Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna
Recent publications
Physiological dormancy of Vitis vinifera seeds jeopardises breeding programs and biodiversity evolution. To increase the knowledge on dormancy breaking, seeds of white and black Sardinian grape cultivars (cvs) were exposed to different pre-germination treatments. To shed light on the physiological and structural factors involved in seed dormancy, the contents of oil, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, 3-indolacetic acid, condensed tannins, and total polyphenols were determined. In addition, sectioned seeds were observed by SEM to determine the morphological and anatomical characteristics. Dormancy break in white, but not in black grape seeds, occurred under almost all imposed pre-germination treatments. Among red cvs, only seeds from ‘Cagnulari’ germinated when kept at 25 °C. Chilling seeds of the white cvs ‘Malvasia sarda’ and ‘Vernaccia di Oristano’ for 30 d resulted in the most effective treatment. Compared to white cvs, seeds of red ones owned 7 times higher levels of abscisic acid however, gibberellic acid content resulted 4 times less. Concerning the coat characteristics, red cv seeds had a thicker cuticle (6-10 µm) than white (4-6 µm) ones, however the most significant diversities were found for the inner integument, where in addition to size variances, palisade cell wall were structurally different. Key words Hormones; Seed coat; Thermal treatments
Introduction Migraine’s astonishing prevalence and preserved genetic background contrast with the definition of a disease and the biological meaning of experiencing recurrent, severe headache attacks is still puzzling. Methods To provide a comprehensive explanation of the migraine evolutionary meaning, we review (i) the putative role of the autonomic nervous system in migraine attacks, (ii) the inter-ictal autonomic, functional, and metabolic signature of migraine patients, (iii) the bio-behavioral perspective of pain, and (iv) the allostatic perception of migraine chronification. Results Migraineurs have inter-ictal cortical hyperexcitability and metabolic dysfunction that predisposes to brain energetic imbalance. Multiple precipitating factors may lead to brain energy consumption over the migraine attack generation threshold. In response, the brain engenders adaptive, evolutionary conserved, autonomic-behavior responses through the antidromic activation of the trigeminovascular system. The sickness behavior and severe pain experienced during migraine attacks result in avoiding mental and physical activity, allowing brain energy restoration. Chronic exposure to stressors may result in an allostatic overload, leading to maladaptive chronic activation of these responses. In this bio-behavioral perspective, the chronification of migraine should be envisioned as a pathological process, whereas the migraine itself should not. Conclusion Migraine has an evolutionary (Darwinian) meaning.
Aims The current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines provide clear indications for the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, there is a constant need for real‐world evidence regarding the effectiveness, adherence, and persistence of drug therapy. We investigated the use of sacubitril/valsartan for the treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction in real‐world clinical practice in Italy. Methods and results An observational, retrospective, non‐interventional cohort study based on electronic medical records from nine specialized hospital HF centres in Italy was carried out on patients with prescription of sacubitril/valsartan. Overall, 948 patients had a prescription of sacubitril/valsartan, with 924 characterized over 6 months and followed up for 12 months. Pharmacoutilization data at 1 year of follow‐up were available for 225 patients {mean age 69.7 years [standard deviation (SD) = 10.8], 81.8% male}. Of those, 398 (45.2%) reached the target dose of sacubitril/valsartan of 97/103 mg in a mean time of 6.9 (SD = 6.2) weeks. Blood pressure and hypotension in 61 patients (65%) and worsening of chronic kidney disease in 10 patients (10.6%) were the main reasons for not reaching the target dose. Approximatively 50% of patients had a change in sacubitril/valsartan dose during follow‐up, and 158 (70.2%) were persistent with the treatment during the last 3 months of follow‐up. A sensitivity analysis (persistence during the last 4 months of follow‐up) showed persistence for 162 patients (72.0%). Adherence data, available for 387 patients, showed full adherence for 205 (53%). Discontinuation (102/717 patients, 14.2%) was mainly due to hypotension and occurred after a mean time of 34.3 (SD = 28.7) weeks. During follow‐up, out of 606 patients with available data, 434 patients (71.6%) had an HF add‐on drug or drugs concomitant with sacubitril/valsartan. HF‐related hospitalization during follow‐up was numerically higher in non‐persistent (16/67 patients, 23.9%) vs. patients persistent to sacubitril/valsartan (30/158, 19%) ( P = 0.405). Conclusions Real‐world data on the use of sacubitril/valsartan in clinical practice in Italy show a rapid titration to the target dose, high therapeutic adherence enabling a good level of therapeutic management in line with ESC guidelines for patients with reduced ejection fraction.
