Jazan University
  • Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Recent publications
Cancer ranks as the second foremost cause of death in various corners of the globe. The clinical uses of assorted anticancer therapeutics have been limited owing to the poor physicochemical attributes, pharmacokinetic performance, and lethal toxicities. Various sorts of co-crystals or nano co-crystals or co-crystals-laden nanocarriers have presented great promise in targeting cancer via improved physicochemical attributes, pharmacokinetic performance, and reduced toxicities. These systems have also demonstrated the controlled cargo release and passive targeting via enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. In addition, regional delivery of co-crystals via inhalation and transdermal route displayed remarkable potential in targeting lung and skin cancer effectively. However, more research is required on the use of co-crystals in cancer and their commercialization. The present review mainly emphasizes co-crystals as emerging avenues in the treatment of various cancers by modulating the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic attributes of approved anticancer therapeutics. The worth of co-crystals in cancer treatment, computational paths in the co-crystals screening, diverse experimental techniques of co-crystals fabrication, and sorts of co-crystals and their noteworthy applications in targeting cancer are also discussed. Besides, the game changer approaches like nano co-crystals and co-crystals-laden nanocarriers, and co-crystals in regional delivery in cancer are also explained with reported case studies. Furthermore, regulatory directives for pharmaceutical co-crystals and their scale-up, and challenges are also highlighted with concluding remarks and future initiatives. In essence, co-crystals and nano co-crystals emerge to be a promising strategy in overwhelming cancers through improving anticancer efficacy, safety, patient compliance, and reducing the cost.
Objective: Data regarding the imbalance in follicular helper T (Tfh) and follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cell responses in patients having chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is so far limited. Thus, we aimed to assess the changes in circulating Tfh and Tfr in CRSwNP patients. Methods: This case-control study included 21 patients having CRSwNP and 20 age and sex-matched healthy blood donors as a control group. Lund-Mackay staging system was used for radiologic scoring of chronic rhinosinusitis. Two milliliters of peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants into EDTA-containing vacutainer tubes to assess the levels of Tfh and Tfr cells using flow cytometry. Results: Patients having CRSwNP did not show significant differences in the percentages of CD4 + T cells and total CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells from healthy controls. Meanwhile, levels of both activated circulating Tfh and Tfr showed a marked rise in patients than controls. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the levels of both activated Tfh and Tfr cells. Conclusion: An imbalance in circulating Tfh/Tfr levels was detected in patients having CRSwNP. A significant rise in the levels of Tfh and Tfr was detected in patients proposing a possible role of this imbalance in disease pathogenesis.
This work gives a comprehensive chromatographic assessment of biodiesel generation from plant seed oil using ecologically friendly nano‐catalysts. Researchers all over the world are actively looking for new ways to satisfy the urgent need for clean and renewable energy sources. The resultant biodiesel was fully characterized utilizing modern techniques like scanning electron microscopy, energy diffraction X‐ray and X‐ray diffraction. The biodiesel gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed four significant peaks of fatty acid methyl esters, indicating high‐quality biodiesel production. Furthermore, the biodiesel fuel qualities were discovered to be comparable with international standards such as ASTM D‐6571 and EN‐14214. This indicates that the iron‐modified clay nano‐catalyst can be used as a catalyst for large‐scale biodiesel production. This work is important because it could lead to the large‐scale production of a novel, non‐food feedstock. We may lessen our reliance on fossil fuels and contribute to a more sustainable and ecologically friendly energy future by leveraging the usage of biodiesel produced in this way. The chromatographic assessment of biodiesel production from non‐edible seed oil using environmentally benign nano‐catalysts holds significant promise in advancing sustainable and eco‐friendly biodiesel production methods, contributing to a cleaner and more environmentally responsible energy sector.
In the face of increasing demand for healthcare services and limited resources, healthcare systems are struggling to keep up with the pace of technological advancements. To address these challenges, meta-heuristics (MH) has emerged as a promising tool for optimizing decision-making and improving healthcare delivery. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the role of MH in the healthcare system, starting with an introduction to the fundamental concepts and various applications of MH in healthcare. The chapter delves into various MH techniques, including genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, and particle swarm optimization, and their application in solving healthcare problems such as resource allocation, treatment planning, and diagnosis. The strengths and limitations of these techniques are also discussed in detail, along with case studies that demonstrate their successful implementation in healthcare. MH techniques have the potential to enhance healthcare delivery by improving patient outcomes and reducing costs. For example, genetic algorithms can be used to optimize cancer treatment plans and reduce the amount of radiation exposure. Simulated annealing can be employed in scheduling healthcare staff and resources to reduce waiting times and improve patient satisfaction. Particle swarm optimization can be used in optimizing hospital bed allocation, reducing overcrowding, and minimizing patient wait times. The chapter highlights that the success of MH techniques in healthcare is dependent on several factors, such as the selection of appropriate optimization algorithms, data quality, and model complexity. The chapter concludes with a discussion on future directions for research, including the integration of MH techniques with other artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, such as machine learning and natural language processing. Moreover, the chapter identifies potential areas for future application of MH in healthcare, including personalized medicine, clinical decision support systems, and healthcare supply chain management.
