Spatial ability is a form of intelligence where a person demonstrates the capacity to mentally generate, transform, and rotate a visual image and thus understand and recall spatial relationships between real and imagined objects. The aim of this paper is three-fold: (1) to review related empirical studies on spatial abilities for young children from 1999 to 2022; (2) to underscore the significance of spatial abilities and effective strategies that can be used to foster in young children; and (3) to highlight the need for a broader understanding for teaching spatial reasoning abilities to young children. A two-phase literature review was conducted. The first focused on grouping studies according to the common areas they dealt with. The second focused on identifying major themes. Three major themes emerged from the literature: spatial skills innate to young children, children’s perception of space, and their mediation strategies. There are two implications of these themes for early childhood practitioners. The first is for them to recognize the importance of spatial reasoning for fostering quantitative reasoning in young children. The second is to implement age-appropriate strategies to foster spatial abilities and skills in young children. Recommendations for further studies are also provided.
Chitosan is a natural, biocompatible polymer. The aim of this work was to study the influence of drug solubility in 2% v/v acetic acid, formulation parameters, on mean hydrodynamic (MHD) diameters and drug entrapment efficiencies (% EE) into chitosan-TPP nanoparticles (NPs). Drugs of different aqueous solubilities with nearly similar molecular weights were chosen and admixed at several concentrations in 2% acetic acid at different chitosan concentrations and at fixed chitosan to TPP concentrations/volumes ratios. The NPs were freeze-dried, and the supernatants were utilized to determine % EE. Theophylline- and antipyrine-loaded NPs showed the best short-term physical stability in terms of MHD diameters. Antipyrine-loaded NPs possessed the larger MHD diameters, while vitamin C-loaded NPs showed the smallest ones. The relationships between the ratio of drug concentration relative to their solubilities in acetic acid were almost linear for antipyrine and vitamin C-loaded NPs when plotted against and the MHD diameters of NPs, and linear for antipyrine- and theophylline-loaded NPs when plotted against % EE with antipyrine NPs possessing the highest % EE. However, vitamin C- and propylthiouracil-loaded NPs exhibited curvilinear patterns with comparatively lower % EE. The concentration of chitosan, drug solubility in dispersion medium, and the ratio of the concentration of admixed drug relative to its solubility in dispersion medium were found critical in determining % EE and MHD diameters of NPs. It was evident that drugs with extremely low or high solubilities in dispersion medium resulted in low % EE when admixed at both low and high concentrations.
Consumer demand for fermented foods with a well‐balanced nutrient profile has been increasing owing to their ability to prevent chronic diseases as well as their functional, nutritional, and nutraceutical benefits. Among those functional foods, miso is a well‐known traditional fermented food with a distinctive savory flavor and aroma that is most commonly used as a seasoning in miso soup. Among different fermented products, miso is derived from soybeans and grains as a result of the activities of Koji enzymes and beneficial microbes. Additionally, the microbial community of miso is thought to be crucial in enhancing its distinct flavor and texture as well as its nutritional properties. Despite the importance of microorganisms in the production of miso, there has been relatively little research done to characterize and describe the nutritional and medicinal potential of miso. In this review, the potential therapeutic properties, i.e., anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiobesity, of miso have been discussed comprehensively. This review envisions the production technology, its history, microbial population, nutritional properties, and the potential health benefits of miso associated with its consumption. Miso is a well‐known traditional fermented food. In addition, this review envisions the production technology, its history, microbial population, nutritional properties and the potential health benefits of miso associated with its consumptions. In this review, the potential therapeutic properties i.e., anti‐cancer, anti‐microbial, anti‐obesity of miso have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the positive effects of miso consumption, eliminating the radioactive effects, and regulating the cholesterol levels in the human body, are the limelight of this article.
