James Cook University
  • Townsville, Queensland, Australia
Recent publications
Grant-free random access is an effective solution to enable massive access for future Internet of Vehicles (IoV) scenarios based on massive machine-type communication (mMTC). Considering the uplink transmission of grant-free based vehicular networks, vehicular devices sporadically access the base station, the joint active device detection (ADD) and channel estimation (CE) problem can be addressed by compressive sensing (CS) recovery algorithms due to the sparsity of transmitted signals. However, traditional CS-based algorithms present high complexity and low recovery accuracy. In this manuscript, we propose a novel alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm with low complexity to solve this problem by minimizing the $\ell_{2,1}$ norm. Furthermore, we design a deep unfolded network with learnable parameters based on the proposed ADMM, which can simultaneously improve convergence rate and recovery accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed unfolded network performs better performance than other traditional algorithms in terms of ADD and CE.
The 7th National Audit Project (NAP7) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists studied complications of the airway and respiratory system during anaesthesia care including peri‐operative cardiac arrest. Among 24,721 surveyed cases, airway and respiratory complications occurred commonly (n = 421 and n = 264, respectively). The most common airway complications were: laryngospasm (157, 37%); airway failure (125, 30%); and aspiration (27, 6%). Emergency front of neck airway was rare (1 in 8370, 95%CI 1 in 2296–30,519). The most common respiratory complications were: severe ventilation difficulty (97, 37%); hyper/hypocapnia (63, 24%); and hypoxaemia (62, 23%). Among 881 reports to NAP7 and 358 deaths, airway and respiratory complications accounted for 113 (13%) peri‐operative cardiac arrests and 32 (9%) deaths, with hypoxaemia as the most common primary cause. Airway and respiratory cases had higher and lower survival rates than other causes of cardiac arrest, respectively. Patients with obesity, young children (particularly infants) and out‐of‐hours care were overrepresented in reports. There were six cases of unrecognised oesophageal intubation with three resulting in cardiac arrest. Of these cases, failure to correctly interpret capnography was a recurrent theme. Cases of emergency front of neck airway (6, approximately 1 in 450,000) and pulmonary aspiration (11, approximately 1 in 25,000) leading to cardiac arrest were rare. Overall, these data, while distinct from the 4th National Audit Project, suggest that airway management is likely to have become safer in the last decade, despite the surgical population having become more challenging for anaesthetists.
Background Recent deliberations by Australian public health researchers and practitioners produced an ethical framework of how decisions should be made to distribute pandemic influenza vaccine. The outcome of the deliberations was that the population should be considered in two categories, Level 1 and Level 2, with Level 1 groups being offered access to the pandemic influenza vaccine before other groups. However, the public health researchers and practitioners recognised the importance of making space for public opinion and sought to understand citizens values and preferences, especially First Nations peoples. Methods We conducted First Nations Community Panels in two Australian locations in 2019 to assess First Nations people’s informed views through a deliberative process on pandemic influenza vaccination distribution strategies. Panels were asked to make decisions on priority levels, coverage and vaccine doses. Results Two panels were conducted with eighteen First Nations participants from a range of ages who were purposively recruited through local community networks. Panels heard presentations from public health experts, cross-examined expert presenters and deliberated on the issues. Both panels agreed that First Nations peoples be assigned Level 1 priority, be offered pandemic influenza vaccination before other groups, and be offered two doses of vaccine. Reasons for this decision included First Nations people’s lives, culture and families are important; are at-risk of severe health outcomes; and experience barriers and challenges to accessing safe, quality and culturally appropriate healthcare. We found that communication strategies, utilising and upskilling the First Nations health workforce, and targeted vaccination strategies are important elements in pandemic preparedness and response with First Nations peoples. Conclusions First Nations Community Panels supported prioritising First Nations peoples for pandemic influenza vaccination distribution and offering greater protection by using a two-dose full course to fewer people if there are initial supply limitations, instead of one dose to more people, during the initial phase of the vaccine roll out. The methodology and findings can help inform efforts in planning for future pandemic vaccination strategies for First Nations peoples in Australia.
