that, for the smaller diameter bins, Parsivel ² filters out many of the observed raindrops that fall faster than predicted terminal speeds, bringing down the mean fall speed for those size bins without observational evidence. Furthermore, Parsivel ² fall speed measurements exhibited a notable artificial bell-shaped deviations from the predicted terminal speeds towards sub-terminal fall starting at around 1 mm diameter raindrops with peak deviations around 1.625 mm diameter bin. Such bell-shaped fall speed deviation patterns were not present in collocated HOD measurements. Assessment results along with the faithfully identified Parsivel ² algorithm are presented with discussions on implications on reported raindrop size distributions (DSD) and rainfall kinetic energy.
INTRODUCTION A more modern, extremely applicable method for signal acquisition is compression sensing. It permits effective data sampling at a rate that is significantly lower than what the Nyquist theorem suggests. Compressive sensing has a number of benefits, including a much-reduced demand for sensory devices, a smaller memory storage need, a greater data transfer rate, and significantly lower power usage. Compressive sensing has been employed in a variety of applications because of all these benefits. Neuro-signal acquisition is a domain in which compressive sensing has applications in the medical industry METHODS The novel methods discussed in this article are FFT-based CoSaMP (FFTCoSaMP), DCT-based CoSaMP(DCTCoSaMP) and DWT-based CoSaMP (DWTCoSaMP) based on sparse signal sequences / dictionaries by means of Transform Techniques, where CoSaMP stands for Compressive Sampling Matching Pursuit with respect to Objective Quality Assessment Algorithms like PSNR, SSIM and RMSE, where CoSaMP stands for Compressive Sampling Matching Pursuit. RESULT DWTCoSaMP is giving the PSNR values of 40.26 db for DCTCoSaMP and FFTCoSaMP, it is 36.76 db and 34.76 db. For DWTCoSaMP, SSIM value is 0.8164, and for DCTCoSaMP and FTCoSaMP, it is 0.719 and 0.5625 respectively. CONCLUSION Finally, for DWTCoSaMP, RMSE value is 0.442, and for DCTCoSaMP and FFTCoSaMP, it is 0.44 and 0.4425, respectively. Among Compressed sampling techniques DWTCoSaMP, DCTCoSaMP and FFTCoSaMP discussed in this paper, DWTCoSaMP reveals the best results.
Although the clarification of property rights for agricultural land has the potential to enhance agricultural production efficiency and support its sustainable growth, this goal may not always be met in reality. As a result, the emphasis of this study is on the elements that affect agricultural output. It also examines how the stability of land rights affects agricultural production efficiency and, most importantly, how the heterogeneity of farmers’ perspectives affects this process. Through the empirical test using the data of farmers in Henan Province, the largest wheat area in China, the results show that: (1) The farmland confirmation policy significantly promotes the improvement of the pure technical efficiency of agricultural production, a series of robustness tests, and the treatment of endogenous problems, which also confirmed the robustness of the results. (2) In the allocation of factors, agricultural investment and credit acquisition have been proved to be important influencing mechanisms, while labor and land transfer have not played a mechanistic role. (3) Heterogeneity analysis shows that the self-service of farmers choosing to purchase agricultural machinery is more efficient than purchasing outsourcing services; The agricultural production of farmer households without hired workers has a significant technical efficiency, but the impact on farmer households with hired workers is not significant; for farmer households with agricultural insurance purchase behavior, purchase willingness, and planting and breeding advantages, the farmland ownership confirmation policy can play a more important role in promoting the pure technical efficiency of agricultural production; The promotion effect of the farmland right confirmation policy on the pure technical efficiency of agricultural output is strongest when there is a smaller level of farmers operating on a part-time basis and when more farmers prioritize profit maximization as the production goal. Corresponding policy recommendations are made at the conclusion of the study in light of the conclusions mentioned.
