Background Cardiac surgeries are known to induce an inflammatory response. Besides, dietary factors such as trace elements contribute to promoting cardiovascular health by maintaining oxidative balance. Here we systematically review the literature about alterations in serum concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) in response to cardiac surgeries. Methods A systematic search was performed on databases until the end of December 2022. Studies assessing the changes of mentioned elements in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included. Changes in the means and standard deviations of the elements before and after the cardiac surgery were utilized as desired effect sizes. Results Among 1252 records found in the primary search, 23 and 21 articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis respectively. Seventeen studies evaluated the changes in serum Zn and Cu levels, and fifteen studies assessed Se levels. According to the results of quantitative analysis, Zn, Cu, and Se concentrations, one day after the surgery were significantly lower than preoperative values (WMD for Zn: 4.64 µmol/L [3.57–5.72], WMD for Cu: 1.62 µmol/L [0.52–2.72], and WMD for Se: 0.1 µmol/L [0.03–0.16]). The concentration of trace elements recovered gradually during the first-week post-operation and reached preoperative levels or even higher. Conclusion Serum trace elements dropped significantly soon after the cardiac surgery, but they reached their baseline levels mostly during the first week after the surgery. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of alterations in serum concentration of trace elements on the outcomes and complications of open-heart surgeries.
The convergence of carbohydrate polymers and metal nanoparticles (MNPs) holds great promise for biomedical applications. Researchers aim to exploit the capability of carbohydrate matrices to modulate the physicochemical properties of MNPs, promote their therapeutic efficiency, improve targeted drug delivery, and enhance their biocompatibility. Therefore, understanding various attributes of both carbohydrates and MNPs is the key to harnessing them for biomedical applications. The many distinct types of carbohydrate-MNP systems confer unique capabilities for drug delivery, wound healing, tissue engineering, cancer treatment, and even food packaging. Here, we introduce distinct physicochemical/biological properties of carbohydrates and MNPs, and discuss their potentials and shortcomings (alone and in combination) for biomedical applications. We then offer an overview on carbohydrate-MNP systems and how they can be utilized to improve biomedical outcomes. Last but not least, future perspectives toward the application of such systems are highlighted.
The HAND2-AS1 (HAND2 Antisense RNA 1) Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has emerged as a participant in the initiation of various cancer types, underscoring its pivotal involvement in both oncological processes and immune responses. To gain deeper insights into the functional nuances of HAND2-AS1 and identify novel avenues for cancer immunotherapy, a comprehensive evaluation of this gene was undertaken. Here, based on the co-expression network analysis and construction of interacting lncRNA–mRNA genes, we introduce the HAND2-AS1 lncRNA, emphasizing its key roles in tumorigenesis and immune regulation. Our study spans across 33 distinct cancer types, revealing the HAND2-AS1’s aberrant expression patterns, methylation variations, mutational signatures, and immune engagement. Across a majority of tumors, HAND2-AS1 exhibited a propensity for down-regulation, remarkably an association with poor survival outcomes. The outcomes of functional enrichment analyses strongly suggest HAND2-AS1’s engagement in tumor progression and its association with various immune pathways across diverse tumor classifications. Additionally, a positive correlation emerged between HAND2-AS1 expression and the infiltration levels of key immune cells, encompassing not only immunosuppressive entities such as tumor-associated macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and Tregs, but also immune effector cells like NK cells and CD8+ T cells, spanning a pan-cancer context. Furthermore, the differential expression of HAND2-AS1 appears to have downstream consequences on various pathways, thus implicating it as a potential regulator in diverse cancer types. Finally, we have employed CRC tumor and normal samples to carry out clinical validation of HAND2-AS1. Our study unveils HAND2-AS1’s potential as a pan-cancer tumor suppressor, and its essential role in the tumorigenesis and immune surveillance. The increased HAND2-AS1 expression emerges as a promising candidate for prognostic evaluation, therapeutic strategy, and a focal point for immunotherapeutic interventions. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12935-023-03163-7.
