The deleterious effects of adversity are likely intergenerational, such that one generation’s adverse experiences can affect the next. Epidemiological studies link maternal adversity to offspring depression and anxiety, possibly via transmission mechanisms that influence offspring fronto-limbic connectivity. However, studies have not thoroughly disassociated postnatal exposure effects nor considered the role of offspring sex. We utilized infant neuroimaging to test the hypothesis that maternal childhood maltreatment (CM) would be associated with increased fronto-limbic connectivity in infancy and tested brain-behavior associations in childhood. Ninety-two dyads participated (32 mothers with CM, 60 without; 52 infant females, 40 infant males). Women reported on their experiences of CM and non-sedated sleeping infants underwent MRIs at 2.44 ± 2.74 weeks. Brain volumes were estimated via structural MRI and white matter structural connectivity (fiber counts) via diffusion MRI with probabilistic tractography. A subset of parents ( n = 36) reported on children’s behaviors at age 5.17 ± 1.73 years. Males in the maltreatment group demonstrated greater intra-hemispheric fronto-limbic connectivity ( b = 0.96, p= 0.008, [95%CI 0.25, 1.66]), no differences emerged for females. Fronto-limbic connectivity was related to somatic complaints in childhood only for males ( r = 0.673, p = 0.006). Our findings suggest that CM could have intergenerational associations to offspring brain development, yet mechanistic studies are needed.
Study design A retrospective study. Objectives The quality of care (QoC) for spinal column/cord injury patients is a major health care concern. This study aimed to implement the QoC assessment tool (QoCAT) in the National Spinal Cord/Column Injury Registry of Iran (NSCIR-IR) to define the current state of pre- and post-hospital QoC of individuals with Traumatic Spinal Column and Spinal Cord Injuries (TSC/SCIs). Methods The QoCAT, previously developed by our team to measure the QoC in patients with TSC/SCIs, was implemented in the NSCIR-IR. The pre-hospital QoC was evaluated through a retrospective analysis of NSCIR-IR registry data. Telephone interviews and follow-ups of patients with SCI evaluated the QoC in the post-hospital phase. Results In the pre-hospital phase, cervical collars and immobilization were implemented in 46.4% and 48.5% of the cases, respectively. Transport time from the scene to the hospital was documented as <1 hour and <8 hours in 33.4% and 93.9% of the patients, respectively. Post-hospital indicators in patients with SCI revealed a first-year mortality rate of 12.5% (20/160), a high incidence of secondary complications, reduced access to electrical wheelchairs (4.2%) and modified cars (7.7%), and low employment rate (21.4%). Conclusion These findings revealed a significant delay in transport time to the first care facilities, low use of immobilization equipment indicating low pre-hospital QoC. Further, the high incidence of secondary complications, low employment rate, and low access to electrical wheelchairs and modified cars indicate lower post-hospital QoC in patients with SCI. These findings imply the need for further planning to improve the QoC for patients with TSC/SCIs.
Background. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of childhood diabetes. However, the influence of demographic factors on presentation are not well-defined. Methods. We included children from 12 centers who were <18 years with DKA (glucose > 300 mg/dL, serum pH < 7.25, or serum bicarbonate <15 mEq/L) enrolled in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in DKA (FLUID) Trial. Data were also collected for children who presented to the centers during the enrollment period but were not enrolled due to disease or treatment-related reasons. We compared demographic, clinical, and biochemical findings among children with newly and previously diagnosed diabetes and children in different age groups. Results. Of the 1,679 DKA episodes in 1,553 children, 799 (47.5%) episodes occurred in children with newly diagnosed diabetes and 396 (23.6%) were severe (pH < 7.1). Newly diagnosed children <6 years of age were not more likely to have severe DKA in terms of pH, but had more severe hypocarbia and higher blood urea nitrogen levels, factors previously associated with the risk of cerebral injury. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) (based on family income and maternal education level) were associated with more severe DKA in new onset children, and recurrent DKA in the previously diagnosed children. Conclusions. Greater efforts are needed to identify the children with diabetes early and to prevent recurrent DKA, particularly among children in low-SES groups. Young children with DKA may need more intensive monitoring due to higher risk of cerebral injury.
