Bovine kobuvirus (BKV) is an infectious agent associated with neonatal calf diarrhoea (NCD), causing important economic losses to dairy and beef cattle herds worldwide. Here, we present the detection rate and characterize the genome of BKV isolated from diarrhoeic calves from a Central Italy herd. From January to December 2021, we collected blood samples and nasal and rectal swabs from 66 calves with severe NCD between 3 and 20 days of age. After virological (bovine coronavirus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bovine rotavirus), bacteriological (Escherichia coli spp. and Salmonella spp.), and parasitological (Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Giardia duodenalis) investigations, we detected BKV using the metagenomic analysis. This result was confirmed using a specific polymerase chain reaction assay that revealed the number of BKV-positive nasal (24.2%) and rectal swabs (31.8%). The prevalence of BKV was higher than that of BCoV. Coinfection with BKV and BCoV was detected in 7.5% of the rectal swabs, highlighting the involvement of another infectious agent in NCD. Using next generation sequencing (NGS) approach, it was possible to obtain the complete sequence of the BKV genome from other two rectal swabs previously analysed by real-time PCR. This is the first report describing the whole genome sequence (WGS) of BKV from Italy. The Italian BKV genomes showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity with BKV KY407744.1, identified in Egypt in 2014. The sequence encoding VP1 best matched that of BKV KY024562, identified in Scotland in 2013. Considering the small number of BKV WGSs available in public databases, further studies are urgently required to assess the whole genome constellation of circulating BKV strains. Furthermore, pathogenicity studies should be conducted by inoculating calves with either only BKV or a combination with other enteric pathogens for understanding the probable role of BKV in NCD.
We report here the whole-genome sequence of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotype II, strain 20355/RM/2022_Italy, identified in a wild boar in the city of Rome (Lazio region, Italy) in April 2022.
Paslahepevirus balayani (hepatitis E virus [HEV]) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, a worldwide zoonosis involving a wide range of hosts among domestic and wild animals. This species is characterized by a great genomic heterogeneity and includes eight genotypes, HEV-1 to HEV-8. The HEV-3 genotype is one of the most common types circulating in Italy in humans and Suidae. Although domestic and wild Sus scrofa and deer are recognized as the main reservoirs of HEV, several other wild species are potential carriers. A total of 228 liver samples were collected from nonungulate wild animals, found dead, in the framework of the regional passive surveillance program in Umbria and Marche regions (central Italy) during 2018-20. These were tested using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for detection of RNA of HEV-1 to HEV-4 and confirmed by nested RT-PCR assay. One of the 11 samples collected from crested porcupines (Hystrix cristata) tested positive for the presence of HEV RNA; all other samples were negative. Sequence analysis based on the full-length genome revealed that this isolate, 49434/UM/2018 (accession no. _OL658617), belongs to the HEV-3e subtype. These findings suggest a potential role of crested porcupines as a carrier of HEV infection.
Foodborne transmission is considered the main way of spreading zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Europe. In recent years, the human cases of hepatitis E in subjects without history of travel in endemic areas have raised, suggesting that domestic HEV transmission is increasing. Pork products with or without liver, are often indicated as the source of many human foodborne HEV cases as well as small outbreaks. Pigs are recognized as the main reservoir of the zoonotic HEV-3 genotype, the most frequently detected in human cases in the EU. In the absence of a harmonized surveillance of HEV circulation, data on prevalence are heterogeneous but confirm a widespread circulation of HEV-3 in pig herds across EU. HEV-3 can pass through the food chain from farm to fork when infected animals are slaughtered. In Italy, several studies reported the circulation of HEV-3 in pig farms, but results are heterogeneous due to different methodologies applied. In the present study, we performed a survey over 51 pig herds belonging to three main types of farms: breeding, fattening and farrow-to-finish. HEV-RNA was analyzed by broad range Real-time RT-PCR on 20 samples for each farm, obtained by pooling together feces from 10 individuals. Overall, HEV RNA was confirmed on 150 fecal pooled samples out of 1,032 (14.5%). At least one positive pooled sample was detected from 18 farms out of 51 tested (35.3%). By lowering the number of infected pigs at primary production, the risk of HEV-3 entering into the food chain can be reduced. Hence, information on HEV circulation in herds is highly relevant for choosing preventive measures and deserves development of a monitoring program and further investigations.