Background Self-rated health (SRH) is widely recognized as a clinically significant predictor of subsequent mortality risk. Although COVID-19 may impair SRH, this relationship has not been extensively examined. The present study aimed to examine the correlation between habitual sleep duration, changes in sleep duration after infection, and SRH in subjects who have experienced SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods Participants from 16 countries participated in the International COVID Sleep Study-II (ICOSS-II) online survey in 2021. A total of 10,794 of these participants were included in the analysis, including 1,509 COVID-19 individuals (who reported that they had tested positive for COVID-19). SRH was evaluated using a 0-100 linear visual analog scale. Habitual sleep durations of < 6 h and > 9 h were defined as short and long habitual sleep duration, respectively. Changes in habitual sleep duration after infection of ≤ -2 h and ≥ 1 h were defined as decreased or increased, respectively. Results Participants with COVID-19 had lower SRH scores than non-infected participants, and those with more severe COVID-19 had a tendency towards even lower SRH scores. In a multivariate regression analysis of participants who had experienced COVID-19, both decreased and increased habitual sleep duration after infection were significantly associated with lower SRH after controlling for sleep quality (β = −0.056 and −0.058, respectively, both p < 0.05); however, associations between current short or long habitual sleep duration and SRH were negligible. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that decreased habitual sleep duration was significantly related to increased fatigue (odds ratio [OR] = 1.824, p < 0.01), shortness of breath (OR = 1.725, p < 0.05), diarrhea/nausea/vomiting (OR = 2.636, p < 0.01), and hallucinations (OR = 5.091, p < 0.05), while increased habitual sleep duration was significantly related to increased fatigue (OR = 1.900, p < 0.01). Conclusions Changes in habitual sleep duration following SARS-CoV-2 infection were associated with lower SRH. Decreased or increased habitual sleep duration might have a bidirectional relation with post-COVID-19 symptoms. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying these relationships for in order to improve SRH in individuals with COVID-19.
Importance Although up to 20% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience onset before 18 years of age, it has been suggested that people with pediatric-onset MS (POMS) are protected against disability because of greater capacity for repair. Objective To assess the incidence of and factors associated with progression independent of relapse activity (PIRA) and relapse-associated worsening (RAW) in POMS compared with typical adult-onset MS (AOMS) and late-onset MS (LOMS). Design, Setting, and Participants This cohort study on prospectively acquired data from the Italian MS Register was performed from June 1, 2000, to September 30, 2021. At the time of data extraction, longitudinal data from 73 564 patients from 120 MS centers were available in the register. Main Outcomes and Measures The main outcomes included age-related cumulative incidence and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for PIRA and RAW and associated factors. Exposures Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features, time receiving disease-modifying therapy (DMT), and time to first DMT. Results After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study assessed 16 130 patients with MS (median [IQR] age at onset, 28.7 [22.8-36.2 years]; 68.3% female). Compared with AOMS and LOMS, patients with POMS had less disability, exhibited more active disease, and were exposed to DMT for a longer period. A first 48-week-confirmed PIRA occurred in 7176 patients (44.5%): 558 patients with POMS (40.4%), 6258 patients with AOMS (44.3%), and 360 patients with LOMS (56.8%) ( P < .001). Factors associated with PIRA were older age at onset (AOMS vs POMS HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.30-1.55; LOMS vs POMS HR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.60-3.41; P < .001), longer disease duration (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.04-1.05; P < .001), and shorter DMT exposure (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.64-0.74; P < .001). The incidence of PIRA was 1.3% at 20 years of age, but it rapidly increased approximately 7 times between 21 and 30 years of age (9.0%) and nearly doubled for each age decade from 40 to 70 years (21.6% at 40 years, 39.0% at 50 years, 61.0% at 60 years, and 78.7% at 70 years). The cumulative incidence of RAW events followed a similar trend from 20 to 60 years (0.5% at 20 years, 3.5% at 30 years, 7.8% at 40 years, 14.4% at 50 years, and 24.1% at 60 years); no further increase was found at 70 years (27.7%). Delayed DMT initiation was associated with higher risk of PIRA (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.34; P = .04) and RAW (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.28-2.39; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance PIRA can occur at any age, and although pediatric onset is not fully protective against progression, this study’s findings suggest that patients with pediatric onset are less likely to exhibit PIRA over a decade of follow-up. However, these data also reinforce the benefit for DMT initiation in patients with POMS, as treatment was associated with reduced occurrence of both PIRA and RAW regardless of age at onset.
Background Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a time-dependent neurological disorder often misdiagnosed in the emergency setting. Electroencephalography (EEG) is often not available on a 24/7 basis, and Salzburg criteria may at times miss the diagnosis. Here, we tested the accuracy of hyperperfusion on CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in the identification of NCSE against Salzburg criteria, to define its potential role in a pragmatic diagnostic workflow. Methods We enrolled consecutive patients with suspected acute seizure or seizure disorder undergoing brain imaging with CTP and EEG from January 2021 to March 2023. EEG recordings, Salzburg criteria and CTP hyperperfusion were rated and adjudicated by two independent experts blinded to patient status. A reference standard including all clinical, lab, imaging, EEG and therapeutic data was used to adjudicate NCSE diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for CTP hyperperfusion and Salzburg criteria versus NCSE adjudicated according to reference standard. Results Seventy-seven patients were enrolled. Among 21 NCSE cases, 17 were adjudicated according to Salzburg criteria (81%) and 4 received NCSE diagnosis according to reference standard. Agreement between EEG and CTP emerged in 16/21 NCSE cases, reaching sublobar level in 37.5% of cases. Receiver operator curve analysis suggested good accuracy for CTP hyperperfusion for the diagnosis of NCSE (AUROC 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.89). CTP hyperperfusion had a high NPV for NCSE (NPV 0.97, 95% CI 0.86 to 1). Conclusion CTP hyperperfusion may be implemented in the emergency fast-track to rule out NCSE, given very high NPV. Further validation studies are needed to evaluate CTP application in real-world setting for NCSE codes.
Participant-specific, functionally defined brain areas are usually mapped with functional localizers and estimated by making contrasts between responses to single categories of input. Naturalistic stimuli engage multiple brain systems in parallel, provide more ecologically plausible estimates of real-world statistics, and are friendly to special populations. The current study shows that cortical functional topographies in individual participants can be estimated with high fidelity from naturalistic stimuli. Importantly, we demonstrate that robust, individualized estimates can be obtained even when participants watched different movies, were scanned with different parameters/scanners, and were sampled from different institutes across the world. Our results create a foundation for future studies that allow researchers to estimate a broad range of functional topographies based on naturalistic movies and a normative database, making it possible to integrate high-level cognitive functions across datasets from laboratories worldwide.