In this article, we propose a novel new iteration method and homotopy perturbation method (HPM) along with the Elzaki transform to compute the analytical and semi-analytical approximations of fractional Airy’s-type partial differential equations (FAPDEs) subjected to specific initial conditions. A convergent series solution form with easily commutable coefficients is used to examine and compare the performance of the suggested methods. Using Maple graphical method analysis, the behavior of the estimated series results at various fractional orders ς \varsigma and its modeling in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) spaces are compared with actual results. Also, detailed descriptions of the physical and geometric implications of the calculated graphs in 2D and 3D spaces are provided. As a result, the obtained solutions of FAPDEs that are subject to particular initial values quite closely match the exact solutions. In this way, to solve FAPDEs quickly, the proposed approaches are considered to be more accurate and efficient.
Low bone mass, degeneration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone microarchitecture are all symptoms of the disease osteoporosis, which can decrease bone strength and increase the risk of fractures. The main objective of the current study was to use a phospholipid-based phase separation in-situ gel (PPSG) in combination with an alendronate sodium nanoemulsion (ALS-NE) to help prevent bone resorption in rats. The effect of factors such as concentrations of the ALS aqueous solution, surfactant Plurol Oleique CC 497, and Maisine CC oil on nanoemulsion characteristics such as stability index and globular size was investigated using an l-optimal coordinate exchange statistical design. Injectable PPSG with the best nanoemulsion formulation was tested for viscosity, gel strength, water absorption, and in-vitro ALS release. ALS retention in the rats’ muscles was measured after 30 days. The droplet size and stability index of the optimal nanoemulsion were 90 ± 2.0 nm and 85 ± 1.9%, respectively. When mixed with water, the optimal ALS-NE–loaded PPSG became viscous and achieved 36 seconds of gel strength, which was adequate for an injectable in-situ formulation. In comparison with the ALS solution–loaded in-situ gel, the newly created optimal ALS-NE–loaded PPSG produced the sustained and regulated release of ALS; hence, a higher percentage of ALS remained in rats’ muscles after 30 days. PPSG that has been loaded with an ALS-NE may therefore be a more auspicious, productive, and effective platform for osteoporosis treatment than conventional oral forms.
This study focuses on developing the production of ultra-high-performance lightweight concrete (UHPLC) by combining pumice with an air-entraining agent. Air-entraining agents of aluminum powder (AP) and lightcrete (LC) were added in amounts of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% by weight of cement to create air bubbles. Crushed pumice has also been used as a partial sand replacement in proportions of 25% and 50% by volume, with or without the addition of AP or LC. To investigate the fresh, mechanical, and microstructural properties, seventeen UHPLC combinations were constructed. A slump flow diameter test was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of fresh UHPLC, and mechanical properties were evaluated by completing dry density, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and dry shrinkage tests. The effect of high temperatures of 20, 400, 600, and 800 °C on compressive strength was also investigated. The microstructure characteristics were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. The research concluded that high-performance concrete with a compressive strength of 127.6 MPa and a dry density of 1970 kg/m3 could be produced after a 28-day age test. This was accomplished by including 0.1% LC by weight of cement and 25% pumice as a partial substitute for sand. The mixture with 50% pumice as a partial replacement for sand and the addition of 0.5% LC of the cement weight exhibited the least loss in compressive strength when subjected to high temperatures.