Background We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize all studies that reported the level of oxidative and antioxidative markers in recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients compared to controls. Methods We registered our study in PROSPERO (CRD42023431310). PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were searched to find relevant publications up to June 5, 2023. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. We included 30 articles after multiple stags of screening. Results We found that erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly lower in patients with RAS compared to healthy controls (SMD = − 1.00, 95%CI = -1.79 to -0.21, p = 0.013, and SMD = − 1.90, 95%CI = -3.43 to -0.38, p = 0.01, Respectively). However, there was not any difference between patients with RAS and healthy controls in erythrocyte Catalase (SMD = − 0.71, 95%CI = -1.56–0.14, p = 0.10). The total antioxidant status (TAS) level, in serum was significantly lower in patients than healthy controls (SMD = − 0.98, 95%CI = -1.57 to -0.39, p = 0.001). In addition, RAS patients had higher levels of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA), Serum total oxidant status, and serum oxidative stress index than healthy controls (SMD = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.43–2.79, p < 0.001, SMD = 1.53, 95%CI = 0.34–2.72, p = 0.01, and SMD = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.25–2.25, p = 0.014, Respectively); However, salivary MDA and TAS, and serum uric acid, vitamin E and C, and reduced glutathione levels of patients with RAS were not different from that of healthy controls. Conclusions The relationship between oxidative stress and RAS is well established in this meta-analysis. Although the molecular processes underlying the etiology of this pathology remain unknown, evidence indicating oxidative stress has a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAS has been revealed.
Background Monitoring progress towards the WHO global target to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by 2030, entails reliable prevalence estimates for HCV infection in different populations. Little is known about the global burden of HCV infection in pregnant women. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we estimated the global and regional seroprevalence of HCV antibody (Ab) and determinants in pregnant women. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis study, we searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and SciELO databases for peer-reviewed observational studies between January 1, 2000 and April 1, 2023, without language or geographical restrictions. Pooled global seroprevalence (and 95% confidence interval, CI) were estimated using random-effects meta-analysis and seroprevalences were categorised according to World Health Organization regions and subregions, publishing year, countries’ income and human development index (HDI) levels. We used sensitivity analysis to assess the effect of four large sample size studies on pooled global prevalence through the “leave-one-out” method. We also investigated the association of potential risk factors with HCV seropositivity in pregnant women by subgroup and meta-regression analyses. The Protocol was registered in PROSPERO CRD42023423259. Findings We included 192 eligible studies (208 datasets), with data for 148,509,760 pregnant women from 53 countries. The global seroprevalence of HCV Ab in pregnant women was 1.80% (95% CI, 1.72–1.89%) and 3.29% (3.01–3.57%) in overall and sensitivity analyses, respectively. The seroprevalence was highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (6.21%, 4.39–8.29%) and lowest in the Western Pacific region (0.75%, 0.38–1.22%). Subgroup analysis indicated that the seroprevalence of HCV Ab among pregnant women was significantly higher for those with opioid use disorder (51.94%, 95% CI: 37.32–66.39) and HIV infection (4.34%, 95% CI: 2.21–7.06%) than for the general population of pregnant women (1.08%, 95% CI: 1.02–1.15%), as confirmed by multivariable meta-regression (p < 0.001). A significant decreasing trend was observed with increasing human development index levels. Other important risk factors for HCV seropositivity included older age, lower educational levels, poly sexual activity, history of blood transfusion, hospitalization, surgery, abortion and sexual transmitted diseases, having scarification/tattoo or piercing, and testing hepatitis B positive. Interpretation This meta-analysis showed relatively high burden of exposure to HCV infection (2.2–5.3 million) in pregnant women globally. However, due to substantial heterogeneity between studies, our estimates might be different than the true seroprevalence. Our findings highlighted the need to expand HCV screening for women of reproductive age or during pregnancy, particularly in countries with high prevalence; as well as for more studies that assess safety of existing therapeutic drugs during pregnancy or potentially support development of drugs for pregnant women. Funding There was no funding source for this study.
Research indicates that green tea extract (GTE) supplementation is beneficial for a range of conditions, including several forms of cancer, cardiovascular, and liver diseases; nevertheless, the existing evidence addressing its effects on body composition, oxidative stress, and obesity-related hormones is inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of GTE supplementation on body composition (body mass [BM], body fat percentage [BFP], fat mass [FM], body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC]), obesity-related hormones (leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]) markers. We searched proper databases, including PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science, up to July 2022 to recognize published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of GTE supplementation on the markers mentioned above. A random-effects model was used to carry out a meta-analysis. The heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I ² index. Among the initial 11286 studies identified from an electronic database search, 59 studies involving 3802 participants were eligible to be included in this meta-analysis. Pooled effect sizes indicated that BM, BFP, BMI, and MDA significantly reduced following GTE supplementation. In addition, GTE supplementation increased adiponectin and TAC, with no effects on FM, leptin, and ghrelin. Certainty of evidence across outcomes ranged from low to high. Our results suggest that GTE supplementation can attenuate oxidative stress, BM, BMI, and BFP, which are thought to negatively affect human health. Moreover, GTE as a nutraceutical dietary supplement can increase TAC and adiponectin.