Objectives We examined gestational age (GA) estimates for live and still births, and prematurity rates based on last menstrual period (LMP) compared with ultrasonography (USG) among pregnant women at seven sites in six low-resource countries. Design Prospective cohort study Setting and participants This study included data from the Global Network’s population-based Maternal and Newborn Health Registry which follows pregnant women in six low-income and middle-income countries (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia). Participants in this analysis were 42 803 women, including their 43 230 babies, who registered for the study in their first trimester based on GA estimated either by LMP or USG and had a live or stillbirth with an estimated GA of 20–42 weeks. Outcome measures GA was estimated in weeks and days based on LMP and/or USG. Prematurity was defined as GA of 20 weeks+0 days through 36 weeks+6 days, calculated by both USG and LMP. Results Overall, average GA varied ≤1 week between LMP and USG. Mean GA for live births by LMP was lower than by USG (adjusted mean difference (95% CI) = −0.23 (–0.29 to –0.17) weeks). Among stillbirths, a higher GA was estimated by LMP than USG (adjusted mean difference (95% CI)= 0.42 (0.11 to 0.72) weeks). Preterm birth rates for live births were significantly higher when dated by LMP (adjusted rate difference (95% CI)= 4.20 (3.56 to 4.85)). There was no significant difference in preterm birth rates for stillbirths. Conclusion The small differences in GA for LMP versus USG in the Guatemalan and Indian sites suggest that LMP may be a useful alternative to USG for GA dating during the first trimester until availability of USG improves in those areas. Further research is needed to assess LMP for first-trimester GA dating in other regions with limited access to USG. Trial registration number NCT01073475 .
Uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an evolutionary trait found in nearly all eukaryotes. In many species, including humans, the sperm mitochondria are introduced to the oocyte during fertilization1,2. The mechanisms hypothesized to prevent paternal mtDNA transmission include ubiquitination of the sperm mitochondria and mitophagy3,4. However, the causative mechanisms of paternal mtDNA elimination have not been defined5,6. We found that mitochondria in human spermatozoa are devoid of intact mtDNA and lack mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM)—the major nucleoid protein required to protect, maintain and transcribe mtDNA. During spermatogenesis, sperm cells express an isoform of TFAM, which retains the mitochondrial presequence, ordinarily removed upon mitochondrial import. Phosphorylation of this presequence prevents mitochondrial import and directs TFAM to the spermatozoon nucleus. TFAM relocalization from the mitochondria of spermatogonia to the spermatozoa nucleus directly correlates with the elimination of mtDNA, thereby explaining maternal inheritance in this species.