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal hemorrhagic viral disease that causes extensive economic and animal welfare losses in the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa) population. To date, no effective and safe vaccines have been marketed against ASF. A starting point for vaccine development is using naturally occurring attenuated strains as a vaccine base. Here, we aimed to remove the multigene family (MGF) 110 gene of unknown function from the Lv17/WB/Rie1 genome to improve the usability of the virus as a live-attenuated vaccine, reducing unwanted side effects. The MGF 110-11L gene was deleted using the CRISPR/Cas9 method, and the safety and efficacy of the virus were tested in pigs after isolation. The vaccine candidates administered at high doses showed reduced pathogenicity compared to the parental strain and induced immunity in vaccinated animals, although several mild clinical signs were observed. Although Lv17/WB/Rie1/d110-11L cannot be used as a vaccine in its current form, it was encouraging that the undesirable side effects of Lv17/WB/Rie1 at high doses can be reduced by additional mutations without a significant reduction in its protective capacity.
Bovine Alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is one of the major respiratory pathogens in cattle worldwide. Infection often leads to a compromised host immune response that contributes to the development of the polymicrobial disease known as “bovine respiratory disease”. After an initial transient phase of immunosuppression, cattle recover from the disease. This is due to the development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. With respect to adaptive immunity, both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are required to control infection. Thus, several BoHV-1 vaccines are designed to trigger both branches of the adaptive immune system. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on cell-mediated immune responses directed against BoHV-1 infection and vaccination.
Oxazolidinones are critically important antibiotics to treat human infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, therefore the occurrence of linezolid-resistant enterococci from food-producing animals poses a serious risk to human health. In this study, Enterococcus avium 38157 and 44917 strains, isolated from the brain of two unrelated piglets, were found to carry the linezolid resistance genes cfr(D)-optrA, and cfr(D2)-poxtA, respectively. Whole genome sequencing analysis of E. avium 38157 revealed that the genes were co-located on the 36.5-kb pEa_cfr(D)-optrA plasmid showing high identity with the pAT02-c of Enterococcus faecium AT02 from pet food. The optrA region, was 99% identical to the one of the pAv-optrA plasmid from a bovine Aerococcus viridans strain, whereas the cfr(D) genetic context was identical to that of the plasmid 2 of E. faecium 15–307.1. pEa_cfr(D)-optrA was not transferable to enterococcal recipients. In E. avium 44917 a cfr(D)-like gene, named cfr (D2), and the poxtA gene were co-located on the transferable 42.6-kb pEa-cfr(D2)-poxtA plasmid 97% identical to the Tn6349 transposon of the human MRSA AOUC-0915. The cfr(D2) genetic context, fully replaced the Tn6644 that in S. aureus AOUC-0915 harbor the cfr gene. In conclusion, this is, the best of our knowledge, the first report of the new cfr(D2) gene variant. The occurrence of plasmids co-carrying two linezolid resistance genes in enterococci from food-producing animals needs close surveillance to prevent their spread to human pathogens.
The Farm to Fork strategy promotes the development of organic farming and discourages the use of artificial fertilizers. The sustainable agricultural system increases the reduction of waste, allows the reuse of by-products and prefers renewable resources for the production of fertilizers. The European Union (EU) Regulation 2019/1009, called the Regulation on Fertilizer Products (FPR), enhances biomass conversion in organic fertilizers through the exploitation of certain animal by-products. High- and medium-risk animal by-products (Category 1 and 2 materials) must not be recycled in the food chain and therefore must be traceable and permanently marked with glyceroltriheptanoate (GTH) to discriminate them from low-risk materials [processed animal proteins (PAPs) and category 3 fat]. The EU regulates the use of category 2 meat and bone meal (MBM) and PAPs for fertilizers’ production which can ensure a proper supply of macro, micronutrients and organic matter. This study aimed to improve fat extraction and to quantify with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) the detectable amount of GTH in organic fertilizer containing MBM, PAPs, and dry manure in different percentages. The following performance parameters were evaluated: fat recovery (%), GTH recovery (%), matrix effect (ME%), linearity range, coefficient of variation (CV%), and repeatability limit (r). This research represents a first evaluation of organic fertilizers produced from MBM, PAPs, and dry manure and its willing to be a starting point for a deeper investigation of a higher number of organic fertilizers produced from different kind of animal by-products’ raw materials according to FPR regulation.