Back‐arc basins (BABs) are associated with plate margins where crustal shortening, seafloor spreading, and volcanism coexist. The Vavilov basin (Tyrrhenian Sea) is a Pliocene BAB associated with the Apennine‐Tyrrhenian Sea subduction system and characterized by mantle exhumation. The NNE‐SSW elongated Vavilov seamount represents the easternmost and younger spreading ridge of the Vavilov basin. Here we present results of a morphological and magnetic study of the Vavilov seamount. Our results show that the seamount represents the last stage of the eastward asymmetric opening of the BAB. Its plumbing system consists of a dike swarm emplaced during the reversed Matuyama epoch and a younger shallow reservoir feeding the central and eastern sectors during the normal Brunhes epoch. This evolution is associated with the progressive loading of the edifice due to lava flow emplacement. The asymmetry of the seamount mirrors the asymmetric opening of the Vavilov back‐arc basin.
Introduction Millions of people survive injuries to the central or peripheral nervous system for which neurorehabilitation is required. In addition to the physical and cognitive impairments, many neurorehabilitation patients experience pain, often not widely recognised and inadequately treated. This is particularly true for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, for whom pain is one of the most common symptoms. In clinical practice, pain assessment is usually conducted based on a subjective estimate. This approach can lead to inaccurate evaluations due to the influence of numerous factors, including emotional or cognitive aspects. To date, no objective and simple to use clinical methods allow objective quantification of pain and the diagnostic differentiation between the two main types of pain (nociceptive vs neuropathic). Wearable technologies and artificial intelligence (AI) have the potential to bridge this gap by continuously monitoring patients’ health parameters and extracting meaningful information from them. Therefore, we propose to develop a new automatic AI-powered tool to assess pain and its characteristics during neurorehabilitation treatments using physiological signals collected by wearable sensors. Methods and analysis We aim to recruit 15 participants suffering from MS undergoing physiotherapy treatment. During the study, participants will wear a wristband for three consecutive days and be monitored before and after their physiotherapy sessions. Measurement of traditionally used pain assessment questionnaires and scales (ie, painDETECT, Doleur Neuropathique 4 Questions, EuroQoL-5-dimension-3-level) and physiological signals (photoplethysmography, electrodermal activity, skin temperature, accelerometer data) will be collected. Relevant parameters from physiological signals will be identified, and AI algorithms will be used to develop automatic classification methods. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the local Ethical Committee (285-2022-SPER-AUSLBO). Participants are required to provide written informed consent. The results will be disseminated through contributions to international conferences and scientific journals, and they will also be included in a doctoral dissertation. Trial registration number NCT05747040 .
Intraspinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection has been reported as a rare cause of lower motor neuron (LMN) disorder. We report a case of bibrachial diplegia associated with intraspinal CSF collection and perform a systematic literature review. A 52-year-old man developed a bibrachial amyotrophy over 6 years, confirmed by the presence of cervical subacute neurogenic changes at electromyography (EMG). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebral siderosis, while spine MRI showed a ventral longitudinal intraspinal fluid collection (VLISFC) from C2 to L2. No CSF leakage was localized at myelography; a conservative treatment was chosen. We searched for all published cases until 30th April 2023 and extrapolated data of 44 patients reported in 27 publications. We observed a male predominance, a younger disease onset compared to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and a quite long disease duration, highlighting a slow disease progression. LMN signs were more frequently bilateral, mostly involving C5-C6 myotomes. Around 61% of patients presented additional symptoms, but only three referred to a history of headache. Accordingly, CSF opening pressure was mostly normal. Spinal MRI revealed the presence of VLISFC and in some cases myelomalacia. EMG patterns displayed both chronic and subacute neurogenic change in the cervical region. The disease course mainly depended on the treatment choice, which was mostly represented by a surgical approach when a specific dural defect was detected by imaging. Bibrachial diplegia due to VLISFC can be a treatable cause of focal amyotrophy and presents some clinical and radiological “red flags” which cannot be missed by a clinical neurologist.
