Introduction: In the past two decades, there has been a growing line of research on the possible effects of psychological interventions on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to evaluate the qualitative validity of a lifestyle-based intervention in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) by examining their experiences. Methods: This study employed a concurrent embedded mixed methods design. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted in the form of a clinical trial that applied a lifestyle-based intervention to patients with ulcerative colitis. The patients’ experiences were assessed twice through the focus group interviews. The data from both interviews (posttest and follow-up phases) were analyzed using thematic network analysis. Results: Based on the results of this study, 3 global themes, 10 organizing themes, and 21 basic themes were identified and summarized in three thematic networks of benefits, barriers, and disadvantages. Benefits included satisfaction with attending the meetings, knowledge acquisition, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes, and partial physical improvement; barriers included physical symptoms, need for retraining, giving importance to the topic, and restrictions in physical activities; and the disadvantages included the negative impact of the group and the negative impact of the training program. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the qualitative validity of a lifestyle-based intervention in a group of patients with ulcerative colitis by demonstrating the educational and therapeutic effects of the intervention and its acceptability.
Background The rapidly developed vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 carry a risk of provoking side effects. This study aimed to evaluate current vaccination non-serious/serious side effects. Methods A multicenter electronic questionnaire via an online platform was conducted over a 1-week period among vaccinated dental staff and dental students inquiring whether they experienced vaccine-related side-effects after vaccine administration. Results A total of 1205 respondents with a mean age of 39 (SD: 12) were retained for the analyses. The following vaccines were reported; Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), BBV152 (Covaxin), or BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm). The majority of respondents received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (51.1%) and Gam-COVID-Vac (37.6%). The symptoms most frequently reported after vaccination were fatigue (79%), local pain in the injection site (77.4%), malaise (73%), and body pain (71.1%). Enrollees reported more onset of reactions on 0–12 h (44.1%) and 12–24 h (29.0%) after vaccine administration ( p value <0.001). In 75.7%, the side effects last for up to 3 days. Merely 5.5% of cases reported the presence of side effects after the first week. Individuals with a history of SARSCoV-2 and other infections (MERS, influenza, and EBV) were more likely to report a number of unserious systemic side effects. Conclusion The commonly reported adverse events were in line with similar studies. We have concerns with the frequency of serious adverse effects. This work necessitates the need for further clinical assessments with larger sample sizes.
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica syndrome disease (NMOSD) are inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. The pathogenesis and treatments for these two conditions are very different. Natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells are immune cells with an important role in shaping the immune response. B cells are involved in antigen presentation as well as antibody and cytokine production. There is conflicting evidence of the roles of NK, NKT, and B cells in the two conditions. We aimed to compare the frequency of CD3-CD16+CD56+NK, CD3+ CD56+ NKT, and CD5+CD19+ B cells in the peripheral blood and serum Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients with MS and NMOSD. Methods: CD19+CD5+ B, CD3- CD16+CD56+ NK, and CD3+CD56+ NKT cells were quantitated by flow cytometry in 15 individuals with Interferon-Beta (IFN-β) treated relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 15 untreated RRMS, and 15 NMOSD patients as well as 30 healthy controls (HC). Serum IL-10 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The percentage of CD3-CD56+CD16+ NK cells in the peripheral blood of IFN-treated MS (1.81 ± 0.87) was significantly lower than for untreated RRMS (4.74 ± 1.80), NMOSD (4.64 ± 1.26) and HC (5.83 ± 2.19) (p < 0.0001). There were also differences for the percentage of CD3-CD16+ and CD3-CD56+ cells (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0007; respectively). IFN-treated RRMS (2.89 ± 1.51) had the lowest proportion of CD3+CD56+ among the study groups (p < 0.002). Untreated RRMS (5.56 ± 3.04) and NMOSD (5.47 ± 1.24) had higher levels of CD3+CD56+ than the HC (3.16 ± 1.98). The mean percentage of CD19+CD5+ B cells in the peripheral blood of untreated RRMS patients (1.32 ± 0.67) was higher compared to the patients with NMOSD (0.30 ± 0.20), HC (0.5 ± 0.22) and IFN-treated RRMS (0.81 ± 0.17) (p < 0.0001). Serum interleukin-10 was significantly higher in the IFN-treated RRMS (8.06 ± 5.39) and in HC (8.38 ± 2.84) compared to untreated RRMS (5.07 ± 1.44) and the patients with NMOSD (5.33 ± 2.56) (p < 0.003). Conclusions: The lower proportion of CD3-CD56+ CD16+ NK and CD3+CD56+ cells in peripheral blood of IFN-treated RRMS compared to other groups suggests the importance of immunomodulation in patients with RRMS disorder. Based on the differences in CD19+CD5+ B cells and serum IL-10 between patients and HC, supplementary assessments could be of value in clarifying their roles in autoimmunity.