West Nile virus (WNV) is an important zoonotic Flavivirus responsible for mild fever to severe neurological disease in humans and horses. Despite the occurrence of major previous outbreaks in Namibia and the likelihood of the current endemicity of the virus, only limited investigations and monitoring activities of WNV have been performed in the country. The use of animal sentinels is a valuable approach toward investigating the infection presence in an area and to predict the potential occurrence of human outbreaks. Serological investigations in dogs hold several advantages, considering their infection susceptibility, the ease of sample handling, and the evaluation of risk factors of pet owners that share the same habit with their pets. To evaluate the usefulness of such a sero-epidemiological investigation in Namibia, a broad serosurvey was performed in 2022 that included 426 archived domestic dog samples from eight Namibian regions. Although the ELISA prevalence, indicative of Flavivirus infection, was relatively high (16.43%; 95 CI: 13.10-20.39%), the virus neutralization test confirmed only a minority of cases, highlighting a prevalence of 2.82% (95 CI: 1.47-4.90%), significantly lower than in Namibian donkeys and reports from other countries. Variables that could explain the recorded differences remain to be explored, including animal exposure, variable vector presence, distribution, and feeding preferences. The study results suggest the limited usefulness of dogs as sentinels for WNV monitoring in Namibia.
Tapeworms are trophically-transmitted and multi-host parasites with a complex indirect life cycle, strictly depending on predator-prey interactions. Their presence in a free-living population, mainly definitive hosts, is arduous to study due to the complexity of collecting fecal samples. However, epidemiological studies on their frequency are crucial from a public health perspective, providing information on food habits and prey selection of predators. The present study aims to update the frequency of tapeworms detected in stool samples by molecular analysis in Italian wolf populations of Umbria and Marche regions collected from 2014 to 2022. Tapeworm's total frequency was 43.2%. In detail, Taenia serialis was detected in 27 samples (21.6%), T. hydatigena in 22 (17.6%), and Mesocestoides corti (syn. M. vogae) in 2 (1.6%). Three samples were identified as M. litteratus and E. granulosus s.s. (G3) and T. pisiformis, with a proportion of 0.8%, respectively. The low frequency of E. granulosus in a hyperendemic area is discussed. The results show for the first time a high frequency of Taenia serialis not comparable to other Italian studies conducted on wild Carnivora; thus, a new ecological niche is conceivable. These findings suggest a plausible wolf-roe deer cycle for T. serialis in the investigated area.
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are extensively studied in both human and veterinary medicine. Their isolation is usually performed by collagenase digestion followed by filtration and removal of nonadherent tissue remnants 48 h after seeding. We observed that waste tissue fragments contain cells that adhere belatedly to the plastic. We aimed to investigate their basic properties to speculate on the possible existence of MSC subpopulations. Adipose tissue from three dogs was enzymatically digested. Three cell populations that adhered to the culture plastic 48, 96, and 144 h after seeding were obtained. After expansion, they were analyzed by flow cytometry for MSC-positive (CD90, CD44, and CD29) and -negative (CD14, MHCII, and CD45) markers as well as for endothelial, pericyte, and smooth muscle cell markers (CD31, CD146, and alpha-SMA). Furthermore, cells were assessed for viability, doubling time, and trilineage differentiation ability. No significant differences were found between the three subpopulations. As a result, this procedure has proven to be a valuable method for dramatically improving MSCs yield. As a consequence of cell recovery optimization, the amount of tissue harvested could be reduced, and the time required to obtain sufficient cells for clinical applications could be shortened. Further studies are needed to uncover possible different functional properties.