Background: Performing non-nursing tasks (NNTs) by registered nurses is considered as one of the most challenging issues faced by nursing sector worldwide. The negative impacts of nurses' engagement in NNTs were not limited to nurses or clients, but also nursing students who train in clinical areas. Performance of NNTs is found to aggravate nurses' confusion about their professional roles and identity. However, the impact of performance of NNTs on nursing students has not been yet studied. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the impact of witnessing performance of non-nursing tasks by registered nurses on nursing students' attitudes toward the nursing profession. Methods: A descriptive comparative study was conducted from September 2021 to January 2022. A convenience sampling was used and 409 valid questionnaires were obtained from Jordanian nursing students who were at least in their second academic year and had completed at least one clinical training period in one of the clinical settings. Attitude Scale for Nursing Profession was used to explore the participants' attitudes toward the nursing profession. Descriptive statistics and independent t-test test were used for data analysis. Results: The results revealed that approximately 48% of the participants witnessed performance of NNTs by registered nurses during their clinical training. Student participants who witnessed performance of NNTs (M=154.4, SD=17.5) showed significantly less positive attitude toward the nursing profession than those who did not witness (M=157.4, SD=12.2), t(407)=-2.03, p=0.007). Conclusion: Around half of student participants witnessed performance of NNTs by registered nurses during clinical training. Performance of NNTs had a significant effect on nursing students' attitudes toward nursing profession. Appropriate measures should be prior to clinical training to enhance nurse students' awareness about professional scope of nursing profession.
A dietary supplement potentially employed for the treatment and/or prevention of hyperlipidemia was developed. The proposed product is composed of a combination of natural macromolecules as chitosan (CH), α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), and lupin proteins (LP). First, the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the α-CD and LP binary mixture was assessed and compared to that of the extensively utilized anti-hyperlipidemic CH, using a hyperlipidemic rat model. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of their combination was also demonstrated. Additionally, ligand–target and protein–protein docking studies were performed. The in vivo results displayed that on intergroup comparison, blending CH, α-CD, and LP promised a superior therapeutic effect over α-CD and LP mixture, CH, and the marketed atorvastatin, potentiating a considerable reduction of serum lipid profile and the calculated atherogenic risk predictor indices. Molecular docking study revealed a weak hydrophobic cholesterol–CH and cholesterol–α-CD interactions, while protein–protein docking study showed a good lipase–LP interaction, involving eight hydrogen bonds. Then, on the base of the in vivo and docking study results, a tablet formulation was produced aimed to overcome the negative technological effects of the anti-hyperlipidemic macromolecules: long disintegration time and tablets mechanical resistance. The optimized tablet formulation has a disintegration time shorter than 15 min and a weight loss from friability test lower than 1%, which are in line with the regulatory specifications for uncoated tablets. Overall, this anti-hyperlipidemic formulation is attractive for the dietary and nutraceutical market, despite further clinical studies are required to assess the efficacy, possible side effects, and product compliance.
This study aimed to develop novel SSR markers in tomato. Several BAC clones along chromosome 3 in tomato were selected based on their content. The criteria was the availability of genes, either directly or indirectly related to stress response (drought, salinity, and heat) in tomato. A total of 20 novel in silico SSR markers were developed and 96 important nearby genes were identified. The identified nearby genes represent different tomato genes involved in plant growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. The developed SSR markers were assessed using tomato landraces. A total of 29 determinate and semi-determinate local tomato landraces collected from diverse environments were utilized. A total of 33 alleles with mean of 1.65 alleles per locus were scored, showing 100% polymorphic patterns, with a mean of 0.18 polymorphism information content (PIC) values. The mean of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.19 and 0.24, respectively. The mean value of the Jaccard similarity index was used for clustering the landraces. The developed microsatellite markers showed potential to assess genetic variability among tomato landraces. The genetic distance information reported in this study can be used by breeders in future genetic improvement of tomato for tolerance against diverse stresses.
This study aims to implement a widely used climate tourism index (TCI) developed by Mieczkowski (Can Geogr/Geogr Can 29:220-233, 1985) in a hot arid climate. This index provides a quantitative measure of a tourist destination based on five meteorological criteria, daytime comfort index (CID), daily comfort index (CIA), precipitation index (P), sunshine duration index (S), and wind speed (W). This index provides five qualitative classifications, namely excellent, very good, good, acceptable, and unfavorable. The climatic tourism index is applied to 12 destinations, chosen to represent the various geographic zones in Saudi Arabia. A great deal of disparity both spatially and temporally was observed. For instance, high-altitude regions situated in the western parts of the country experience favorable index values during the entire course of the year. Most other areas experience favorable climatic conditions during the winter months but are subject to very unfavorable climate conditions during the summer months. The landscape surrounding the two holy Moslem sites, Makkah and Al Madinah, experience excellent conditions from December through March, but experience very low values during the summer months.