Background The Lihir Islands of Papua New Guinea host a mining operation that has resulted in a mine-impacted zone (MIZ) with reduced malaria transmission and a substantial influx of mine employees, informal cross-country traders, returning locals, and visitors. Prevalence of malaria parasites was assessed in travellers arriving on the Lihir Group of Islands to evaluate the risk of parasite importation. Methods In 2018, a cross-sectional study at the airport and main wharf was conducted, targeting asymptomatic travellers who had been away from Lihir for at least 12 days. Microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to determine Plasmodium parasite prevalence, employing logistic regression models to identify factors associated with qPCR positivity. Results 398 travellers arriving by plane and 402 arriving by boat were included. Both cohorts were significantly different. Mean age among travellers arriving by plane was 40.1 years (SD ± 10.1), 93% were male and 96% were employed at the mine. In contrast, among travellers arriving by boat, the mean age was 31.7 years (SD ± 14.0), 68% were male and 36% were employed at the mine. The prevalence of malaria infection among travellers arriving by plane was 1% by RDT and microscopy, and increased to 5% by qPCR. In contrast, those arriving by boat showed a prevalence of 8% by RDT and microscopy, and 17% by qPCR. Risk factors for infection were arriving by boat (OR 4.2; 95%CI 2.45,7.21), arriving from nearby provinces with high malaria incidence (OR 5.02; 95%CI 1.80, 14.01), and having been away from Lihir for 91 days or more (OR 4.15; 95%CI 2.58, 6.66). Being mine worker staying at the mine accommodation was related with less infection risk (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.14, 0.43); while Lihirian residents returning from a trip, VFRs, or people with trading unrelated to mining had higher risks (p = 0.0066). Conclusions Travellers arriving by boat faced increased risk of malaria infection than those arriving by plane. This subpopulation poses an import risk to the MIZ and the rest of Lihir Islands. Screening of high-risk groups at wharfs, and collaboration with nearby Islands, could sustain reduced transmission and facilitate malaria elimination strategies.
The efficacy of pre-erythrocytic stage malaria antigens or vaccine platforms is routinely assessed in murine models challenged with Plasmodium sporozoites. Relative liver-stage parasite burden is quantified using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RTqPCR), which relies on constitutively expressed endogenous control reference genes. However, the stability of host-reference gene expression for RTqPCR analysis following Plasmodium challenge and immunization has not been systematically evaluated. Herein, we evaluated the stability of expression of twelve common RTqPCR reference genes in a murine model of Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite challenge and DNA-adenovirus IV 'Prime-Target' immunization. Significant changes in expression for six of twelve reference genes were shown by one-way ANOVA, when comparing gene expression levels among challenge, immunized, and naïve mice groups. These changes were attributed to parasite challenge or immunization when comparing group means using post-hoc Bonferroni corrected multiple comparison testing. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA) and TATA-binding protein (TBP) were identified as stable host-reference genes suitable for relative RTqPCR data normalisation, using the RefFinder package. We defined a robust threshold of 'partial-protection’ with these genes and developed a strategy to simultaneously quantify matched host parasite burden and cytokine responses following immunisation or challenge. This is the first report systematically identifying reliable host reference genes for RTqPCR analysis following Plasmodium sporozoite challenge. A robust RTqPCR protocol incorporating reliable reference genes which enables simultaneous analysis of host whole-liver cytokine responses and parasite burden will significantly standardise and enhance results between international malaria vaccine efficacy studies.
Poales are one of the most species-rich, ecologically and economically important orders of plants and often characterise open habitats, enabled by unique suites of traits. We test six hypotheses regarding the evolution and assembly of Poales in open and closed habitats throughout the world and examine whether diversification patterns demonstrate parallel evolution. We sampled 42% of Poales species and obtained taxonomic and biogeographic data from the World Checklist of Vascular Plants database, which was combined with open/closed habitat data scored by taxonomic experts. A dated supertree of Poales was constructed. We integrated spatial phylogenetics with regionalisation analyses, historical biogeography and ancestral state estimations. Diversification in Poales and assembly of open and closed habitats result from dynamic evolutionary processes that vary across lineages, time and space, most prominently in tropical and southern latitudes. Our results reveal parallel and recurrent patterns of habitat and trait transitions in the species-rich families Poaceae and Cyperaceae. Smaller families display unique and often divergent evolutionary trajectories. The Poales have achieved global dominance via parallel evolution in open habitats, with notable, spatially and phylogenetically restricted divergences into strictly closed habitats.