Depositional processes recorded by shelf deposits may vary widely along‐strike, depending largely on the mode of delivery and deposition of sediments to the basin. In fine‐grained systems in particular, depositional processes are difficult to reconstruct with standard facies analysis of sediment cores due to the ostensibly featureless and homogenous appearance of muds. In this study, sedimentological, palaeontological, geochemical and oceanographic data were combined in a detailed characterization of depositional conditions via sedimentary structures, type of organic matter, trace‐metal geochemistry and benthic fauna assemblages (foraminifera and ostracods) along the 600 km long shelf delta clinothems of the West Adriatic shelf (Italy). Processes inferred from sedimentary facies and micro‐structures were then considered in the context of the modern Adriatic oceanographic regime. Specific attention was given to the Little Ice Age stratigraphic unit (1500–1850 CE), which contains a continuum of genetically related fine‐grained strata. The Little Ice Age deposit offers the opportunity to examine a source‐to‐sink system with the high resolution typical of modernanalogues, at a time interval when Apennine rivers were not yet hydraulically engineered with man‐made sediment traps along their trunks. Individual beds within the Little Ice Age muddy prodelta form hectometre to kilometre‐wide bedsets that reflect the interplay between energetic meteo‐ocean conditions (storm‐dominated beds), flood supply (river‐dominated beds or hyperpycnites) and along‐shelf bottom‐current dispersion (drift‐dominated beds). The multidisciplinary approach applied at different scales of observations helped in understanding sediment provenance and the relative timing of sediment transport before final burial that strongly promoted organic matter oxygen exposure and the loss of carbon by microbial degradation. Overall, the distinctive depositional processes that acted in concert along the prodelta slope produced a subtle lateral heterogeneity of preserved sedimentary structures, faunal associations and organic matter composition in a laterally‐continuous lithostratigraphic unit deposited at centennial scale. These findings have implications on the forcing conditions that ultimately control the location and nature of fine‐grained beds in both modern and ancient, mud‐dominated depositional systems.
Background Migraine, a prevalent neurological condition, often impairs daily functioning and quality of life. While medications are the primary treatment, the potential of physiotherapy as an integrative approach remains underexplored. The aim of the study was to explore the awareness and experience of migraine patients regarding physiotherapy as a complementary treatment. Methods A comprehensive survey was conducted on 200 migraine patients. Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, Migraine Disability Assessment Score Questionnaire (MIDAS) scores, and perceptions and experiences related to physiotherapy. Results The average age of participants was 47.7 ± 13.2 years, with a predominance of females, 149 out of 200 (74.5%). The mean MIDAS score was 36.7 ± 45.3, indicating a significant impact on daily life. While 39 out of 200 (19.5%) had undergone physiotherapy for their headache, 161 out of 200 (80.5%) had not. Of those who had, 22 out of 39 (56.4%) reported benefits, including reduced attack intensity and frequency. Interestingly, 145 out of 161 (90.1%) expressed interest in physiotherapy, with many expecting it to reduce attack intensity, 57 out of 200 (28.5%) and frequency, 77 out of 200 (38.5%). Conclusions The study highlights the substantial burden of migraines and the potential of physiotherapy as an adjunctive treatment. Increasing awareness and accessibility to physiotherapy could offer migraine patients a more holistic treatment approach; however, randomized controlled trials are mandatory in order to confirm its efficacy.