Importance Differences in neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics are important considerations in understanding differences in risk vs resilience in mental health. Neighborhood disadvantage is associated with alterations in the function and structure of threat neurocircuitry. Objective To investigate associations of neighborhood disadvantage with white and gray matter and neural reactivity to positive and negative stimuli in the context of trauma exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants In this cross-sectional study, survivors of trauma who completed sociodemographic and posttraumatic symptom assessments and neuroimaging were recruited as part of the Advancing Understanding of Recovery After Trauma (AURORA) study between September 2017 and June 2021. Data analysis was performed from October 25, 2022, to February 15, 2023. Exposure Neighborhood disadvantage was measured with the Area Deprivation Index (ADI) for each participant home address. Main Outcomes and Measures Participants completed separate threat and reward tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Diffusion-weighted and high-resolution structural images were also collected. Linear models assessed the association of ADI with reactivity, microstructure, and macrostructure of a priori regions of interest after adjusting for income, lifetime trauma, sex at birth, and age. A moderated-mediation model tested whether ADI was associated with neural activity via microstructural changes and if this was modulated by PTSD symptoms. Results A total of 280 participants (183 females [65.4%]; mean [SD] age, 35.39 [13.29] years) completed the threat task and 244 participants (156 females [63.9%]; mean [SD] age, 35.10 [13.26] years) completed the reward task. Higher ADI (per 1-unit increase) was associated with greater insula ( t 274 = 3.20; β = 0.20; corrected P = .008) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; t 274 = 2.56; β = 0.16; corrected P = .04) threat-related activity after considering covariates, but ADI was not associated with reward reactivity. Greater disadvantage was also associated with altered microstructure of the cingulum bundle ( t 274 = 3.48; β = 0.21; corrected P = .001) and gray matter morphology of the ACC (cortical thickness: t 273 = −2.29; β = −0.13; corrected P = .02; surface area: t 273 = 2.53; β = 0.13; corrected P = .02). The moderated-mediation model revealed that ADI was associated with ACC threat reactivity via cingulum microstructural changes (index of moderated mediation = −0.02). However, this mediation was only present in individuals with greater PTSD symptom severity (at the mean: β = −0.17; standard error = 0.06, t = −2.28; P = .007; at 1 SD above the mean: β = −0.28; standard error = 0.08; t = −3.35; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance In this study, neighborhood disadvantage was associated with neurobiology that supports threat processing, revealing associations of neighborhood disadvantage with neural susceptibility for PTSD and suggesting how altered structure-function associations may complicate symptoms. Future work should investigate specific components of neighborhood disadvantage that may be associated with these outcomes.
Background While complexity of distal radius fractures varies, volar plating is the most prevalent surgical option in adult injuries. The time between date of injury and surgical intervention varies according to several factors, including the timing of presentation and the surgeon’s availability. This study aims to understand the impact of a delay in surgical intervention on operative time, patient-reported outcomes, and reoperation rates. Methods A retrospective review was performed on patients treated with volar plating of distal radius fractures from 2017 to 2020 at a single institution by multiple surgeons. Perioperative medical records were reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups using a cut-off date of surgery performed 12 days after injury. Descriptive analyses were used to compare demographics, fracture characteristics, operative information, and outcome data including postoperative Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) scores and reoperation rates between groups. Results A total of 257 patients were included. There was no difference in age, gender, smoking status, fracture type, or postoperative QuickDASH scores between groups. Patients fixed at 12 days or more after injury had a higher rate of reoperation, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, and more surgeon experience. Conclusions Volar distal radius fixation at 12 or more days after injury had no discernible differences with fracture type, operative time, or tourniquet time; however, a higher rate of reoperation was found in this group compared to earlier intervention. These data may provide important prognostic information that can be used to educate patients who present in a delayed fashion.
Background Patient's age is an important factor in determining the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, there is limited data on how aneurysm morphology differs among age groups. We studied morphological characteristics of brain aneurysms among age groups in a large cohort. Methods Aneurysms from the Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry (STAR) were analyzed. The following parameters were included: location, size, neck, width, height, aspect ratio, and regular versus irregular morphology. The risk of rupture presentation was estimated using logistic regression. Results A total of 1407 unruptured and 607 ruptured saccular aneurysms were included. The most common locations of ruptured aneurysms in patients younger than 70 years-old were the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the anterior communicating artery (ACOM). The most common location of ruptured aneurysms in patients older than 70 years-old were the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) and ACOM. The size of unruptured aneurysms increased with age (p < .001). Conversely, the size of ruptured aneurysms was similar among age groups (p = .142). Unruptured and ruptured aneurysms became more irregular at presentation with older age (p < .001 and p .025, respectively). Irregular morphology and location were associated with rupture status across all age groups in multivariate regression. Conclusions Younger patients have small unruptured and ruptured aneurysms, and ruptured aneurysms are mostly located in the MCA and ACOM. Older patients have larger and more irregular unruptured aneurysms, and ruptured aneurysms are mostly located in the PCOM and ACOM. An irregular morphology increases the risk of rupture in all age groups.