This systematic review and meta-analysis compared muscle damage markers and physical performance measures between 2 bouts of multiarticular exercises and determined whether intensity and volume of muscle-damaging exercises affected the outcomes. The eligibility criteria consisted of (a) healthy male and female adults; (b) multiarticular exercises to cause muscle damage across 2 bouts; (c) outcome measures were compared at 24-48 hours after the first and second bouts of muscle-damaging exercise; (d) at least one of the following outcome measures: creatine kinase (CK), delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle strength, and running economy. Study appraisal was conducted using the Kmet tool, whereas forest plots were derived to calculate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and statistical significance and alpha set a 0.05. After screening, 20 studies were included. The levels of DOMS and CK were significantly greater during the first bout when compared with the second bout at T24 and T48 (p , 0.001; SMD 5 0.51-1.23). Muscular strength and vertical jump performance were significantly lower during the first bout compared with the second bout at T24 and T48 (p # 0.05; SMD 5 20.27 to 20.40), whereas oxygen consumption and rating of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the first bout at T24 and T48 (p , 0.05; SMD 5 0.28-0.65) during running economy protocols. The meta-analyses were unaffected by changes in intensity and volume of muscle-damaging exercises between bouts. Multiarticular exercises exhibited a repeated bout effect, suggesting that a single bout of commonly performed exercises involving eccentric contractions may provide protection against exercise-induced muscle damage for subsequent bouts.
Large-scale natural soundscapes are remarkably complex and offer invaluable insights into the biodiversity and health of ecosystems. Recent advances have shown promising results in automatically classifying the sounds captured using passive acoustic monitoring. However, the accuracy performance and lack of transferability across diverse environments remains a challenge. To rectify this, we propose a robust and flexible ecoacoustics sound classification grid search-based framework using optimised machine learning algorithms for the analysis of large-scale natural soundscapes. It consists of four steps: pre-processing including the application of spectral subtraction denoising to two distinct datasets extracted from the Australian Acoustic Observatory, feature extraction using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, feature reduction, and classification using a grid search approach for hyperparameter tuning across classifiers including Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbour, and Artificial Neural Networks. With 10-fold cross validation, our experimental results revealed that the best models obtained a classification accuracy of 96% and above in both datasets across the four major categories of sound (biophony, geophony, anthrophony, and silence). Furthermore, cross-dataset validation experiments using a pooled dataset highlight that our framework is rigorous and adaptable, despite the high variance in possible sounds at each site.
Increases in the frequency, intensity and/or diversity of disturbances affecting coral reefs are leading to concerns; some reefs will be overgrown by macroalgae. While numerous studies, particularly in the Pacific, have used macroalgal assays to quantify the rates and agents of herbivory of Sargassum, little is known of the capacity of reef fishes to reduce biomass of Lobophora, a common alga in macroalgal-dominated areas. The aim of this study was to determine the relative palatability of Lobophora to local herbivorous assemblages across two inshore reefs (Havannah Island and Orpheus Island) in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Multiple choice macroalgal assays were deployed on the reef crest on each reef to determine the relative palatability of three macroalgae taxa: Lobophora, Sargassum and Padina. Additional Lobophora-only assays were deployed on the reef crest at Orpheus Island. Overall, the average reduction in macroalgal biomass was greater at Orpheus Island (25.3 g/3 h, pooled across macroalgae taxa) compared to Havannah Island (5.0 g/3 h), with the reduction in Lobophora biomass (0.3–1.5 g/3 h) being significantly lower than Sargassum (4.7–19.1 g/3 h) at both reefs. The reduction in Lobophora biomass at Orpheus Island was consistently low, whether presented in multiple choice (1.5 g/3 h) or Lobophora-only assays (1.7 g/3 h). Video observations revealed that four species of herbivorous fish (Kyphosis vaigiensis, Naso unicornis, Siganus doliatus, and Siganus canaliculatus) were responsible for the majority of the bites recorded on algae. Despite differences in the relative importance of these four species between islands, all four species took more bites from the Sargassum than Lobophora. The limited susceptibility of adult Lobophora to local herbivorous fish assemblages over short (3 h) temporal scales may play a role in the persistence of Lobophora-dominated areas on inshore reefs of the GBR. Future investigations over longer temporal scales and under different contexts are required to fully assess the susceptibility of Lobophora to herbivores.
