Junta de Castilla y León
Recent publications
The family plays an essential role in the life of an adolescent. Hence, an acceptable understanding and an evaluation of family functioning is fundamental for effective interventions with adolescents in the psychological, social, and educational fields. The main purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES IV), the Family Communication Scale (FCS), and the Family Satisfaction Scale (FSS), for assessing the family functioning of Spanish adolescents. The sample was comprised of 1187 adolescents between 14 -18 years old (49.96% boys and 50.04% girls; M = 16.17; SD = 1.31) from Castile and Leon (Spain), selected from 23 educational centers, 10 university degree courses, and 18 specific juvenile centers for adolescents with either family or behavioral problems. The scales of Balanced Cohesion, Balanced Flexibility and Disengaged showed good convergent validity, while Enmeshed, Rigid, and Chaotic did not. For this reason some items were removed, obtaining a shortened version of FACES IV, that demonstrated acceptable reliability, and good convergent and predictive validity. The FCS and FSS scales yielded excellent psychometric properties. The results confirmed the factorial structure of the FACES IV, its transcultural applicability, and its validity for different ages. The hypotheses of the circumplex model were confirmed, except for the dysfunctionality of two scales, Enmeshed and Rigid, that contrary to what was expected, showed positive correlations with Family Communication, Family Satisfaction, Balanced Cohesion, and Balanced Flexibility. In brief, our results present the FACES IV package as a useful instrument for the assessment of family functioning of Spanish adolescents. Future studies will be necessary to confirm the trend observed for the two aforementioned scales among adolescents.
Objectives: To examine gender-related differences in the management and survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Spain during 2 time series. Material and methods: Analysis of data recorded in the prospective Spanish OHCA registry (OHSCAR in its Spanish acronym) for 2 time series (2013-2014 and 2017-2018). We included all 11 036 consecutive cases in which an emergency team intervened. The dependent variables were arrival at the hospital after return of spontaneous circulation, overall survival to discharge, and overall survival with good neurological outcomes. Sex was the independent variable. We report descriptive statistics, patient group comparisons, and changes over time. Results: Women were significantly older and less likely to experience an OHCA in a public place, receive automatic external defibrillation, have a shockable heart rhythm, and be attended by an ambulance team within 15 minutes. In addition, fewer women underwent percutaneous coronary interventions or received treatment for hypothermia on admission to the hospital. In 2013-2014 and 2017-2018, respectively, the likelihood of survival was lower for women than men on admission (odds ratio [OR], 0.52 vs OR, 0.61; P .001 and P = .009 in the 2 time series) and at discharge (OR, 0.69 vs 0.72 for men; P = .001 in both time series). Survival with good neurological outcomes was also less likely in women (OR, 0.50 vs 0.63; P .001 in both series). Conclusion: The odds for survival and survival with good neurological outcomes were lower for women in nearly all patient groups in both time series. These findings suggest the need to adopt new approaches to address gender differences in OHCA.
We present a method to fabricate handcrafted thermoelectric devices on standard office paper substrates. The devices are based on thin films of WS2, Te, and BP (P‐type semiconductors) and TiS3 and TiS2 (N‐type semiconductors), deposited by simply rubbing powder of these materials against paper. The thermoelectric properties of these semiconducting films revealed maximum Seebeck coefficients of (+1.32 ± 0.27) mV/K and (‐0.82 ± 0.15) mV/K for WS2 and TiS3, respectively. Additionally, Peltier elements were fabricated by interconnecting the P‐type and N‐type films with graphite electrodes. A thermopower value up to 6.11 mV/K was obtained when the Peltier element is constructed with three junctions. The findings of this work show proof‐of‐concept devices to illustrate the potential application of semiconducting van der Waals materials in future thermoelectric power generation as well as temperature sensing for low‐cost disposable electronic devices.
Optoelectronic device characterization requires to probe the electrical transport changes upon illumination with light of different incident powers, wavelengths, and modulation frequencies. This task is typically performed using laser-based or lamp + monochromator-based light sources, that result complex to use and costly to implement. Here, we describe the use of multimode fiber-coupled light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a simple, low-cost alternative to more conventional light sources, and demonstrate their capabilities by extracting the main figures of merit of optoelectronic devices based on monolayer MoS 2 , i.e. optical absorption edge, photoresponsivity, response time and detectivity. The described light sources represent an excellent alternative for performing optoelectronic characterization experiments on a limited budget.