Background: African Swine Fever (ASF) is an infectious disease that affects domestic pig and wild boar populations. The ASF Virus (ASFV) has a genome characterized by a very complex DNA (170-193 kb) that encodes for more than 200 different proteins. Among these, the highly immunogenic phosphoprotein p30 plays a fundamental role in the induction of specific antibodies. To date, the lack of a vaccine against the disease requires continuous studies to improve knowledge about the virus and the development of new tests in addition to virological ones. Aim: The aim of this work was to produce specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the p30 protein of ASFV, which could find useful applications in routine diagnostics and the implementation of new diagnostic tools. Methods: ASFV p30 encoding gene was amplified and used for the generation of the recombinant baculovirus by transfection of the Sf21 insect cells. The recombinant protein was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay, purified, and used for mice Balb-c immunization. The hybridomas obtained were cultured and screened, using an indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA), in order to select clones that secrete the mAbs of interest. Results: The expression of recombinant p30 protein was assessed using direct immunofluorescence. The purified p30 protein fractions were analyzed by Coomassie gels staining confirming the presence of bands with a molecular weight of 30 kDa and used for the immunization of Balb-c mice. Six clones of pure hybridomas secreting the specific mAbs against recombinant p30 were obtained and tested in iELISA. The mAbs were also characterized by Western blot and immunofluorescence assay. The best results were obtained with the anti-p30 mAb 2B8E10 clone which showed high reactivity with both recombinant and viral p30 protein, respectively. Conclusion: In this work, a recombinant p30 protein produced in an insect cell system was purified and used to immunize Balb-c mice. Six anti-p30 mAbs-secreting hybridomas clone cells were obtained. These mAbs displayed high reactivity against the recombinant protein, but only 2B8E10 mAb showed excellent functionality against the p30 protein produced by ASFV. These results open the possibility to develop different diagnostic assays.
African swine fever (ASF) is a severe haemorrhagic infectious disease affecting suids, thus representing a great economic concern. Considering the importance of the early diagnosis, rapid point of care testing (POCT) for ASF is highly demanded. In this work, we developed two strategies for the rapid onsite diagnosis of ASF, based on Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA) and Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) techniques. The LFIA was a sandwich-type immunoassay exploiting a monoclonal antibody directed towards the p30 protein of the virus (Mab). The Mab was anchored onto the LFIA membrane to capture the ASFV and was also labelled with gold nanoparticles for staining the antibody-p30 complex. However, the use of the same antibody for capturing and as detector ligand showed a significant competitive effect for antigen binding, so required an experimental design to minimize reciprocal interference and maximize the response. The RPA assay, employing primers to the capsid protein p72 gene and an exonuclease III probe, was performed at 39 °C. The limit of detection of the method was assessed using a plasmid encoding the target gene and resulted in 5 copy/μL. The new LFIA and RPA were applied for ASFV detection in the animal tissues usually analysed by conventional assays (i.e., real-time PCR), such as kidney, spleen, and lymph nodes. A simple and universal virus extraction protocol was applied for sample preparation, followed by DNA extraction and purification for the RPA. The LFIA only required the addition of 3% H2O2 to limit matrix interference and prevent false positive results. The two rapid methods (25 min and 15 min were needed to complete the analysis for RPA and LFIA, respectively) showed high diagnostic specificity (100%) and sensitivity (93% and 87% for LFIA and RPA, respectively) for samples with high viral load (Ct < 27). False negative results were observed for samples with low viral load (Ct > 28) and/or also containing specific antibodies to ASFV, which decreased antigen availability and were indicative of a chronic, poorly transmissible infection. The simple and rapid sample preparation and the diagnostic performance of the LFIA suggested its large practical applicability for POC diagnosis of ASF.