Background and Aims Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) vaccination and antiviral therapies have altered the course of the COVID‐19 pandemic through mitigating severe illness and death. However, immunocompromised, elderly and multimorbid patients remain at risk of poor outcomes and are overrepresented in hospital populations. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients with nosocomial COVID‐19 infection. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of patients who acquired COVID‐19 after 7 days of hospital admission within the Southern Adelaide Local Health Network (SALHN) in South Australia between 1 June 2022 and 30 November 2022. Data were ascertained from the electronic medical record and the South Australian registry of births, deaths and marriages. Results Of 1084 COVID‐19 inpatient cases managed in SALHN, 295 (27%) were nosocomial, with 215 included in the study. The median age of patients was 80 years (interquartile range [IQR], 68–88 years), the median Charlson Comorbidity Index score was 5 (IQR, 4–7) and 6% were immunocompromised. Most nosocomial COVID‐19 infections were of mild severity (81%). The 30‐day all‐cause mortality rate following COVID‐19 infection was 6%, and, in most cases, a cause of death other than COVID‐19 was recorded on the death certificate. Conclusion The majority of cases of nosocomial COVID‐19 infection were mild, with a lower mortality rate than in earlier studies. This finding is likely attributable to immunity through vaccination and prior infection, early antiviral therapy and attenuated severity of the Omicron variant. The high proportion of nosocomial infections supports ongoing infection control measures.
Over the years, Ghana has made notable strides in adopting digital approaches to address societal challenges and meet demands. While the health sector, particularly the disease surveillance structure, has embraced digitization to enhance case detection, reporting, analysis, and information dissemination, critical aspects remain to be addressed. Although the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) structure has experienced remarkable growth in digitization, certain areas require further attention as was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ghana during the COVID-19 pandemic, recognized the importance of leveraging digital technologies to bolster the public health response. To this end, Ghana implemented various digital surveillance tools to combat the pandemic. These included the “Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS)”, the digitalized health declaration form, ArcGIS Survey123, Talkwalker, “Lightwave Health information Management System” (LHIMS), and the “District Health Information Management System (DHIMS)”. These digital systems significantly contributed to the country's success in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. One key area where digital systems have proved invaluable is in the timely production of daily COVID-19 situational updates. This task would have been arduous and delayed if reliant solely on paper-based forms, which hinder efficient reporting to other levels within the health system. By adopting these digital systems, Ghana has been able to overcome such challenges and provide up-to-date information for making informed public health decisions. This paper attempts to provide an extensive description of the digital systems currently employed to enhance Ghana's paper-based disease surveillance system in the context of its response to COVID-19. The article explores the strengths and challenges or limitations associated with these digital systems for responding to outbreaks, offering valuable lessons that can be learned from their implementation.
Purpose Although knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) sufferers are at an increased risk of falls, possibly due to impaired gait function, the associated gaze behaviour in patients with KOA are largely unknown. Thus, we compared gait and gaze behaviours characteristics between KOA patients and asymptomatic age-matched controls. Results For Timed Up and Go (TUG) and stair climb tasks, the KOA group demonstrated longer periods of gaze fixations with less frequency of fixations compared to the control group. Conversely, for the Timed up and Go Agility (TUGA) test shorter fixation and frequency patterns were observed. The KOA group presented a shorter final stride length prior to the initiation of the first step in the Stair climb assessment. In addition, for the 30m walk and dual task assessments, the average step length was significantly shorter in the KOA group compared to controls. Conclusion Overall, we found altered gait and gaze behaviours are evident in KOA patients which could relate to their increased falls risk.
Understanding the influence of non‐native herbivores on ecosystems by means of dietary foraging and seed dispersal is important for understanding how non‐native species can alter an invaded landscape, yet requires multiple methodologies. In south‐eastern Australia, introduced sambar deer ( Rusa unicolor ) are rapidly expanding in range and placing native ecosystems at risk through browsing and as vectors for seed dispersal. We simultaneously investigated sambar deer dietary composition and seed dispersal using DNA sequencing and germination trials, from faecal pellets collected in alpine and wet forest ecosystems. This allowed us to contrast the dietary impacts of introduced sambar deer in different environments, and to explore the potential for habitat‐specific variation in diet. DNA sequencing of the trnL , ITS2 and rbcL gene regions revealed a diverse plant species dietary composition comprising 1003 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Sambar deer exhibited intermediate feeder behaviours dominated by forbs in alpine and shrubs in wet forest ecosystems. A large proportion of plant OTUs were considered likely to be native, however, the proportion of exotic species in the diet in both ecosystems was greater than would be expected based on the proportion of exotic species in each of the two landscapes. Seed germination trials indicated that sambar deer can disperse a substantial number of native and exotic species in both alpine and wet forest ecosystems. In alpine ecosystems, an individual sambar deer was estimated to disperse on average 816 (±193) seeds per day during the study period, of which 652 (±176) were exotic. Synthesis and applications . Our results suggest that native plant species comprise the majority of sambar deer diets in Australian ecosystems and that the introduced species is dispersing both native and exotic plant species via endozoochory. However, exotic species seedling germination numbers were significantly higher in alpine ecosystems, and given the large daily movements of sambar deer, represents a significant vector for the spread of exotic plant species. Management of native plant species and vegetation communities of conservation significance, or at risk to sambar deer browsing is of high priority, through either the removal of sambar deer or implementation of exclusion‐based methods.