The recreational belt around the city has low population density, good ecological environment, and rich natural and cultural landscapes, which can meet the tourism needs of urban residents to get close to nature and experience culture. Particularly in today’s increasingly normal epidemic prevention and control, outing and microtourism have become the first choice of urban public tourism and an important part of rural tourism development. In the process of developing rural tourism, there are two distinct voices: one is to pay attention to the local complex and strive to let people “see mountains and water and remember nostalgia.” In the era of cultural tourism integration, we should promote rural tourism with culture, highlight rural culture with rural tourism, and give full play to the bridge between cultural tourism and rural cultural innovation. In view of this situation, this paper discusses the theme orientation of the advanced development of the recreational belt around the city through three studies. In Study 1, tourists’ perceptions of local complex and rural cultural creation were compared through field investigation. In Study 2, brand trust was used as a calibration variable to further test the robustness of the conclusion. Study 3 analyzed the “distortion” mechanism of rural cultural creation and tested the intermediary effect of psychological distance. At the same time, it discusses the evolution model of the recreational space system around the city. The development of recreation space shows that the recreation space around the city is the product of the agglomeration of population and economic activities, and its occurrence and development process is closely related to the expansion of urban space and the change of human living space. This paper analyzes the spatial process of the development of recreation around the city, focuses on the types of recreation space that continue to appear in the development and evolution of modern recreation space, and then tries to find the context of the gradual development and evolution of recreation around the city with the process of urbanization and excavate the organic connection between the recreational space and the city and its surrounding areas in the process of development and evolution. It is found that (1) tourists’ perception of local culture is further distorted, which leads to a further reduction in tourists’ perception of “local culture” and “recreation,” and (2) the increase in psychological distance is the key psychological mechanism for tourists to perceive “lost property.”
Natural fibre reinforced composites are replacing the conventional fibre reinforced composites for several applications due to natural fibre availability, variety and lesser raw material cost. Using natural fibres in composites also reduces the issue of agricultural residue disposals, which are in abundance. Different natural fibres exhibit unique properties when it is used in composites and hence there is a need to study the behaviour of scarcely used natural fibres. Indian palmyra trees (Borassus flabellifer) are fast growing commonly found trees in Southern India. From the base of these palm tree leaves, palmyra fibres are taken out. Though these fibres are locally available in huge quantities, these are very rarely used as reinforcing material in concrete compared to other natural fibres like coir, sisal, jute etc. Palmyra fibre reinforced cement composite specimens were prepared by varying the fibre content (0.5%, 1% and 2% by weight of cement) and length of fibre (25 mm and 50 mm). Plain concrete and palmyra fibre reinforced concrete specimens of identical size were tested for mechanical strength and also for its depth of water penetration. The work carried out revealed that the water penetration of palmyra fibre reinforced concrete increased with fibre content increase. The compressive strength of palmyra fibre reinforced concrete improved up to 1% of fibre content and further increase in fibre content upto 2% resulted in compressive strength reduction for both the fibre lengths. However, split tensile strength, flexure strength and shear strength increased with fibre content increase in the mix. Based on the mechanical strength properties investigated, increase in shear strength was found to be more significant with the inclusion of palmyra fibres in concrete.
Current work emphasis on research, design and development of a fixed wing multirotor Unmanned Ariel Vehicle (UAV) which operate under V - TOL configuration. In this investigation an effort is made to develop a high endurance and high payload capacity UAV which can have a payload capacity of 15 Kg and which can serve with the endurance of 2 hrs per cycle.
Compressed Sensing(CS) is a mathematical approach for data acquisition in which the signals are compressible and sparse w.r.t. to an orthonormal basis. These sparse signals are reconstructed from very less measurements. CS technique Is widely used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) where the doctors suggest the patients to undergo MRI scans for diagnosing their body parts. During the prolonged MRI Scan, the exact slice of the MRI cannot be achieved due to the difficulties faced by the patient or irregular changes in the body position of the patient. The idea is to reduce the exposure time of the patient’s body against the MRI scan by considering only fewer samples. Is it possible to Reconstruct the signal by making use of a fewer number of samples that are less than the Nyquist rate? Yes, it is possible to reconstruct the signal by making use of the Compressed Sensing or sampling Technique. Compressed sensing is a new framework for signal acquisition and representation in a compressible manner less below the Nyquist sampling rate. In this article, Sampling and reconstruction are dealt here thoroughly as part of the research activity. Compressive Sensing Matching pursuit (CoSaMP) is a novel technique for optimization. It is an iterative approximation method for sparse and incomplete signal recovery. CoSaMP method along with Different transform techniques is used for reconstruction. The FFT_CoSaMP, DCT_CoSaMP and DWT_CoSaMP are proposed methods for MR Image Reconstruction, where DWT-based CoSaMP along with different wavelet families give the best results when compared to other CS-based techniques w.r.t. PSNR, SSIM and RMSE analysis.
Existing railway line (ERL) construction safety has received significant attention during the past decades due to the high accident rate and the difficulty of progress development under the limited synthesis construction time schedule (SCTS). However, the previous literature is dominated by the construction safety of new railway lines, while research on construction safety of ERLs is limited. This paper analyzed the interactions and causal relationships between construction safety risk (CSR) and multiple factors and classified feedback loops. Hence, a system dynamics model was developed, and a series of tests were conducted to simulate the evolution of CSR under different group environments. The results indicated that (1) the CSR considering ERLs is significantly relevant to the implementation degree of SCTS. For situations where there are more delays and more schedule pressure, construction safety accidents tend to have a higher level. (2) Work efficiency is negatively related to construction safety accidents probability. The increase of work intensity could reduce schedule pressure in the short term but could increase construction safety risk in a long time. Applying both appropriate work efficiency and work intensity may achieve an acceptable result. This paper adds to the knowledge of construction safety risk management in terms of implementation and offers lessons and references for future construction safety management considering ERLs.