Background Despite the changing roles of faculty in the health professions over the past two decades, none of the reviews has been paid enough attention to the impact of the faculty development programs on these roles. The objective of this review is to synthesize the existing evidence that addresses the questions: “What are the types and outcomes of faculty development programs based on the Harden teachers’ role framework and which of the areas described by Harden and Crosby are the authors referring to?” Methods This review was conducted according to the guidance for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework. In 2020, a literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ERIC, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Magiran and SID databases. The review included 119 studies (between 1990 and 2020) that met the review criteria. Data were extracted using a modified coding sheet. We used the modified Kirkpatrick model to assess the educational outcomes of faculty development programs. Results The majority of faculty development programs were workshops (33.61%) with various durations. Most programs focused on the domain of information provider and coach (76.47%), followed by the facilitator of learning and mentor (53.78%) and assessor and diagnostician (37.81%). Only five faculty development programs focused on the domain of role model. The majority (83.19%) of outcomes reported were at level 2B, level 1 (73.95%) and level 2A (71.42%). Gains in knowledge and skills related to teaching methods and student assessment were frequently noted. Behavior changes included enhanced teaching performance, development of new educational curricula and programs, improved feedback and evaluation processes, new leadership positions, increased academic output and career development. The impact on the organizational practice continued to be underexplored. Conclusion Based on the review findings, broadening the scope of faculty development programs beyond the traditional roles of the faculty members by utilizing a competency-based framework for developing a comprehensive faculty development program is recommended. Attention to individualized form of faculty development programs and incorporating more informal approaches into the design and delivery of faculty development programs is also needed.
Introduction Seminoma comprises approximately 50% of testicular germ cell tumors. Retroperitoneal lymph nodes are the most common initial metastatic sites but renal metastases are infrequent and the majority of renal tumors represent primary neoplasm. Case Presentation In this study, we present a 48-year-old male with metastases of seminoma to the cervical lymph nodes and kidney after a 25-year interval. Conclusion This presentation emphasizes the necessity of advising all patients who are discharged from follow-up that there is a chance of late remote relapse and that if they acquire any illness after discharge, they must inform their doctor about their previous seminoma.
Background Topical minoxidil is the recommended first‐line pharmacologic treatment for male and female pattern hair loss. However, low‐dose oral minoxidil has been used off‐label with good clinical efficacy and safety. Aim To compare the effectiveness and safety of topical minoxidil as a first‐choice treatment of androgenetic alopecia versus 1 mg daily oral minoxidil. Method Sixty‐five AGA patients were randomly allocated to receive either 5% topical solution or 1 mg/day oral minoxidil for 6 months. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by measuring hair diameter, photographic assessment, and patient self‐assessment questionnaires. The safety of treatment was checked through history taking and physical examination. Results Both topical and oral minoxidil groups showed significant improvement in hair diameter after 6 months of treatment ( p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. The photographic assessment demonstrated a significant improvement in hair density in the topical minoxidil group in all marked points located at 12 cm ( p = 0.025), 16 cm ( p = 0.034), and 24 cm ( p = 0.014) distance from the glabella but not in the oral minoxidil group. Nevertheless, the difference between the two groups was not significant. In each group, over 60% of patients expressed satisfaction with their treatments, and no significant difference was detected between the two groups. Conclusion Although topical minoxidil has a better overall therapeutic effect than 1 mg oral minoxidil, the difference between the two groups was not significant. Therefore, 1 mg oral minoxidil may be as effective and safe as standard topical minoxidil in female and male pattern hair loss.
This comprehensive review explores vimentin as a pivotal therapeutic target in cancer treatment, with a primary focus on mitigating metastasis and overcoming drug resistance. Vimentin, a key player in cancer progression, is intricately involved in processes such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and resistance mechanisms to standard cancer therapies. The review delves into diverse vimentin inhibition strategies. Precision tools, including antibodies and nanobodies, selectively neutralize vimentin's pro-tumorigenic effects. DNA and RNA aptamers disrupt vimentin-associated signaling pathways through their adaptable binding properties. Innovative approaches, such as vimentin-targeted vaccines and microRNAs (miRNAs), harness the immune system and post-transcriptional regulation to combat vimentin-expressing cancer cells. By dissecting vimentin inhibition strategies across these categories, this review provides a comprehensive overview of anti-vimentin therapeutics in cancer treatment. It underscores the growing recognition of vimentin as a pivotal therapeutic target in cancer and presents a diverse array of inhibitors, including antibodies, nanobodies, DNA and RNA aptamers, vaccines, and miRNAs. These multifaceted approaches hold substantial promise for tackling metastasis and overcoming drug resistance, collectively presenting new avenues for enhanced cancer therapy.