Background Past studies suggest that there are changes in peripheral blood cell gene expression in response to ischaemic stroke; however, the specific changes which occur during the acute phase are poorly characterised. The current study aimed to identify peripheral blood cell genes specifically associated with the early response to ischaemic stroke using whole blood samples collected from participants diagnosed with ischaemic stroke (n = 29) or stroke mimics (n = 27) following emergency presentation to hospital. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), mRNA and micro-RNA (miRNA) abundance was measured by RNA-seq, and the consensusDE package was used to identify genes which were differentially expressed between groups. A sensitivity analysis excluding two participants with metastatic disease was also conducted. Results The mean time from symptom onset to blood collection was 2.6 h. Most strokes were mild (median NIH stroke scale score 2.0). Ten mRNAs (all down-regulated in samples provided by patients experiencing ischaemic stroke) and 30 miRNAs (14 over-expressed and 16 under-expressed in participants with ischaemic stroke) were significantly different between groups in the whole cohort and sensitivity analyses. No significant over-representation of gene ontology categories by the differentially expressed genes was observed. Random forest analysis suggested a panel of differentially expressed genes (ADGRG7 and miRNAs 96, 532, 6766, 6798 and 6804) as potential ischaemic stroke biomarkers, although modelling analyses demonstrated that these genes had poor diagnostic performance. Conclusions This study provides evidence suggesting that the early response to minor ischaemic stroke is predominantly reflected by changes in the expression of miRNAs in peripheral blood cells. Further work in independent cohorts particularly in patients with more severe stroke is needed to validate these findings and investigate their clinical relevance.
In 2023, a Diploma of Rural Generalist Anaesthesia (DipRGA) was implemented across Australia. Developed collaboratively by the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA), the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM) and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP), the 12-month qualification is completed during or following ACRRM or RACGP Rural Generalist Fellowship training. Focused on the needs of rural and remote communities for elective and emergency surgery, maternity care, resuscitative care for medical illness or injury, and stabilisation for retrieval, the DipRGA supports rural generalist anaesthetists working within collaborative teams in geographically isolated settings. The goal is a graduate who can anaesthetise American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class 1, 2 and stable 3 patients for elective surgery, provide obstetric anaesthesia and analgesia, anaesthetise paediatric patients and undertake advanced crisis care within their scope of practice. Crucially, they also recognise both limitations of their skills and local resources available when considering whether to provide care, defer, refer or transfer patients. DipRGA curriculum design commenced by adapting the ANZCA specialist training curriculum with consideration of the training approach of both the ACRRM and the RACGP, particularly the rural and remote context. Curriculum content is addressed in seven entrustable professional activities supported by workplace-based assessments and multisource feedback. Trainees are supervised by rural generalist anaesthetists and specialist anaesthetists, and complete flexible learning activities to accommodate geographical dispersion. Standardised summative assessments include an early test of knowledge and an examination, adapted from the ACRRM structured assessment using multiple patient scenarios.
Waterways that drain the Great Barrier Reef Catchment Area (GBRCA) transport pollutants to marine habitats, provide a critical corridor between freshwater and marine habitats for migratory fish species, and are of high socioecological value. Some of these waterways contain concentrations of pesticide active ingredients (PAIs) that exceed Australian ecotoxicity threshold values for ecosystem protection. In this paper, we use a “pathway to harm” model with five key criteria to assess whether the available information supports the hypothesis that PAIs are or could cause harmful effects to fish and arthropod populations. Strong evidence for the first three criteria and circumstantial weaker evidence for the fourth and fifth criteria are presented. Specifically, we demonstrate that exceedances of Australian and New Zealand ecotoxicity threshold values (ETVs) for ecosystem protection are widespread in the GBRCA, that the PAI contaminated water occurs (spatially and temporally) at important habitat for fisheries and that there are clear direct and indirect mechanisms by which PAIs could cause harmful effects. The evidence for individuals and populations of fish and arthropods being adversely affected species is more circumstantial but consistent with PAIs causing harmful effects in the freshwater ecosystems of GBR waterways. We advocate strengthening the links between PAI concentrations and fish health because of the cultural values placed on the freshwater ecosystems by relevant stakeholders and Traditional Owners, with the aim that stronger links between elevated PAI concentrations and changes in recreationally and culturally important fish species will inspire improvements in water quality.