The present study aims to identify the relationship between personality traits, strategies and learning styles, and their influence on academic performance. A sample of 47 students between the ages of 13 and 14 from a Spanish educational center was selected and the BFQ-NA (personality traits), CHAEA (learning styles) and ACRA (learning strategies) questionnaires were applied. Among the results it is highlighted that in the total sample the personality trait that predominates most is extraversion, the pragmatic learning style and acquisition strategies. There is a positive and significant relationship between the variables personality, learning styles and strategies and academic performance, giving greater relationship between the responsibility dimension, the style of reflective learning and acquisition strategies. The dimensions that predict academic performance are responsibility, reflective learning style and a general use of learning strategies.
Ticks transmit a wide diversity of pathogens to a great variety of hosts, including humans. We conducted a tick surveillance study in northwestern Spain between 2014 and 2019. Ticks were removed from people and identified. Tick numbers, species, development stages, the timeline, seasonal and geographical distribution and epidemiological characteristics of people bitten by ticks were studied. We collected ticks from 8143 people. Nymphs of I. ricinus were the most frequently collected. Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus s.l., Hy. marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, D. marginatus, D. reticulatus and H. punctata were also found, with adults as the main stage. The number of collected Hyalomma spp. and R. bursa has been progressively increasing over time. Although bites occurred throughout the year, the highest number of incidents was reported from April to July. The distribution patterns of the tick species were different between the north and the south of the region, which was related to cases detected in humans of the pathogens they carried. Adult men were more likely to be bitten by ticks than women. Ticks were most frequently removed from adults from the lower limbs, while for children, they were mainly attached to the head. Epidemiological surveillance is essential given the increase in tick populations in recent years, mainly of species potentially carrying pathogens causing emerging diseases in Spain, such as Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF)
La histerectomía en la India ha generado sospechas por su aumento inusual en mujeres jóvenes, analfabetas y pobres de zonas rurales. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar la relación entre violencia obstétrica, explotación laboral agrícola, prácticas médicas no éticas y tabúes relativos al útero y la menstruación. La metodología estuvo basada en una revisión bibliográfica sistemática mediante motores de búsquedas académicos que posibilitaron localizar las publicaciones más actuales y significativas sobre la problemática tratada. Los resultados indican que la práctica de la histerectomía está normalizada en la India y que resulta funcional al sistema capitalista, al sistema sanitario y a las pacientes para conseguir o conservar el empleo. Se concluye con la necesidad de activar auditorias médicas, destinar esfuerzos para lograr una mayor transparencia de los servicios sanitarios y centrar la atención sanitaria en una perspectiva de derechos humanos, con un enfoque de género que, especialmente empodere a las mujeres de bajo recursos para tomar decisiones que afectan a su propio cuerpo.
Background: The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) has been substantially improved with the availability of highly sensitive CD-specific IgA-TG2, Ig-GDP, and IgA-EMA. The European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) published (2012) and updated (2020) diagnostic criteria for CD in order to simplify CD diagnosis and to avoid biopsies in selected patients. Methods: A prospective study including 5641 pediatric patients (0-16 years old) from January 2012 to January 2019 was performed. CD diagnosis was made according to the ESPGHAN algorithm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of biomarkers and the relationship between TGA-IgA and EMA titers. Results: CD diagnoses were confirmed in 113 patients, 110 were IgA-TG2-positive and 3 (2.7%) had IgA deficiency. The diagnosis was made by serologic tests in 95 (84.1%) patients. Only 18 (15.9%) patients underwent intestinal biopsy. We obtained 100% concordance between IgA-EMA and positive results for IgA-TG2 ≥ 10 ULN with IgA-EMA antibody titer ≥ 1:80. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of a positive correlation between IgA-TG2 antibody serum levels and IgA-EMA. The diagnosis could be guaranteed with strict application of IgA-TG2 values ≥ 10 ULN (confirmed by subsequent testing) plus the serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD).