BACKGROUND in the randomized phase 2 REGOMA trial, regorafenib (REG) showed promising activity in recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) patients (PTS); subsequently, in Italy the National Health System has permitted the reimbursement of the REG as second-line therapy. We performed a large multicenter, prospective and observational study to confirm REGOMA data in a real-world setting. Materials and METHODS major inclusion criteria were: histologically confirmed diagnosis of GBM according to WHO 2016 and relapse after Stupp treatment, good performance status (ECOG PS 0-1), good liver function. REG was administered at standard dose of 160mg/die for 3 weeks on/1 week off. Brain MRI was performed within 14 days before starting REG and every 8-12 weeks, subsequently. Primary endpoint was overall survival. RANO criteria were used for response evaluation, CTACAE v. 5 for adverse events. RESULTS from Sept 2020 to Oct 2022, 192 recurrent GBM PTS were enrolled from 29 Cancer Centres in Italy: median age was 58ys (IQR 52.8-67.0), 68% male, ECOG PS was 0 in 85 (44%), 115 PTS (60%) undertook steroids at baseline. MGMT was methylated in 43%, IDHwt in 92%. Median follow-up was 16.6 months (IQR 12.6-19.6). Median OS was 8.2ms (95% CI 6.5-9.6), 12ms-OS 34.7% (95%CI 27.2-42.4); median PFS was 2.6ms (95%CI 2.3-2.9), 6ms-PFS 14.3%. Radiological response was PR and SD in 12 (8%) and 25 (16%) PTS. 77 (44%) PTS received third-line therapy. The median of REG cycles per patient was 3 (IQR 2.0-4.0). Grade 3-4 adverse events (AE) were reported in 53 (28%) PTS; reduction/delay and permanent discontinuation due to AE in 36% and 8% of PTS. No death was considered as treatment-related AE. CONCLUSIONS compared to the REGOMA trial, this large Italian multicenter, prospective and observational trial confirmed the results in terms of overall survival with a good toxicity profile of REG in recurrent GBM PTS.
INTRODUCTION The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib improved overall survival (OS) versus lomustine in relapsed GBM in the randomized phase 2 REGOMA study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of regorafenib combined with nivolumab in this setting (NCT04704154). METHODS Patients aged ≥ 18 years with recurrent GBM/AA (WHO 2016 classification) after radiotherapy plus temozolomide, and an ECOG performance status (PS) of 0/1, received oral regorafenib 90 mg/day on days 1–21 and intravenous nivolumab 480 mg on day 1 of each 28-day cycle. If tolerated, the regorafenib dose could be escalated to 120 mg/day from cycle 2. Prior regorafenib treatment or immunotherapy was not allowed. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) using RANO criteria. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), OS, and safety (MedDRA; CTCAE v5.0). RESULTS Of the 36 patients enrolled, 30 were treated and were eligible for analysis. Median age was 60 years, 63% had an ECOG PS of 1, and 90% had GBM (10% AA). All patients discontinued treatment as of the primary analysis (March 9, 2023). One patient had a best-overall partial response (ORR; 3%) and nine (30%) had stable disease. Median number of cycles of regorafenib and nivolumab infusions was three. Median PFS (RANO) was 2.7 months (80% CI 1.8, 7.3) and 6-month PFS was 31.5%. Median OS was 8.0 months (80% CI 4.6, 12.4) and 12-month OS was 33.7%. Thirteen patients (43%) had grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), which were drug-related in 12 patients (40%). The most common drug-related grade 3/4 TEAEs were AST increase (13%), ALT increase (10%), and hypertension (10%). There were no immune-mediated serious TEAEs or drug-related grade 5 TEAEs. CONCLUSION The efficacy results of this study do not support further evaluation of regorafenib combined with nivolumab in GBM/AA. The safety profile was acceptable and manageable.
Cerebral ventriculitis is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt and effective pharmacological intervention. The continuous irrigation of the cerebral ventricles with fluid and its drainage is a system to remove toxic substances and infectious residues in the ventricles; this system is called IRRAflow®. We used this kind of ventricular irrigation/drainage system to treat two patients with post-surgical cerebral ventriculitis and a patient with bacterial meningitis complicated with ventriculitis. In this case series, we discuss the management of these three cases of cerebral ventriculitis: we monitored cytochemical parameters and cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid of patients during their ICU stay and we observed a marked improvement after irrigation and drainage with IRRAflow® system. Irrigation/drainage catheter stay, mode settings, and antibiotic therapies were different among these three patients, and neurological outcomes were variable, according to their underlying pathologies. IRRAflow® system can be applied also in other types of brain injury, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, intracranial abscess, subdural hematomas, and intracerebral hemorrhage, with the aim to remove the hematic residues and enhance the functional recovery of the patients. IRRAflow® seems a promising and useful tool to treat infectious and hemorrhagic diseases in neuro-intensive care unit.