Purpose of Review Recent advances in the field of interventional pain management (IPM) involve minimally invasive procedures such as percutaneous lumbar decompression, interspinous spacer placement, interspinous-interlaminar fusion and sacroiliac joint fusion. These developments have received pushback from surgical professional societies, who state spinal instrumentation and arthrodesis should only be performed by spine surgeons. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the validity of this claim. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar and PubMed databases. Articles were included which examined IPM in the following contexts: credentialing and procedural privileging guidelines, fellowship training and education, and procedural outcomes compared to those of surgical specialties. Our primary research question is: “Should interventionalists be performing decompression and fusion procedures?”. Findings Advanced percutaneous spine procedures are not universally incorporated into pain fellowship curriculums. Trainees attempt to compensate for these deficiencies through industry-led training, which has been criticized for lacking central regulation. There is also a paucity of studies comparing procedural outcomes between surgeons and interventionalists for complex spine procedures, including decompression and fusion. Summary Pain fellowship curriculums have not kept pace with some of procedural advancements within the field. Interventionalists are also not trained to manage potential complications of spinal instrumentation and arthrodesis, which has been recognized as an essential requirement for procedural privileging. Decompression and fusion may therefore be outside the scope of an interventionalist’s practice.
Background Esophageal defects can result from primary pathologies such as malignancy or stricture, or secondary ones such as perforation due to trauma or iatrogenic injury. Techniques, management, and outcomes of reconstruction in this setting are poorly understood. Herein, we aim to highlight surgical outcomes in patients undergoing local and free flap reconstruction of esophageal defects in the setting of an intact larynx. Methods Retrospective review of patients who underwent esophageal reconstruction with an intact larynx between 2009 and 2022 at our institution was performed. Results Ten patients met inclusion criteria. Esophageal reconstruction was performed for extruded spinal hardware ( n = 8), and esophageal stricture ( n = 2). Four patients underwent reconstruction with free tissue transfer, and six with local pedicled flaps. There were no cases of flap failure, esophageal fistula, hematoma, or wound dehiscence. One patient had post‐operative bleeding requiring return to the operating room. Three patients had a postoperative wound infection, two of whom required washout. There were no unplanned 30‐day readmissions. At three months after operation, all patients who were not tube feed‐dependent prior to surgery returned to oral intake. Of the four patients who were tube feed‐dependent preoperatively, three were tolerating oral intake at nine months postoperatively. Nine patients (90%) had stable flexible laryngoscopy exams pre‐ and postoperatively with no voice changes. Conclusions Reconstruction of esophageal defects in the setting of an intact larynx can be challenging. In this series, surgical intervention with free tissue transfer and local pedicled flaps was effective in returning patients to oral intake with low long‐term morbidity. Level of Evidence 4 Laryngoscope , 2023
Streptococcus pneumoniae ( pneumococcus ) is a leading vaccine-preventable cause of childhood invasive disease. Nigeria has the second highest pneumococcal disease burden globally, with an estimated ~49 000 child deaths caused by pneumococcal infections each year. Ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (GSK; PCV10) was introduced in December 2014 in a phased approach. However, few studies have characterized the disease-causing pneumococci from Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence of serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility and genomic lineages using whole genome sequencing and identified lineages that could potentially escape PCV10 (GSK). We also investigated the potential differences in pneumococcal lineage features between children with and without sickle cell disease. A collection of 192 disease-causing pneumococcal isolates was obtained from Kano ( n =189) and Abuja ( n =3) states, Nigeria, between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2018. The majority (99 %, 190/192) of specimens were recovered from children aged 5 years or under. Among them, 37 children had confirmed or traits of sickle cell disease. Our findings identified 25 serotypes expressed by 43 Global Pneumococcal Sequence Clusters (GPSCs) and 85 sequence types (STs). The most common serotypes were 14 (18 %, n =35), 6B (16 %, n =31), 1 (9 %, n =17), 5 (9 %, n =17) and 6A (9 %, n =17); all except