Background: Glioblastoma or glioma is the most common malignant brain tumor. Patients have a prognosis of approximately 15 months, despite the current aggressive treatment. Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) occurs naturally in human glioma, and it is necessary for the tumor development. Objective: The purpose of the study was to increase the knowledge about the involvement of the substance P (SP)/NK-1R system in human glioma. Methods: Cellular localization of NK-1R and SP was studied in GAMG and U-87 MG glioma cell lines by immunofluorescence. The contribution of both SP and NK-1R to the viability of these cells was also assessed after applying the tachykinin 1 receptor (TAC1R) or the tachykinin 1 (TAC1) small interfering RNA gene silencing method, respectively. Results: Both SP and the NK-1R (full-length and truncated isoforms) were localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of GAMG and U-87 MG glioma cells. The presence of full-length NK-1R isoform was mainly observed in the nucleus, while the level of truncated isoform was higher in the cytoplasm. Cell proliferation was decreased when glioma cells were transfected with TAC1R siRNA, but not with TAC1. U-87 MG cells were more sensitive to the effect of the TAC1R inhibition than GAMG cells. The decrease in the number of glioma cells after silencing of the TAC1R siRNA gene was due to apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms. In human primary fibroblast cultured cells, TAC1R silencing by siRNA did not produce any change in cell viability. Conclusions: Our results show for the first time that the expression of the TAC1R gene (NK-1R) is essential for the viability of GAMG and U-87 MG glioma cells. On the contrary, the TAC1R gene is not essential for the viability of normal cells, confirming that NK-1R could be a promising and specific therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma.
Private pension schemes focus on retirement savings. Perceptions of health status change over time and, as retirement age approaches, concerns about Long-Term Care grow. However, once near retirement age, there isn’t enough time to plan sufficiently in advance. This paper proposes a mechanism to transform the private pension of a Defined Benefit scheme (retirement, invalidity) into an allowance. In turn, should the need arise on becoming dependant, this allowance will pay for any Long-Term Care services the beneficiary might require. Depending on the pensioner’s situation, both the expected number of payments and their intensity are transformed. For this purpose, a mechanism is defined, through a multiple state Markov model, to adapt the amount of the pension to the revised life expectancy of the beneficiary. The revised life expectancy would be derived from his/her new health status. The main contribution of this work is to establish a private Defined Benefit pension scheme model capable of transforming its benefits, adding Long-Term Care support, without increasing the total pension cost to the scheme.
Understanding why a robot's behaviour was triggered is a growing concern to get human‐acceptable social robots. Every action, expected and unexpected, should be able to be explained and audited. The formal model proposed here deals with different information levels, from low‐level data, such as sensors' data logging; to high‐level data that provide an explanation of the robot's behaviour. This study examines the impact on the robot system of a custom log engine based on a custom ROS logging node and investigates pros and cons when used together with a NoSQL database locally and in a cloud environment. Results allow to characterize these alternatives and explore the best strategy for offering a fully log‐based accountability engine that maximizes the mapping between robot behaviour and robot logs.
A common response in public pension systems to population ageing is to link pensions to observed longevity. This creates an automatic stabiliser that arises from the valuation of a private actuarially funded system. However, no private pension plan mechanism has been articulated to adapt to this ageing in relation to the increased costs it entails. Private pension plans focus on saving for retirement; capital is accumulated to pay for it. However, perceptions of health status change over time and, as retirement age approaches, concerns about long-term care (LTC) increase. Moreover, there is not enough time to plan for it sufficiently in advance. This paper proposes to incorporate a mechanism to add an allowance to the financial pension (retirement, disability, rotation) to cover LTC within a private defined benefit pension plan, in the case of a pensioner becoming dependent. Depending on a pensioner’s health status, both the expected number of payments and their intensity are transformed. For this purpose, a mechanism is defined (through Markov chains) to adapt the amount of LTC support to a beneficiary’s health-related life expectancy. The study’s main contribution is that it establishes a private pension plan model that offers to incorporate dependency aid through this mechanism into the economic pensions without increasing the total cost of the plan. It adapts to life expectancy according to a person’s state (healthy, disabled, dependent).