A small number of case reports have documented a link between atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and vertebral artery dissection (VAD), but this association has never been described in patients with hereditary connective tissue disorders. We present a case of an 18‐year‐old female patient, diagnosed with Marfan syndrome since the age of one, who underwent brain MRA for intracranial aneurysm screening revealing tortuosity of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries as well as atlantoaxial dislocation. Since the patient was asymptomatic, a wait‐and‐see approach was chosen, but a follow‐up MRA after 18 months showed the appearance of a dissecting pseudoaneurysm of the V3 segment of the left vertebral artery. Despite the patient being still asymptomatic, it was decided to proceed with C1–C2 stabilization to prevent further vascular complications. Follow‐up imaging showed realignment of the atlantoaxial joint and reduction of the dissecting pseudoaneurysm of the left vertebral artery. In our patient, screening MRA has led to the discovery of asymptomatic arterial and skeletal abnormalities which, if left untreated, might have led to severe cerebrovascular complications. Therefore, AAD correction or close monitoring with MRA should be provided to MFS patients with this craniovertebral junction anomaly, even if asymptomatic.
High-density EEG (hdEEG) is a validated tool in presurgical evaluation of people with epilepsy. The aim of this national survey is to estimate diffusion and knowledge of hdEEG to develop a network among Italian epilepsy centers. A survey of 16 items (and 15 additional items) was distributed nationwide by email to all members of the Italian League Against Epilepsy and the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 104 respondents were collected from 85 centers, 82% from the Centre-North of Italy; 27% of the respondents had a hdEEG. The main applications were for epileptogenic focus characterization in the pre-surgical evaluation (35%), biomarker research (35%) and scientific activity (30%). The greatest obstacles to hdEEG were economic resources (35%), acquisition of dedicated personnel (30%) and finding expertise (17%). Dissemination was limited by difficulties in finding expertise and dedicated personnel (74%) more than buying devices (9%); 43% of the respondents have already published hdEEG data, and 91% of centers were available to participate in multicenter hdEEG studies, helping in both pre-processing and analysis. Eighty-nine percent of respondents would be interested in referring patients to centers with established experience for clinical and research purposes. In Italy, hdEEG is mainly used in third-level epilepsy centers for research and clinical purposes. HdEEG diffusion is limited not only by costs but also by lack of trained personnel. Italian centers demonstrated a high interest in educational initiatives on hdEEG as well as in clinical and research collaborations.
Background While migraine is markedly prevalent in women, gender-related phenotype differences were rarely assessed. For this reason, we investigated, through a multicenter observational cross-sectional study, based on an online questionnaire, gender-related differences in stress factors, emotions, and pain perception in migraine patients and controls and their impact on migraine severity. Methods The study was designed as an online questionnaire. The link was emailed to healthy subjects (C) and migraine patients (MIG) (age 18–75, education ≥ 13 years) recruited during the first visit in 8 Italian Headache Centers adhering to Italian Society for Headache Study (SISC). The questionnaire included personal/social/work information, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Romance Quality Scale, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Body Perception Questionnaire, the pain perception, and a self-assessment of migraine severity in the last 3 months. Results 202 MIG and 202 C completed the survey. Independently from gender, migraine was characterized by higher pain sensitivity and more severe partner relationships. The female gender, in MIG, exhibited higher anxiety scores, body awareness, and reduced emotional suppression. Body awareness and emotional suppression were discriminating factors between genders in control and migraine groups without relevant influence on disease features. Perceived perception of migraine severity was similar between genders. Conclusion Gender-related emotional and stress factors did not contribute to delineate a distinct phenotype in migraine men and women. The possible impact of emotional and stress factors characterizing genders could be considered for a single case–tailored therapeutic approach.
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17 members
Luca Vignatelli
  • UOSI Epidemiologia e Statistica
Cinzia Scandellari
  • Riabilitazione Sclerosi Multipla
Via Altura, 3, 40139, Bologna, Italy