serotype 6A are included in PCV10 (GSK). PCV10 (SII; PNEUMOSIL) and PCV13 formulations include serotypes 6A and 19A which would increase the overall coverage from 67 % by PCV10 (GSK) to 78 and 82 %, respectively. The pneumococcal lineages were a mix of globally spreading and unique local lineages. Following the use of PCV10 (GSK), GPSC5 expressing serotype 6A, GPSC10 (19A), GPSC26 (12F and 46) and GPSC627 (9L) are non-vaccine type lineages that could persist and potentially expand under vaccine-selective pressure. Approximately half (52 %, 99/192) of the pneumococcal isolates were resistant to the first-line antibiotic penicillin and 44 % (85/192) were multidrug-resistant. Erythromycin resistance was very low (2 %, 3/192). There was no significant difference in clinical manifestation, serotype prevalence or antibiotic resistance between children with and without traits of or confirmed sickle cell disease. In summary, our findings show that a high percentage of the pneumococcal disease were caused by the serotypes that are covered by currently available vaccines. Given the low prevalence of resistance, macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, should be considered as an option to treat pneumococcal disease in Nigeria. However, appropriate use of macrolide antibiotics should be vigilantly monitored to prevent the potential increase in macrolide resistance.
To compare MRI features of medial and lateral patellar stabilizers in patients with and without patellar instability. Retrospective study of 196 patients (mean age, 33.1 ± 18.5 years; 119 women) after diagnosis of patellar instability (cohort-1, acute patellar dislocation; cohort-2, chronic patellar maltracking) or no patellar instability (cohort-3, acute ACL rupture; cohort-4, chronic medial meniscus tear). On MRI, four medial and four lateral stabilizers were evaluated for visibility and injury by three readers independently. Inter- and intra-reader agreement was determined. Medial and lateral patellofemoral ligaments (MPFL and LPFL) were mostly or fully visualized in all cases (100%). Of the secondary patellar stabilizers, the medial patellotibial ligament was mostly or fully visualized in 166 cases (84.7%). Other secondary stabilizers were mostly or fully visualized in only a minority of cases (range, 0.5–32.1%). Injury scores for all four medial stabilizers were higher in patients with acute patellar dislocation than the other 3 cohorts (p < .05). Visibility inter- and intra-reader agreement was good for medial stabilizers (κ 0.61–0.78) and moderate-to-good for lateral stabilizers (κ 0.40–0.72). Injury inter- and intra-reader agreement was moderate-to-excellent for medial stabilizers (κ 0.43–0.90) and poor-to-moderate for lateral stabilizers (κ 0–0.50). The MPFL and LPFL were well visualized on MRI while the secondary stabilizers were less frequently visualized. The secondary stabilizers were more frequently visualized medially than laterally, and patellotibial ligaments were more frequently visualized compared to the other secondary stabilizers. Injury to the medial stabilizers was more common with acute patellar dislocation than with chronic patellar maltracking or other knee injuries.
To evaluate the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and ophthalmic procedural volume. A retrospective cohort study using TriNetX, a federated electronic health record's research network was done. Monthly Current Procedural Terminology-specific volumes per healthcare organization were clustered chronologically to calculate average volumes into 3-month seasons to calculate average procedural volumes. An aggregate of the total pandemic period (March 2020–August 2021) was compared to corresponding figures in pre-pandemic timeframes. Intravitreal injections were the most prevalent procedure in this time period with 320,106 occurrences. Phacoemulsification cataract surgery was the second most prevalent (N = 176,095) procedure. From March 2020 to August 2021, a mean pandemic volume of 266.7 (SD = 15) was observed, a 5% decrease (p < 0.05) in procedures compared to the pre-pandemic mean of 280.8 (SD = 26.1). Spring 2020 exhibited the sharpest seasonal decrease in procedural volume (− 88%). The largest count of statistically significant increases in procedure volume was in Spring 2021 (+ 18%). The aggregate mean volume per HCO showed significant decreases for 11 out of 17 procedures in the 12 month March 2020–February 2021 timeframe and significant decreases for 10 out of 17 procedures over the 18-month March 2020–August 2021 pandemic period. This study highlights the relative inverse relationship between COVID-19 cases and ophthalmic procedure volume in America. Quantifying ophthalmic procedure trends is important in retrospectively assessing surgical disruptions and prospectively accommodating delayed surgeries. Furthermore, awareness of these trends could help ophthalmologists prepare should similar disruptions occur in the setting of future pandemics or national disasters.