Numerous works are reported in literature regarding the enhancement of compressive strength of fly ash-GGBS geopolymer combinations with addition of alkali activators of varying concentrations. However, a limited study has been chronicled, revealing the specific role of alkali or alkaline earth contributed by the fly ash-GGBS combinations on the compressive strength development. It is well known that the strength of a geopolymer is dependent on gel formation from Al/Si ratio, Ca/Si ratio, and Ca/(Si + Al) ratio but their exact role when cured for various extended periods is unknown as yet. In the present study, alkali concentration in a fly ash-GGBS geopolymer combination was varied from 6 M to 12 M with increments of two mol in six different fly ash-GGBS combinations with a minimum of 20 percent and a maximum of 70 percent GGBS. The correlation coefficients between compressive strength and Al/Si, Ca/Si, and Ca/(Si + Al) ratios exhibited values higher than 0.95 taken individually. Multiple linear regression analysis with compressive strength (as dependent parameter) and individual values of Al/Si, Ca/Si, and Ca/(Si + Al) ratios (as independent parameters) was effectuated. It was observed that, depending on the composition, the compressive strength circumstantiated a changeover from Ca/Si to Ca/(Si + Al) ratio in the intermediate composition range. Such a detailed analysis is considered supportive of developing a suitable composition which will provide the optimum compressive strength of the combination.
Polyepoxides are a kind of chemical polymerization that is widely employed in several industrial purposes. Due to their macromolecular structure, polyepoxides offer superior superficial treatment and antierosion activity compared to basic organic corrosion inhibitors. During metal-inhibitor interactions, the polyepoxides outlying glacial efficient clusters operate as adsorption centers. Numerous polyepoxides have been employed as anticorrosive coating materials in both pure and cured forms, most notably for ferrite in acidic and NaOH solutions. The majority of polyepoxides operate as inhibitors of interface and mixed-type corrosion. Numerous computer models have been done to illustrate the anticorrosive properties of polyepoxides on metallic shells and their adsorption behavior. However, because the majority of polyepoxides have low solubility, they are best used as anticorrosive coating materials. Numerous polyepoxides-based coatings have been created and effectively applied on ferrite and aluminum in salt-water solution according to a review of the literature. Natural and synthetic additives can be used to further enhance the anticorrosive properties of polyepoxides coatings. This review article compiles published findings on the anticorrosive properties of pure and cured polyepoxides for a variety of metals and alloys in a variety of electrolytes.
Novel quinolone derivatives have been designed and readily synthesized according to a simple protocol including O-alkylation and Claisen rearrangement processes. Structures of the synthesized compounds have been confirmed by IR, 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectra. The new products have been tested for their antioxidant activity, and two of those demonstrate high antioxidant activity.
In present study, biodiesel was synthesized from high free fatty acid content Mahua oil using K2CO3 in NH4OH catalyst mixture through transesterification process. Addition of NH4OH to K2CO3, enhanced the basic strength of the catalyst (K2CO3) by generating in-situ KOH in ammonium carbonate medium. The presence of ammonium carbonate in the reaction medium controlled the generation of intermediate water during methoxide formation and thereby increased the biodiesel yield. The maximum yield of 98.5% with a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content of 98.95% was obtained at the optimized condition of catalyst mixture of 1g K2CO3 in 0.5 g of NH4OH, oil to methanol molar ratio 1:7 at 55 ºC in 75 min. Characterization of the obtained biodiesel has been carried out using GC-MS and 1H NMR techniques. The physico-chemical properties of the oil and the synthesized biodiesel were tested according to the ASTM D6751 standards and the values are within the range.
Photonuclear reactions play an important role in nuclear physics, astrophysics and in various applications such as non-destructive measurement of nuclear materials (NDT). The study of (γ, n) reactions using deuterium targets i.e., photodisintegration of deuterons in addition to all the other (γ, n) reactions, is of considerable interest to these fields. In this contribution, we have studied the photodisintegration of deuterons with unpolarized photons. The angular dependence of the differential cross section is studied by expressing it in terms of Legendre polynomials. The analysis of differential cross-section is presented using the model-independent irreducible tensor formalism.
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