African swine fever (ASF) is responsible for important socio-economic effects in the global pig industry, especially for countries with large-scale piggery sectors. In January 2022, the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotype II was identified in a wild boar population in mainland Italy (Piedmont region). This study describes the molecular characterization, by Sanger and next-generation sequencing (NGS), of the first index case 632/AL/2022 and of another isolate (2802/AL/2022) reported in the same month, in close proximity to the first, following multiple ASF outbreaks. Phylogenetic analysis based on the B646L gene and NGS clustered the isolates 632/AL/2022 and 2802/AL/2022 within the wide and most homogeneous p72 genotype II that includes viruses from European and Asian countries. The consensus sequence obtained from the ASFV 2802/AL/2022 isolate was 190,598 nucleotides in length and had a mean GC content of 38.38%. At the whole-genome level, ASF isolate 2802/AL/2022 showed a close genetic correlation with the other representative ASFV genotype II strains isolated between April 2007 and January 2022 from wild and domestic pigs in Eastern/Central European (EU) and Asian countries. CVR subtyping clustered the two Italian ASFV strains within the major CVR variant circulating since the first virus introduction in Georgia in 2007. Intergenic region I73R-I329L subtyping placed the Italian ASFV isolates within the variant identical to the strains frequently identified among wild boars and domestic pigs. Presently, given the high sequence similarity, it is impossible to trace the precise geographic origin of the virus at a country level. Moreover, the full-length sequences available in the NCBI are not completely representative of all affected territories.
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis (PTB), a widespread chronic enteritis of ruminants. The progression of the infection depends on the containment action of innate and cell-mediated immunity (CMI), and it is related to environmental and genetic factors. In particular, PTB susceptibility seems to be associated with specific genes coding for immune regulators involved in the cell-mediated response during the infection. The aim of this preliminary study was to verify, in Italian beef cattle, an association between MAP infectious status and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation conducted on a native beef cattle breed, known as Marchigiana, reared in Central Italy. The present research, based on a longitudinal study, aimed to identify and correlate phenotypic and genetic profiles characteristic of the subjects potentially able to contrast or contain PTB. In a MAP-infected herd, ELISA, IFN-γ tests, qPCR, and cultures were performed at a follow-up, occurring within a period ranging from three to six years, to evaluate the individual state of infection. Animals testing positive for at least one test were considered infected. DNA samples of 112 bovines, with known MAP statuses, were analyzed to verify an association with SNPs in the genes encoding gamma-interferon (BoIFNG), interleukin receptor 10 (IL10RA), interleukin receptor 12 (IL12RB2), and toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4). Regarding statistical analysis, the differences among target genes and pairs of alleles in the analyzed groups of animals, were evaluated at a significance level of p < 0.05. For IL10RA and for IL12RB2 genes, relevant differences in genotypic frequencies among the considered cattle groups were observed. For all candidate genes studied in this investigation, SNP genotypes already associated with PTB resistance were found more frequently in our population, suggesting potential resistance traits in the Marchigiana breed.