Dysphagia is increasingly common in older adults; it is especially prevalent in long-term care settings. Patients with dysphagia likely require pharmacologic treatment for multiple comorbidities but may find it difficult or impossible to swallow oral medications. Administering crushed medications mixed with a soft food or liquid vehicle, or via a feeding tube, is a common strategy to circumvent swallowing difficulties in patients with dysphagia. However, inappropriate medication use and improper crushing technique can reduce the medication dose a patient receives, alter medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and compromise treatment efficacy and patient safety. Clinical judgment is needed to identify medications that can and cannot be crushed, select a crushing methodology and vehicle for administering crushed medications, and create a strategy for administering multiple medications. A coordinated effort from the entire care team—including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, advanced practice providers, speech therapists, patients, and caregivers—is necessary to develop and implement an individualized plan for administering medications to patients with dysphagia. This review details the current literature regarding the administration of medications that have been altered, such as by crushing tablets or opening capsules, for patients with dysphagia or who are receiving enteral feeding and provides recommendations on best practices.
We investigated whether and how infection prevention programs monitor for health disparities as part of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance through a survey of healthcare epidemiology leaders. Most facilities are not assessing for disparities in HAI rates. Professional society and national guidance should focus on addressing this gap.
Purpose of Review This article aims to review the anatomy and ultrasound techniques of common interfascial plane blocks used for cardiac surgeries along with the current available evidence for regional analgesia. Recent Findings Thoracic erector spinae plane block (ESPB) has a beneficial role in studies when compared with intravenous pain medications or control groups without blocks for cardiac surgeries. Some retrospective studies showed variable analgesic benefits with ESPB, and a recent meta-analysis did not show promising benefits over thoracic epidural analgesia. Serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) is beneficial with minithoractomy incisions for minimally invasive cardiac surgeries, while para sternal blocks (PSB) or parasternal intercostal plane (PIP) blocks are useful for sternotomy incisions. Pectolaris nerve blocks (PECS) have also been used for various cardiac surgeries with a promising role in cardiac pacemaker and ICD surgeries. Summary There is an increasing trend in the usage of fascial plane blocks for cardiac surgeries. Most can be used as components of multimodal analgesia and play a key role in enhanced recovery after cardiac surgery (ERACS) programs. The choice of these fascial plane blocks as opioid-sparing regional analgesia techniques depends on the incision and type of cardiac surgery. A combination of various fascial plane blocks can be used to increase the efficacy of these blocks, but caution should be exercised in limiting the total quantity of the local anesthetic administered.
Purpose Despite easing restrictions on social distancing and travel since the beginning of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, virtual interviews remain a widely used format for ophthalmology fellowship interviews. This study aims to evaluate the relative benefits and drawbacks of in-person versus virtual interviews during a cycle where both formats were prevalent. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study surveyed all fellowship applicants ( N = 311) who applied to Wills Eye Hospital and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute during the 2022 to 2023 application cycle. Results A total of 59 (19%) applicants responded to the survey, with the majority being male (53.0%) and between the ages of 20 and 35 (91.3%). There was no statistically significant difference between the number of virtual and in-person interviews attended or the total number of interviews attended. The highest ranked limitations of the virtual interview process were limited exposure to details of the program structure, limited opportunity to exhibit applicants' strengths to the program, and limited exposure to the fellows. The highest ranked strengths were less pressure during interviews, greater scheduling flexibility, and ability to interview at more fellowship programs. The highest ranked limitations of the in-person interview process were more pressure during interviews, inability to interview at all desired fellowship programs, and decreased scheduling flexibility. The highest ranked strengths based on median rankings were greater exposure to details of the program structure, greater ability to exhibit an applicant's strengths to the program, and greater exposure to the geographic location/city. Conclusion While both in-person and virtual interviews have their own benefits and limitations, virtual interviews appear to be more cost-effective and time-efficient while in-person interviews provide better opportunities to assess program fit and culture. A hybrid format that combines the ideal aspects of both formats may be an optimal solution.