Sustainability implies improvements in responsible behaviors such as recycling and energy saving. Yet, ecological behaviors cannot be improved only by attending to personal variables; focus must also be put on the collective variables. The main aim of this research was to analyze how individual variables (environmental values) and collective variables (collective efficacy for ecological behavior) interact to explain recycling (Study 1; 502 students of Spanish universities) and energy-saving behaviors (Study 2; 544 students of Ecuadorian universities). Participants completed an online questionnaire that reflected all the studied variables. Ecological behaviors were collected through frequency scales. The results of the moderated analyses performed with Process for SPSS confirmed the moderating effect of collective efficacy in the relationship that both preservation and appreciation established with recycling and energy-saving behavior alike. This moderating effect was also confirmed in the relationship that utilization developed with recycling, but not with energy saving. Thus, collective efficacy directly influences pro-environmental behavior, but also interacts with the personal values of individuals. Consequently, the results indicate the need to encourage collective efficacy for ecological behaviors of individuals, groups, collectives, and communities.
This note is intended to try to shed light on the discoveries made entitled “Biologging is suspect to cause corneal opacity in two populations of wild living Northern Bald Ibises (Geronticus eremita)”. In this article, researchers participating in a reintroduction program for this endangered species in Europe document the unilateral corneal opacity that took place after birds were equipped with solar radio transmitters fixed on their upper-back position. The authors propose several possible effects caused by the device to explain the problem, and they conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the symptomatology is a repetitive slight temperature rise in the corneal tissue due to electromagnetic radiation by the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) module of the device. The proposal of this communication is that these effects do not necessarily have to be thermal, but they can be non-thermal and thus more subtle and insidious. These effects may be caused by electromagnetic radiation at low levels but in long-term exposure.
Females of woody dioecious species usually expend more resources on reproduction than males. Therefore, it is expected that females incur greater costs of reproduction than males, and, as a result, trade-offs between reproduction and growth should emerge. The aim of this study is to test those hypotheses by analyzing the differences between genders regarding radial growth (basal area increment) and wood carbon isotope composition (δ13C), a proxy of water-use efficiency. We compared these two variables in males and females of four dioecious tree species inhabiting drought-prone Mediterranean sites in Spain (Pistacia terebinthus, Ilex aquifolium, Juniperus thurifera and Ailanthus altissima). We analyzed the influence of sex on the radial growth pattern throughout the tree life considering the growth stage of individuals, the differences in the response of genders to climate variables (air temperature, precipitation and drought severity), and the δ13C during a severe drought period. One site was studied for each species and 21–33 trees per species were sampled in each site. No differences in growth were found between genders for any of the four species throughout their life span. No significant interactions between gender and precipitation were found, although A. altissima males were more responsive to summer (June-July) temperature. No differences in δ13C were found between genders excepting for P. terebinthus, indicating that the males of this species show a less efficient water use during drought events than the females. These results do not support the broad assumption that females of woody dioecious plants show lower growth and are less water-use efficient than males or that they respond differently to precipitation variability, except for P. terebinthus during drought events. Further analyses could be performed in other dioecious species inhabiting seasonally dry regions to confirm our conclusions.
Background The vast majority of COVID-19 cases both symptomatic and asymptomatic develop immunity after COVID-19 contagion. Whether lasting differences exist between infection and vaccination boosted immunity is yet to be known. The aim of this study was to determine how long total anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies due to past infection persist in peripheral blood and whether sex, age or haematological features can influence their lasting. Material and methods A series of 2421 donations either of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or whole blood from 1107 repeat donors from January 2020 to March 2021 was analysed. An automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for total antibodies recognizing the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 in human serum and plasma was performed. Sex, age, blood group, blood cell counts and percentages and immunoglobulin concentrations were extracted from electronic recordings. Blood donation is allowed after a minimum of one-month post symptom’s relapse. Donors were 69.7% males and their average age was 46. The 250 donors who had later donations after a positive one underwent further analysis. Both qualitative (positivity) and quantitative (rise or decline of optical density regarding consecutive donations) outcomes were evaluated. Results and discussion In 97.6% of donors with follow-up, anti-SARS-CoV-2 protein N total antibodies remained positive at the end of a follow-up period of 12.4 weeks median time (1–46, SD = 9.65) after the first positive determination. The blood group was not related to antibody waning. Lower lymphocyte counts and higher neutrophils would help predict future waning or decay of antibodies. Most recovered donors maintain their total anti-SARS-CoV-2 N protein antibodies for at least 16 weeks (at least one month must have been awaited from infection resolution to blood donation). The 10 individuals that could be followed up longer than 40 weeks (approximately 44 weeks after symptom’s relapse) were all still positive.
Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) is a semiconducting two-dimensional material with marked in-plane structural anisotropy. This lattice anisotropy is the stem of many quasi-1D properties observed in this material. In this work, we focus on strain engineering of optical and vibrational properties through mechanical deformations of the lattice. In particular, the exciton energy can be shifted by applying uniaxial strain, and the gauge factor is six times more pronounced when the strain is applied along the b-axis than in perpendicular to the b-axis of the ReS2 lattice. Moreover, we also observed how the two most prominent Raman modes can be shifted by uniaxial strain, and the shift strongly depends on the alignment between the uniaxial strain direction and the a- and b-axes of the ReS2 lattice.
Este artículo constituye el trabajo desarrollado por tres inspectores de educación con el fin de ser presentado en elXXI ENCUENTRO NACIONAL DEINSPECTORES DE EDUCACIÓN, celebrado en Zaragoza el día 21 de octubre de 2021, dentro del programa de dicho encuentro con el título “Inspección de Educación y equidad educativa” y dando lugar al debate correspondiente dentro del encuentro. El trabajo se centra en la necesidad de conocer cómo se trata la equidad en la normativa educativa vigente. El análisis se realiza por comunidades autónomas o ámbitos de gestión educativa de la inspección en España, de tal mono que la gestión directa del Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional del Gobierno de España es contemplada. El análisis normativo se realiza desde un planteamiento jerárquico, desde la Ley (nacional o autonómica) hasta la concreción en los reglamentos, oen los documentos e instrucciones que determinan el trabajo y las actuaciones de la inspección educativa en cada ámbito territorial. El objeto del análisis “laequidad” se ha realizado de forma general, pero profundizando en dos aspectos determinantes de la configuración de España: “la educación en el medio rural” y “la insularidad”. Con el análisis de estos dos aspectos geográficos hemos querido abarcar las preocupaciones que en el ámbito educativo condicionan el principio de equidad. El trabajo tiene un contexto temporal, quedando determinado por la disponibilidad normativa a fecha de presentación del mismo. Consideramos que las funciones de la inspección educativa vienen supeditadas por actuaciones y normas que marcan la capacidad de proceder en la búsqueda permanente de la equidad.
In this study, we re-examine the Darevskia parvula group comprehensively using morphology, osteology and mitochondrial phylogeny, and describe a new endemic species from Turkey: Darevskia tuniyevisp. nov. A total of 257 adult specimens were evaluated for external morphology (scalation and biometry) with univariate (descriptive statistics and ANOVA with post-hoc tests) and multivariate (Discriminant Analysis and ANOSIM) analyses. In parallel, osteological data and molecular analyses using three DNA markers (mitochondrial 16S rRNA and Cyt-b, nuclear Rag-1) were used to complete the description of the new taxon. The molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that the D. parvula group is composed of three taxa as D. parvula, D. adjarica and D. tuniyevisp. nov., and showed that D. adjarica and D. tuniyevisp. nov. are reciprocal sister taxa. On the other hand, D. adjarica is morphologically very different from other two forms, while D. parvula is hardly distinguishable externally from D. tuniyevisp. nov. Therefore, we can consider that D. parvula and D. tuniyevisp. nov. are cryptic species. These two cryptic species retain their primitive morphology within the group, while D. adjarica has changed, perhaps due to different bioclimatic conditions in its Pleistocene refuge and current area.
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164 members
Ana Molina
  • Consejería de Educación
Gómez Fernández
  • Consejería de Agricultura y Ganadería.
César J. Pollo
  • Department of Environment
Olga Minguez
  • Department of Public Health
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