Background A complex of effector and predominant regulatory immune responses are induced in the female reproductive tract (FRT) due to insemination that is necessary to achieve pregnancy. The expression of immune regulatory molecules by spermatozoa indicates the significance of the interaction between spermatozoa and immune cells recruited to the FRT in the preparation of appropriate immunity for pregnancy occurrence. One of the immune regulatory molecules is CD5 whose expression by spermatozoa has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the expression of CD5 on the surface of human spermatozoa. Semen samples were collected from 30 healthy men with normal semen status. CD5 expression on purified spermatozoa was evaluated by flow cytometry methods. Results The results showed the mean ± SD percentage of CD5 positive spermatozoa was 49.41 ± 8.73. Conclusion CD5 is expressed on spermatozoa.
Background The significance of planned pregnancy is an accepted principle for improving the health of pregnant women; and quality of life, as one of the important indicators of women’s health, is reduced in high-risk pregnancies. The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in the health related quality of life (HRQL) in low risk pregnancies in different groups based on pregnancy context. Methods The present study was a prospective study conducted on 250 pregnant women divided into three groups of women with planned pregnancy, unplanned/wanted pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy. Then, using WHOQOL-26 questionnaire, the quality of life of these women was measured in physical, psychological, social and environmental dimensions at the beginning of pregnancy as well as at the end of the first, second and third trimesters. Results Based on the results, the mean score of environmental-HRQL in women with unwanted pregnancy was significantly lower than the other two groups. All dimensions on HRQL were influenced by time and group. However, changes in the physical, psychological and social dimensions of HRQL varied within the groups. Physical- HRQL changes were different within the groups. The intergroup effect on environmental dimension of quality of life changes was significant. Conclusions It was observed in this study that HRQL in the women with unwanted pregnancy was lower than the women with planned pregnancy and those with unplanned /wanted pregnancy. Moreover, increase in gestational age would lower quality of life, but this decline had a similar pattern in different groups.
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is the causative organism for a pandemic disease with a high rate of infectivity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to assess the affinity between several available small molecule and proteins, including Abl kinase inhibitors, Janus kinase inhibitor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, and Papain-like protease inhibitors, using binding simulation, to test whether they may be effective in inhibiting COVID-19 infection through several mechanisms. The efficiency of inhibitors was evaluated based on docking scores using AutoDock Vina software. Strong ligand–protein interactions were predicted among some of these drugs, that included: Imatinib, Remdesivir, and Telaprevir, and this may render these compounds promising candidates. Some candidate drugs might be efficient in disease control as potential inhibitors or lead compounds against the SARS-CoV-2. It is also worth highlighting the powerful immunomodulatory role of other drugs, such as Abivertinib that inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production associated with cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and the progression of COVID-19 infection. The potential role of other Abl kinase inhibitors, including Imatinib in reducing SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viral titers, immune regulatory function and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), indicate that this drug may be useful for COVID-19, as the SARS-CoV-2 genome is similar to SARS-CoV.
Background In recent years, musculoskeletal ultrasound has increasingly become the common method for diagnosis for many medical specialties. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) as a primary triage tool in the diagnosis of the acute medial meniscus injury of the knee. Materials and methods The present cross-sectional study was performed on patients with a suspected medial meniscus injury of the knee in the emergency department (ED). After history taking and primary physical examination, radiographic imaging of the knee was done. If there was no fracture in the knee X-ray, the POCUS examination on the knee was carried out. All the patients were asked to refer to an orthopedic clinic 2 weeks after discharge from ED for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) evaluation. Finally, the POCUS findings were compared with the MRI findings in diagnosing medial meniscus injury. Results Fifty-five patients with a mean age of 35.48 ± 11.58 years were analyzed in the study (69.1% male). In comparison with MRI scan, the sensitivity and specificity of POCUS in the detection of medial meniscus injury were 85.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 54.0 to 98.9] and 65.7% [95% CI 42.2 to 85.7], respectively. Its positive and negative predictive values were 58.6% [95% CI 33.8 to 81.5] and 88.5% [95% CI 62.1 to 99.3], respectively. (Area under the ROC curve = 0.726, P value = 0.003). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that POCUS can reasonably be applied in comparison with MRI to evaluate medial meniscus injury. POCUS is an effective initial diagnostic modality in patients with suspected medial meniscus injuries.