Background: Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) are observable, essential tasks that subspecialists are expected to perform for safe and effective patient care. Pediatric Cardiology (PC) specific EPAs have been developed, but their general use in assessment for PC fellows for graduation requirements has yet to be studied. Objective: To determine the minimum level of supervision (LOS) required for PC fellows to graduate and compare it with the minimum LOS expected for safe and effective practice for the 6 PC EPAs, from the perspective of PC fellowship program directors (FPD). Method: Six PC EPAs and their LOS scales were developed by medical educators in PC using a modified Delphi process and reviewed by the Subspecialty Pediatrics Investigator Network (SPIN). All FPDs of ACGME-accredited PC fellowships were surveyed through SPIN between April 2017 and August 2017. For each of the PC EPAs, the FPDs were asked to indicate the minimum LOS expected for graduation, whether they would allow a fellow to graduate if this level was not achieved. The minimum LOS expected for a practicing pediatric cardiologist to provide safe and effective patient care. The minimum level of supervision (LOS) was defined as the LOS for which no more than 20% of FPDs would want a lower level. Results: The survey response rate was 80% (47/59). The majority of the FPDs did not require a minimum LOS of 5 corresponding to unsupervised practice in any of the 6 PC EPAs at graduation. For EPAs related to imaging, arrhythmia management, and management of cardiac problems, the minimum LOS for graduation was 3, corresponding to being “trusted to perform a task with indirect supervision for most simple and a few complex cases.” For the EPAs related to interventional cardiology, heart failure pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac intensive care, the minimum LOS for graduation was 2, corresponding to being “trusted to perform a task only with direct supervision and coaching.” The minimum LOS considered necessary for safe and effective practice for all but one EPA was 3. For the EPA related to the management of cardiac problems, the minimum LOS for safe practice was 4, corresponding to being “trusted to execute tasks independently except for few complex and critical cases.” Conclusion: Most PC FPDs reported they would not require fellows to achieve the highest entrustment level for any of the 6 PC EPAs for graduation. It is crucial that educational programs evolve to address these essential activities during training better and that stakeholders ensure that graduating PC fellows have adequate resources and infrastructure to continue professional development as early-career pediatric cardiologists.
Background: While there has been a marked increase in measurement and scholarship surrounding social norms in recent years, there is little evidence related to social norms measurement in the context of health campaigns utilizing entertainment-education. Entertainment-education goals and objectives have shifted over time to include social norms and an update is needed to merge contemporary practice with the most recent measures from the literature. The aim of the present study was to analyze commonly used quantitative measures and their properties for social norms and entertainment-education, specifically on the topic of family planning, to bolster ongoing research and practice efforts by validating items for social norms measurement in entertainment-education programs. Methods: The study used data from a survey conducted with 438 married women aged 19-34 in the Central Province of Zambia in 2019 who were exposed to the entertainment-education initiative Kwishilya (Over the Horizon), a Bemba-language, 156-episode radio program designed to shift social norms on family planning. Multiple items were included to measure descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and outcome expectations. Exploratory factor analysis and estimates of scale reliability were conducted to understand the properties and structure of the social norms items. Results: Results showed a five-factor solution best fit the data, which accounted for 45.7% of the variance, exhibited fair reliability, and loaded largely as expected. Conclusions: This study provides a useful tool for practitioners and scholars to use globally to measure important social norms constructs in entertainment-education.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.