This paper studies the performance of angle of arrival algorithms for closely and widely separated signals. The study aims to examine algorithms behaviour when deployed to different scenarios. The investigated techniques include Bartlett beamformer, Capon beamformer, Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC), Root-MUSIC, estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariant techniques (ESPRIT), and Weighted Subspace Fitting (WSF). The examined scenarios consider closely and widely angular separated signals, also, the effect of varying the number of antenna elements (N), the number of snapshots (K), and the noise power level (n) were studied. We generated MATLAB codes to simulate the algorithms, where the effect of changing one setting was taken individually, then the effect of changing more than one setting was considered. It was found that varying the number of antennas has a major impact on detection accuracy for all algorithms. Root-MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms tend to have the best results in the investigated scenarios.
This research utilizes metaheuristic optimization inspired by the Egyptian Vulture Optimization (EVO) technique. Biomedical image segregation is developed to reduce the complex association of hyperparameters of Convolutional Neural networks (CNN). The complex attributes of CNN include the type of kernel, size of the kernel, size of the batch, epoch counts, momentum, learning rate, activation function, convolution layer, and dropout. However, the life cycle of an Egyptian vulture influences the optimization technique to resolve complexity and increase the accuracy of CNN. The proposed CNN-based EVO model was evaluated in comparison to ANN-based and deep learning-based classifiers utilizing brain MRI image datasets. The results achieved have confirmed the efficiency and performance of the proposed CNN-based EVO model, in which the average detection accuracy and precision were 93% and 95%, respectively.
Background Cancer patients frequently experience unrelieved pain as a significant symptom. However, several studies have found that cancer-related pain is frequently undertreated. Purpose This study aimed to understand the pain experiences of cancer patients who were newly engaged in a multidisciplinary pain management program (PMP) at King Hussein Cancer Centre and still receiving cancer treatments and cancer pain management. Methods A qualitative study design and semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data from 21 cancer patients who were purposefully selected. All patients had advanced cancer, including skeleton metastases. All female participants had breast cancer, and all male participants had prostate cancer. Results It was found that the patient−healthcare professional relationship and satisfaction with services emerged as two themes in healthcare professionals' pain management. Conclusion The results from this study can offer a new understanding of the knowledge related to satisfaction of patients with cancer in terms of the quality of pain management. Additional qualitative studies are required to replicate the findings in populations from different backgrounds, ethnicities, and cultures experiencing cancer pain.
Piperazine-tagged imidazole derivatives 3a (symmetrical di-substituted piperazine) and 5–11 were synthesized through the combination of 4-nitroimidazole derivatives with piperazine moiety. The structural characterization was done by different physical and spectral techniques like NMR (1H and 13C) and mass spectrometry. The constituency of compound 3a was confirmed by X-ray structural analyses. All compounds were assessed for their antiproliferative inhibition potency against five human cancer cell lines namely MCF-7, PC3, MDA-231, A549 and Fibro dental. Compound 5 was found to be the most potent anticancer agents against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 values of (1.0 ± 0 µm) and against PC3 with IC50 value of (9.00 ± 0.028 µm). The molecular docking of compound 5 had been studied, and the results revealed that the newly designed 4-nitroimidazole combined with piperazine moiety derivatives bond to the hydrophobic pocket and polar contacts with high affinity.
Food is the basic necessity for life that always motivated man for its preservation and making it available for an extended period. Food scientists always tried to preserve it with minimum deterioration in quality by employing and investigating innovative preservation techniques. The food sector always remained in search of eco‐friendly and sustainable solutions to tackle food safety challenges. Green technologies (ozone, pulsed electric field, ohmic heating, photosensitization, ultraviolet radiations, high‐pressure processing, ultrasonic, nanotechnology) are in high demand owing to their eco‐friendly, rapid, efficient, and effective nature in controlling microbes with a negligible residual impact on food quality during processing. The use of green technologies would be a desirable substitute for conventionally available preservation techniques. This paper discusses different food preservation techniques with special reference to green technologies to minimize the deleterious impact on the environment and employs these innovative technologies to play role in enhancing the food safety. The current review article discusses different food preservation techniques with special reference to green technologies to minimize the deleterious impact on the environment and employs these innovative technologies to play role in enhancing the food safety.