Background Although the effect of thiamine alone or in combination with vitamin C has been studied in multiple trials (RCT and interventional studies), their results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to assess impact of thiamine administration alone, thiamine in combination with vitamin C, and co-administration of low-dose hydrocortisone, vitamin C and thiamine (HVT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. Methods and materials After electronic searches on PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases, initially 3367 papers were found, and 20 interventional studies were included in our analysis. We assessed the risk-difference between treatment and control (standard treatment) groups by pooling available data on ICU length of stay, number of ventilator free days, mortality, and changes in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Results The results of present studies revealed no significant effect of thiamine in combination with vitamin C, and HVT on number of free days of ventilation. Thiamine alone supplementation was associated with high mortality percentage (WMD: 5.17%; 95% CI: 2.67, 7.67). Thiamine in combination with vitamin C had no significant impact on mortality rate. In contrast, HVT could decrease mortality rate (WMD: − 7.23%; 95% CI: − 10.31, − 4.16; I-square: 0.0%). There was no significant effect of thiamine alone, co-administration of thiamine and vitamin C, and HVT on ICU length of stay. The results of the meta-analysis showed that thiamine alone and HVT supplementation had no significant effect on SOFA score. Interestingly, co-supplementation of thiamine and vitamin C had a significant decreasing effect on SOFA score (WMD: − 0.73; 95% CI: − 1.29, − 0.17; I-square: 0.0%). Conclusion In contrast to HVT, thiamine supplementation alone was associated with increased mortality rate in ICU. However, co-supplementation of thiamine and vitamin C had a significant decreasing effect on SOFA score.
Background As there are comparative studies between ⁶⁸ Ga-PSMA and 99m Tc-PSMA and spectrum of PSMA expression, this is the first case report that notifies distribution of 99m Tc-PSMA on COVID-19 pneumonia era on the literature. Case presentation An asymptomatic 70-Y-old male who is known case of prostate adenocarcinoma underwent initial staging. SPECT/CT of the chest region reveals bilateral peripheral multifocal ground glass opacities which shows 99m Tc-PSMA uptake. Diagnosis of corona virus was confirmed by positive RT-PCR. Discussion Unexclusive role of radiotracers in nuclear medicine has an importance for wide range of applications. Comparison between ⁶⁸ Ga-PSMA and 99m Tc-PSMA in detection of metastatic disease in prostate cancer is also under evaluation. Conclusions This case implicates possible role of PSMA imaging in inflammation/infection process as well as necessity for lung review in hybrid imaging especially during this recent pandemic.
Introduction Colorectal cancer(CRC) patients are among the incurable groups who need comprehensive palliative care covering all aspects including physical, mental, social, and spiritual . The purpose of this study is to develop, implement, and evaluate a holistic palliative care program for CRC patients in order to improve quality of life of CRC patients. Methods This study is an exploratory mixed methods study which will be conducted using a sequential qualitative-quantitative design (QUAL quan) consists of four sequential steps using the approach proposed by Ewles & Sminett to develop the program. In the first phase, a qualitative study (semi-structured interview) will be conducted to discover the needs of CRC patients from the perspective of patients, family members and care providers. In the second phase, the literature review will be performed with the aim of confirming and completing the discovering new needs. In the third phase, in order to prioritize the identified needs and prepare a initial draft of the palliative care program will be done a panel of experts. In the fourth phase, the part of the developed program according to the opinions of the panel of experts, will be implemented as quasi-experimental intervention and the effect of intervention on quality of life will be evaluated. Discussion This results of this study are expected to meet the needs of CRC patients and their families through providing a holistic care and improve their quality of life in the socio-cultural context of Iran. This program can be useful in providing care, education, policy making and for future research.