Wastes from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are disposed and dismantled in recycling plants where chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) is different from all the other working places. A first identification of airborne contaminants, associated with size-segregated particles in the fine (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm) and coarse (aerodynamic diameter in the range 2.5–10 µm) fractions, sampled in two sectors of a WEEE facility, was performed. In the two areas of the plant, disassembly and shredding processes produced large amounts of dust, causing mass concentrations of airborne particles particularly high when activities intensified. Analyses of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, and Pb were performed on PM samples collected by a streaker sampler. PM was collected with hourly and 30-min time resolution in the two sectors of the plant for three consecutive days, night and day. Organic substances belonging to the classes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxy- and nitro- derivatives (oxy-PAHs and nitro-PAHs), organophosphorus compounds (OPEs), polyfluoralkyl substances (PFASs), and novel-brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were extracted and identified in PM samples collected by PM10 impactors. Particle sampling period for organic analyses was 4 h per day in the same three days, in each sector of the plant, during the working hours. High time resolution records of elemental composition were useful for highlighting the elements strongly depending on the productive process. During working hours, Pb and Ba concentrations reached higher levels and drastically decreased during the night. Their distribution in the coarse and fine fractions consistently increased and decreased, meaning that both fractions were linked to the working activity. Si, as main component of glass, was the most abundant element at both the areas. Though all the elements were below the permissible exposure limits recommended by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA’s PELs), the concentration of Pb was significantly high, especially at the shredding zone (21.9 µg/m3). The major organic constituents, among the classes of compounds investigated, were organophosphorus compounds (OPEs), especially in the coarse fraction of PM. In particular, triphenylphosphate (TPhP), deriving from computer video display units, was the most abundant organic compound. Interestingly, phenanthrene contributed to 60% of the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), at both the sampling sites. Airborne plastic dust can be a source of PAHs. Products made of polyethylene recycled from post-commercial waste contain high concentrations of phenanthrene, present as impurities. The present study represents a preliminary investigation on WEEE plants airborne PM composition and additional research is necessary to confirm the data, but it is worth developing a method, as high particle concentrations, together with absorbed genotoxins, could constitute an occupational health risk.
The zoonotic hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) causes most autochthonous human hepatitis E cases in Europe, which are due to the consumption of raw or undercooked food products of animal origin. Pigs and wild boars are considered the main reservoirs of this genotype, while rabbits are the reservoir of a distinct phylogenetic group named HEV-3ra, which is classified within the HEV-3 genotype but in a separate clade. Evidence for the zoonotic potential of HEV-3ra was suggested by its detection in immunocompromised patients in several European countries. HEV-3ra infection was found in farmed and feral rabbit populations worldwide and its circulation was reported in a few European countries, including Italy. Furthermore, Italy is one of the major rabbit meat producers and consumers across Europe, but only a few studies investigated the presence of HEV in this reservoir. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of HEV in 328 Italian hares and 59 farmed rabbits collected in 3 Italian macro-areas (North, North-Central, and South-Central), between 2019 and 2021. For this purpose, liver samples were used to detect HEV RNA using broad-range real-time RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR. Using 28 liver transudates from hares, the ELISA test for anti-HEV IgG detection was also performed. Neither HEV RNA nor anti-HEV antibodies were detected. Further studies will be conducted to assess the HEV presence in Italian lagomorphs to establish the role of this host and the possible risk of transmission for workers with occupational exposure, to pet owners and via food.
Potato sprouts, an underutilized by-product of potato processing, could be exploited for the recovery of caffeoyl-quinic acids (CQAs), a family of polyphenols with well-recognized biological activities. In this work, the predominant compound of this class, 5-CQA, was extracted by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) under conditions optimized by an Experimental Design. The investigated variables solid/solvent ratio (1:10–1:50 g/mL), water content in ethanol (30–100% v/v) and UAE time (5–20 min) highlighted a critical influence of the last two factors on the extraction efficiency: extracts richer in 5-CQA were obtained with lower water content (30%) and time (5 min). The addition of ascorbic acid (1.7 mM) as anti-browning agent to the extraction solvent improved the extraction efficiency of 5-CQA compared to acetic and citric acids (3158.71 μg/mL, 1766.71 μg/mL, 1468.20 μg/mL, respectively). A parallel trend for the three acids and an increase in 5-CQA recovery was obtained with the use of freeze-dried sprouts (4980.05 μg/mL, 4795.62, 4211.25 μg/mL, respectively). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in vitro demonstrated UAE being a more valuable technique than conventional maceration. Furthermore, three-times-higher values of TPC (7.89 mg GAE/g) and TAC (FRAP: 24.01 mg TE/g; DPPH: 26.20 mg TE/g; ABTS 26.72 mg TE/g) were measured for the optimized extract compared to the initial one. An HPLC-DAD method was applied to monitor 5-CQA recovery, while an LC-HRMS/MS investigation allowed us to perform analyte identity confirmation along with detection of the glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine. This evidence underlines the necessity to develop purification strategies in order to maximize the potential of potato sprout waste as a source of 5-CQA.
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