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- SourceAvailable from: Alemayehu Tarekegn[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Niosomes are self assembled vesicles composed primarily of synthetic surfactants and cholesterol. They are analogous in structure to the more widely studied liposomes formed from biologically derived phospholipids. Niosomes represent an emerging class of novel vesicular systems. Niosome formation requires the presence of a particular class of amphiphile and aqueous solvent. In recent years a comprehensive research carried over niosome as a drug carrier. Various drugs are enlisted and tried in niosome surfactant vesicles. Niosomes proved to be a promising drug carrier and has potential to reduce the side effects of drugs and increased therapeutic effectiveness in various diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Organophosphates (OPs) pesticides are among the most toxic synthetic chemicals purposefully added in the environment. The common use of OP insecticides in public health and agriculture results in an environmental pollution and a number of acute and chronic poisoning events. Present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of monocrotophos and quinalphos to effect the redox status and glutathione (GSH) homeostasis in rat tissues and find out whether antioxidant vitamins have some protection on the pesticide-induced alterations. The results showed that these pesticides alone or in combination, caused decrease in the levels of GSH and the corresponding increase in the levels of GSSG, decreasing the GSH/GSSG ratio. The results also showed that NADPH/NADP(+) and NADH/NAD(+) ratios were decreased in the liver and brain of rats on exposure with mococrotophos, quinalphos, and their mixture. These pesticides, alone or in combination, caused alterations in the activities of GSH reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the rat tissues. However, the expression of the GSH recycling enzymes did not show significant alterations as compared to control. From the results, it can be concluded that these pesticides generate oxidative stress but their effects were not synergistic when given together and prior feeding of antioxidant vitamins tend to reduce the toxicities of these pesticides. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
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ABSTRACT: Experimental studies have shown that sulphur-containing antioxidants have beneficial effects against the detrimental properties of Pb. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of combined administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC; 50 mg/kg p.o.) and selenium (Se; 0.5 mg/kg p.o.) against lead acetate intoxication (Pb; 0.2% in water ad libitum) in a male rat model for 12 wk. The exposure of rats to lead acetate produced significant (P < 0.05) alterations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, microsomal lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and proteins. In addition, significant elevation in liver markers transaminases, triglycerides, cholesterol, and bilirubin as well as a decline in albumin were also compared with the experimental control rats. Combined treatment of lead-exposed animals with NAC and Se showed marked improvement of the biochemical, molecular, and histopathological findings. These experimental results strongly indicate the protective effect of NAC alone with Se against toxic effects of lead on liver tissue.
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