Compacts of microcrystalline cellulose were prepared at applied compression pressures of 21, 32, 43, 53, and 64 MPa. Compacts were subjected to elevated temperatures of 125°C, 150°C, and 175°C according to a 5-min heating program. The effect of these thermal treatments on compact volumes, densities, porosities, tensile strengths, and weight loss was determined. There was no change in the volumes of the compacts due to thermal treatments in most of the conditions. However, the densities of the compacts decreased while the porosities increased as a consequence of weight loss. Moreover, there was no difference (p > 0.05) between the tensile strengths of the compacts without heat treatment and those subjected to heat treatment in most of the conditions. This was indicative of the preservation of the magnitude of the interparticulate bonds in the compacts. Weight loss of the compacts was affected by the heat treatment temperature and their porosities.
This paper presents the advantages of using a wideband spectrum adopting multi-carrier to improve targets localization within a simulated indoor environment using the Time of Arrival (TOA) technique. The study investigates the effect of using various spectrum bandwidths and a different number of carriers on localization accuracy. Also, the paper considers the influence of the transmitters’ positions in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS propagation scenarios. It was found that the accuracy of the proposed method depends on the number of sub-carriers, the allocated bandwidth (BW), and the number of access points (AP). In the case of using large BW with a large number of subcarriers, the algorithm was effective to reduce localization errors compared to the conventional TOA technique. The performance degrades and becomes similar to the conventional TOA technique while using a small BW and a low number of subcarriers.
Blood metabolites and growing performing were evaluated in lambs (15.7±0.33 kg; initial body weight) fed diets containing either soybean meal or cold extraction sesame meal (SM). The design of the study was a complete randomized design. Twenty-two lambs were divided into two diets, 0% SM (CON) or 12.5% SM (SM12.5) of dietary dry matter (DM), raised for 84 days (7 and 77 days for adaptation and data collection, respectively) and fed ad libitum diets (crude protein (CP) content 15.6% DM). Parameters that were measured included nutrient intake, average daily gain (ADG), digestibility, N balance, and blood parameters. Excluding ether extract (EE) and metabolizable energy intake which were greater (P≤0.05) in the SM12.5 group versus the CON group, no diferences in other nutrient intakes were detected (P≥0.05) between the two diets. Lambs fed the SM12.5 diet had more digestibility for DM, CP, neutral detergent fber, and EE. Nitrogen in feces was lower (P≤0.05) in the SM12.5 group versus the CON group. However, retained N (g/day) increased (P≤0.05) in the SM12.5 group versus the CON group. Final body weight and ADG improved (P≤0.05) in the SM12.5 diet. Cost per kilogram of gain diminished (P≤0.05) in the SM12.5 than the CON diet. Blood glucose increased while creatinine decreased (P≤0.05) in lambs that consumed SM12.5. Results obtained herein proved that replacing soybean meal with sesame meal improved growth performance while reducing the cost of gain in addition to not afecting health negatively.
Degradation of reinforced concrete (RC) infrastructure because of corrosion of the steel reinforcement is a well-known and expensive global problem. The inspection, repair, maintenance and replacement costs are a huge drain on resources, while the consequent disruption damages productivity. Existing measures to improve the performance of failing RC structures are generally retrospective and do not aid the sustainability agenda, nor do they effectively reduce the maintenance requirements over the remaining design life of the structure. In light of this, the replacement of traditional, corrodible, carbon steel reinforcement with inherently corrosion-resistant stainless steel reinforcement in the design of concrete structures and infrastructure is a viable and attractive solution. There has been a rapid increase in interest in this topic in recent years from the engineering research community, mainly owing to the growing problem of aging and deteriorating infrastructure as well as the lack of available and appropriate performance data and design guidance for stainless steel reinforced concrete. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of stainless steel reinforced concrete, both at a material and structural level and assembles and thoroughly reviews the known information as well as identifying the key gaps. The paper is aimed at both the research community, to drive future research agendas, as well as practicing engineers so they can employ sustainable and maintenance-free stainless steel reinforced concrete more readily and with confidence.
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