Background Diagnosis of dental caries and identification of patients with dental caries is the biggest challenge in dentistry. For this diagnostic accuracy, several methods are studied. The present study attempts to re-study the published data in the last 50 years, between 1960 and 2020. Main body Based on designed keywords, we made a thorough search of 4 different databases and found 3887 articles after removing the duplicate. The included database was PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Cochrane library. On keen screening of the articles, we included 19 articles in the review. All the articles were analyzed based on the Cochrane risk assessment method. Maximum studies of up to 80% of caries management are based on children from 1 to 10 years of age. About 47% of articles were found based on reported use of drugs against dental caries, whereas 52.6% of articles were based on the behavioral and socio-demographic study of the mother and caretakers. We found that attentive parents and caretakers of the children can help in reducing the prevention of caries. Frese et al. (Sci Rep. 8(1):16991, 2018. 10.1038/s41598-018-34777-x ), Liu et al. (PLoS ONE 8(11):e78723, 2013. 10.1371/journal.pone.0078723 ), and Innes et al. J Dent Res 99(1):36–43, 2020. 10.1177/0022034519888882 ) were the studied articles with high quality and low bias risk. These methods were based on the use of stannous fluoride for dental caries, the study of the effect of smoking on older adults, by checking the anxiety level of the participants. Short conclusions Tooth decay is a common condition in the general population and affects mostly children. The method with high accuracy and low risk can be recommended for routine treatment.
Background Immunocompromised individuals are expected to be more prone to severe diseases and, subsequently, death. Genetic disorders and polymorphisms in genes involved in the immune system, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA), inflammatory cytokines, and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, can be involved in the immune system's response to various pathogens. In the current survey, the data were received from the world health organization, collected around the world. Results Spearman's coefficient correlation test for evaluating the relationship between the Daily Death Rates (DDR) and immunological variables showed a statistically significant correlation between the DDR and all immunological variables except TNFa857T, TNFa863A IL2330G, and IL2166T ( P < 0.001). Also, there was a statistically significant correlation between the DDR and some HLA markers. Conclusion This meta-analysis study shows that predictive biomarkers and mortality of COVID-19 are associated with HLA markers. However, these results should be confirmed in a more structured agreement. It is worth noting that the design of new studies should consider potential diseases with poor prognoses because they are related to these immune genetic markers.
Background Epigenetic changes, especially DNA methylation have a main role in regulating cardiometabolic disorders and their risk factors. This study provides a review of the current evidence on the association between methylation of some genes (LINE1, ABCG1, SREBF1, PHOSPHO1, ADRB3, and LEP) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and Scopus up to end of 2020. All observational human studies (cross-sectional, case–control, and cohort) were included. Studies that assessed the effect of DNA methylation on cardiometabolic risk factors were selected. Results Among 1398 articles, eight studies and twenty-one studies were included in the meta-analysis and the systematic review, respectively. Our study showed ABCG1 and LINE1 methylation were positively associated with blood pressure (Fisher’s zr = 0.07 (0.06, 0.09), 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.08). Methylation in LINE1, ABCG1, SREBF1, PHOSPHO1 and ADRB3 had no significant association with HDL levels (Fisher’s zr = − 0.05 (− 0.13, 0.03), 95% CI:-0.12 to 0.02). Positive association was existed between LINE1, ABCG1 and LEP methylation and LDL levels (Fisher’s zr = 0.13 (0.04, 0.23), 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.23). Moreover, positive association was found between HbA1C and ABCG1 methylation (Fisher’s zr = 0.11 (0.09, 0.13), 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.12). DNA methylation of LINE1, ABCG1 and SREBF1 genes had no significant association with glucose levels (Fisher’s zr = 0.01 (− 0.12, 0.14), 95% CI:-0.12 to 0.14). Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that DNA methylation was associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors including LDL-C, HbA1C, and blood pressure. Registration Registration ID of the protocol on PROSPERO is CRD42020207677 .
Given the global increase in air pollution and its crucial role in human health, as well as the steep rise in prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which environmental pollution may influence MetS is imperative. Exposure to air pollution is known to impact DNA methylation, which in turn may affect human health. This paper comprehensively reviews the evidence for the hypothesis that the effect of air pollution on the MetS is mediated by DNA methylation in blood. First, we present a summary of the impact of air pollution on metabolic dysregulation, including the components of MetS, i.e., disorders in blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, and obesity. Then, we provide evidence on the relation between air pollution and endothelial dysfunction as one possible mechanism underlying the relation between air pollution and MetS. Subsequently, we review the evidence that air pollution (PM, ozone, NO2 and PAHs) influences DNA methylation. Finally, we summarize association studies between DNA methylation and MetS. Integration of current evidence supports our hypothesis that methylation may partly mediate the effect of air pollution on MetS.
The pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created health challenges in all parts of the world. Understanding the entry mechanism of this virus into host cells is essential for effective treatment of COVID-19 disease. This virus can bind to various cell surface molecules or receptors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to gain cell entry. Respiratory failure and pulmonary edema are the most important causes of mortality from COVID-19 infections. Cytokines, especially proinflammatory cytokines, are the main mediators of these complications. For normal respiratory function, a healthy air–blood barrier and sufficient blood flow to the lungs are required. In this review, we first discuss airway epithelial cells, airway stem cells, and the expression of COVID-19 receptors in the airway epithelium. Then, we discuss the suggested molecular mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and blood vessel damage in COVID-19. Coagulopathy can be caused by platelet activation leading to clots, which restrict blood flow to the lungs and lead to respiratory failure. Finally, we present an overview of the effects of immune and non-immune cells and cytokines in COVID-19-related respiratory failure.
Gliomas are the most lethal primary brain tumors in adults. These highly invasive tumors have poor 5-year survival for patients. Gliomas are principally characterized by rapid diffusion as well as high levels of cellular heterogeneity. However, to date, the exact pathogenic mechanisms, contributing to gliomas remain ambiguous. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as small noncoding RNAs of about 20 nucleotides in length, are known as chief modulators of different biological processes at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. More recently, it has been revealed that these noncoding RNA molecules have essential roles in tumorigenesis and progression of multiple cancers, including gliomas. Interestingly, miRNAs are able to modulate diverse cancer-related processes such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, invasion and migration, differentiation and stemness, angiogenesis, and drug resistance; thus, impaired miRNAs may result in deterioration of gliomas. Additionally, miRNAs can be secreted into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as the bloodstream, and transported between normal and tumor cells freely or by exosomes, converting them into potential diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers for gliomas. They would also be great therapeutic agents, especially if they could cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Accordingly, in the current review, the contribution of miRNAs to glioma pathogenesis is first discussed, then their glioma-related diagnostic/prognostic and therapeutic potential is highlighted briefly.
In this study, an electrospray synthesis approach was utilized in which a solution mixture of a sensitive bioactive agent, d-limonene (DL, R-(+)-Limonene), and a nature-inspired polymer, κ-carrageenan (κC) was applied to design DL-κC nanoparticles (NPs) in a one step process. The engineered DL-κC NPs displayed spherical morphology and the maximum encapsulation efficiency of NPs was about 97 % by altering the mass ratio of DL to κC. The developed DL-κC NPs showed a pH-dependent release manner in vitro. Both photostability and thermostability of DL were promoted by increasing the κC concentration, and >85 % of the original DL could be preserved following 120 min of UV-light exposure in the NPs with 0.5 % κC. The results demonstrated that electrosprayed κC NPs are promising candidates for the design of high-loading pH-sensitive NPs for encapsulation of highly sensitive bioactive agents.
Background Existing meta-analyses on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their anti-inflammatory effects have reported uncertain findings. The current umbrella meta-analysis aimed to assess the findings of multiple meta-analyses on the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs on inflammatory biomarkers in adults with different health conditions. Methods Using suitable keywords, articles published until December 2021 were searched in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Meta-analyses investigating the impact of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on inflammatory biomarkers in adults were included. We performed this meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Results Overall, 32 meta-analyses were qualified in this umbrella meta-analysis. Our findings demonstrated that the n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly reduced serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (ES = −0.40; 95 % CI: −0.56, −0.24, p < 0.001; I² = 89.5 %, p < 0.001), Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) (ES = −0.23; 95 % CI: −0.37, −0.08, p = 0.002; I² = 60.1 %, p < 0.001), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations (ES = −0.22; 95 % CI: −0.39, −0.05, p = 0.010; I² = 66.2 %, p < 0.001). Conclusion The current umbrella meta-analysis found that supplementation of n-3 PUFAs in adults can improve CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 concentrations under various health conditions. n-3 PUFAs can be recommended as adjuvant anti-inflammatory agents.
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