Background The positive effects of exposing corals to microorganisms have been reported though how the benefits are conferred are poorly understood. Here, we isolated an actinobacterial strain (SCSIO 13291) from Pocillopora damicornis with capabilities to synthesize antioxidants, vitamins, and antibacterial and antiviral compounds supported with phenotypic and/or genomic evidence. Strain SCSIO 13291 was labeled with 5 (and − 6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine, succinimidyl ester and the labeled cell suspension directly inoculated onto the coral polyp tissues when nubbins were under thermal stress in a mesocosm experiment. We then visualized the labelled bacterial cells and analyzed the coral physiological, transcriptome and microbiome to elucidate the effect this strain conferred on the coral holobiont under thermal stress. Results Subsequent microscopic observations confirmed the presence of the bacterium attached to the coral polyps. Addition of the SCSIO 13291 strain reduced signs of bleaching in the corals subjected to heat stress. At the same time, alterations in gene expression, which were involved in reactive oxygen species and light damage mitigation, attenuated apoptosis and exocytosis in addition to metabolite utilization, were observed in the coral host and Symbiodiniaceae populations. In addition, the coral associated bacterial community altered with a more stable ecological network for samples inoculated with the bacterial strain. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the benefits of a putative actinobacterial probiotic strain that mitigate coral bleaching signs. This study suggests that the inoculation of bacteria can potentially directly benefit the coral holobiont through conferring metabolic activities or through indirect mechanisms of suppling additional nutrient sources.
Background: The Powered Mobility Device Autonomy Residential Screen (PoMoDARS) is a new tool to enable clinicians to screen resident capacity and performance skills for powered mobility device (PMD) use in residential aged care settings. The PoMoDARS is context specific, time efficient and promotes resident autonomy and safety. Aims: To (i) undertake initial face and content validation of the PoMoDARS, and (ii) use the research findings to make any modifications. Methods: A mixed-methods study design, underpinned by Classical Test Theory. Eight clinicians completed 20 PoMoDARS screens and provided both quantitative and qualitative feedback on item importance and ease of use within a formal interview. Results: Initial face and content validity of the PoMoDARS were supported, with small modifications made to item descriptors and instructions. Conclusions: The PoMoDARS has been developed for use in residential aged care settings to screen resident PMD use. While initial validation has been undertaken, further studies to determine the reliability of the tool and continue the validation process are required. Significance: Older adults in residential aged care facilities benefit greatly from the autonomy gained through PMD use. The PoMoDARS promotes collaboration between occupational therapists, nurses, and the wider team to support residents and safe PMD use.
Our aim in this study was to examine the impact of fans (vs. no fans), geographical location of league, and team ability on home winning percentage (HW%) or home advantage (HA) in professional European basketball. Data were collected from five prestigious professional, national basketball leagues within Europe (Spain, Germany, Italy, Greece and Israel) across 16 regular seasons (2005-2006 to 2020-2021). We conducted comparisons between matches with and without fans, location of leagues, team ability (High, Medium, Low), and combinations of these factors via non-parametric tests (e.g., Mann-Whitney tests, Kruskal-Wallis). We found significantly greater HA during matches with fans for leagues in Germany ( p = .001), Italy ( p = .012) and Spain ( p = .002). For matches with fans, HA and HW% were significantly different between several, but not all, leagues for high ( p < .05), medium ( p < .05) and low ( p < .02) team abilities. In conclusion, HA and HW% were enhanced by spectator attendance, with this phenomenon varying by location/region and team ability. Consideration of these multiple contextual factors may assist coaches and sport organizations to develop key strategies for enhanced team success.
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7,773 members
Lars Henning
  • Anton Breinl Centre for Public Health & Tropical Medicine
Bemnet A Tedla
  • Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine
Stephan Dahl
  • Department of Business
Denise Bridget Dillon
  • Department of Psychology
James Cook University, 14-88 McGregor Road, Smithfield, 4878, Townsville, Queensland, Australia