Bacillus anthracis, a formidable Gram-positive bacterium, stands as one of the most notorious and enigmatic pathogens known to mankind. Its distinct characteristics have captured the attention of scientists and the collective human imagination for centuries. This bacterium is responsible for causing Anthrax, one of the world's most feared infectious diseases. Substantial endeavors have been undertaken since the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States to develop effective methods for anthrax spore detection. These initiatives aim to swiftly and accurately identify the presence of anthrax spores to prevent the spread of the disease. The detection of Bacillus anthracis spores plays a critical role in maintaining biosecurity and preventing disease outbreaks. These spores contain a unique component called dipicolinic acid (DPA), which accounts for approximately 5–15% of the spore's dry mass. DPA is exclusively found in bacterial spores and serves as an ideal biomarker for the detection of Bacillus anthracis spores. Therefore, accurate detection of DPA plays a crucial role in understanding spore formation and bacterial identification. This review article summarized various types of nanomaterials, including metallic nanoparticles, carbon dots, quantum dots, metal–organic frameworks and other materials, that have been used for colorimetric and fluorescent sensing of DPA. Furthermore, this review article also provides information about the sensing mechanism, detection limit, selectivity, pH and practical applications of the sensors reported in the literature. We hope that this article will inspire interest in the promising research area of nanomaterials-based sensors for the recognition of DPA. Graphical abstract
Thermophoresis and Brownian motion simultaneously occur in numerous industrial processes and have significance from an engineering point of view. The modeling of such processes provides mathematical models. The solutions of these models are used to investigate the dynamics of thermophoresis and Brownian motion in the fluid subjected to Ohmic and viscous dissipation and thermal radiation in the presence of a magnetic field. The cross-rheological model is used for modelling. Numerical solutions to the problems are computed using the finite element method (FEM). Numerical modeling through FEM is easier for complex geometries and shapes. Further, adaptability, accuracy and convergence are its key features. The grid-independent analysis is performed, accuracy is ensured and convergence is studied. Thermophoresis effects have increasing effects on the concentration profile. The strongest thermophoresis effects in mono-nano-cross-fluid are found in comparison to hybrid and ternary nanofluids. The Brownian motion parameter has a decreasing impact on the concentration profile. The strongest impact of the Brownian motion parameter in the case of ternary nanofluid is noted. Moreover, Brownian motion plays a significant role in controlling the thickness of the concentration boundary layer. Heat generation causes an increase in the thermal boundary layer region. The ternary nanofluid generates the heat. Therefore, it is recommended that fluid should not be heat generative as it impacts the efficiencies of fluid adversely. Hence, for maximum transportation of heat, ternary nanofluid should not be heat generative. The destructive chemical reaction, an enhancement in wall mass flux is noted. However, wall mass flux decreases as the strength of the generative chemical reaction increases.
Despite the large binding energy of charge transfer (CT) excitons at type-II organic/2D heterostructures, it has been demonstrated that free carriers can be generated from CT excitons with a long...
The contemporary world faces significant challenges with the depletion of non-renewable energy sources and the escalation of global temperatures. H2 as an energy source is a sustainable, renewable, and environmentally-friendly alternative. Electrochemical water splitting using an efficient electrocatalyst is an optimistic approach for hydrogen production. The primary concern is the development of durable, cost-effective, and highly-efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst to enhance electrochemical water splitting. The present investigation employs CuS as the electrocatalyst, followed by the implementation of two techniques, doping and composite material synthesis, to enhance its electrocatalytic characteristics. CuS samples doped with varying weight percentages of Ni (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt.%) and a composite material of 6% Ni@CuS with SGCN were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. Electrocatalysts were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Doping and composite material synthesis enhance the electrochemical water-splitting activity, as LSV, CV, EIS, and chronopotentiometry analyses demonstrated. The electrochemical water splitting process exhibits maximum performance when utilizing Ni@CuS/SGCN, resulting in low overpotential of 380 mV for OER and 178 mV for HER, achieving a current density of 10 mA/cm2. The findings indicate that composite Ni@CuS/SGCN can potentially serve as an electrocatalyst for water splitting.
We fabricate a nanocomposite (NC) of polycarbonate (PC), Zinc sul�de (ZnS) and Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticle by the sol-gel and ex-situ casting processes. We trust that this study is novel in the area of the impact of laser on such NC. The Rietveld alteration of XRD records indicates that both the prepared ZnS and NiO have a nano-nature of an average particle size of 4 and 18 nm. Samples of the PC/ZnS-NiO NC �lms are exposed to numerous laser uences (4 { 30 J/cm2). We investigate the resulting outcome of the laser exposure on the optical behavior of the NC �lms, using ultraviolet spectroscopy (UVs). Upon raising the uence up to 30 J/cm2, both the indirect and direct band gaps reduce. The Urbach energy exhibits a reverse trend. This can be attributable to the domination of chain crosslinks. Also, we detect the nature of microelectronic transitions, using the optical dielectric loss "00 and �nd that the PC/ZnS-NiO NC �lms possess direct allowed transitions. Also, we study the laser induced modi�cations in the optical conductivity and dielectric parameters. Moreover, the optical coloration changes between the exposed samples and pristine are estimated. The pristine NC sample is uncolored. It shows signi�cant color alterations upon the laser exposure. The induced improvements in the optical characters suggest that the laser is a convenient mean that permits the use of PC/ZnS-NiO NC in the optoelectronic devices.
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2,224 members
Erwa ELmakki
  • Faculty of Medicine-Department of Internal Medicine
Karunamoorthi Kaliyaperumal
  • Faculty of Health Sciences
Syam Mohan
  • Medical Research Center
Amit Porwal
  • Faculty of Dentistry
Hussein Ageely
  • Department of Internal Medicine
Al Maarefah Rd, 45142, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Head of institution
Dr. Marei Bin Hussein Mohammed Al-Qahtani