The advent of iPSCs has brought about a significant transformation in stem cell research, opening up promising avenues for advancing cancer treatment. The formation of cancer is a multifaceted process influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. iPSCs offer a distinctive platform for investigating the origin of cancer, paving the way for novel approaches to cancer treatment, drug testing, and tailored medical interventions. This review article will provide an overview of the science behind iPSCs, the current limitations and challenges in iPSC-based cancer therapy, the ethical and social implications, and the comparative analysis with other stem cell types for cancer treatment. The article will also discuss the applications of iPSCs in tumorigenesis, the future of iPSCs in tumorigenesis research, and highlight successful case studies utilizing iPSCs in tumorigenesis research. The conclusion will summarize the advancements made in iPSC-based tumorigenesis research and the importance of continued investment in iPSC research to unlock the full potential of these cells.
Background Regarding end-stage organ disease, transplantation is recommended as the best therapeutic management. After organ transplantation, the incidence of nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli increases. Background Regarding end-stage organ disease organ transplantation recommended as the best therapeutic management. After organ transplantation the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli is increasing Aim The study aimed to investigate NUTIs post-transplantation, the main pathogens involved, and sensitivity tests conducted in a tertiary hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Methods A retrospective survey on patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Isfahan (Alzahra), Iran, was performed between 27 March, 2017, and 9 February, 2022. The information recorded included the date of infection, date of hospitalization, gender, age, type of pathogens, and resistance or sensitivity to antibiotics. Results 73 kidney transplant recipients (61% females) with a mean age of 43. 2 ± 15.1 years were included. Within this population involving both genders, the main pathogens involved in NUTIs were as follows: Escherichia coli (30%), Klebsiella pneumonia (19%), Candida albicans and non-albicans (14%), Enterococcus faecalis (12%), Enterobacteriaceae (8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Staphylococcus spp. (6%), Acinetobacter baumannii (4%), and Streptococcus spp. (4%). Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed the most sensitivity of isolates against amikacin (n=29; 66%), meropenem (n= 28; 64%), piperacillin/tazobactam (n=26; 54%), cefepime (n= 25; 40%), ceftazidime (n= 27; 30%), ciprofloxacin (n= 40; 18%), and co-trimoxazole (n= 29; 10%). Result 72 kidney transplant recipients (61 Conclusion Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida spp. are the major causes of NUTIs within organ-transplanted recipients. Amikacin, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam have shown more than 50% sensitivity against isolates. Further evidence-based management associated with the different spectrum antibiotics and overall antimicrobial success rate is recommended to be advantageous.
Objective Aluminum phosphide (ALP) and zinc phosphide (ZnP) are toxic agrochemical pesticides, which are commonly used as an agent of self-harm in developing countries. Because of high toxicity of phosphides, we evaluated toxico-epidemiology ALP and ZnP poisoning in with respect to outcome. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with retrospective chart review including the records for patients admitted due to phosphide poisoning (ALP, ZnP) in a poisoning referral center in Khorshid Hospital, affiliated with Isfahan University of Medial Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, outcome (survived or death), and length of hospital stay for the patients were recorded in a data collecting form. Binary backward stepwise logistic regression was used for outcome prediction. Findings Sixty patients were evaluated in the study. The mean age of patients was 27.61. Thirty-nine patients were men. 96.7% of the patients ingested it intentionally. Most of the patients on admission were conscious (66.7%). Abnormality of EKG was noted in 8.3%. The mortality in ALP and ZnP poisoning was 39.2% and 22.2%, respectively. Serum bicarbonate and base excess in the venous blood gas analysis, systolic blood pressure, and serum sodium level were significantly different between patients with ALP and ZnP poisoning on admission time ( P < 0.05). On admission, systolic blood pressure was an important predictive factor for mortality (odds ratio 4.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–15.45; P = 0.007). Conclusion The rate of mortality in phosphide poisoning is high. Knowing predictive factors for mortality help physicians for selecting patients in intensive care unit admission and aggressive treatment.
Objective Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after hysterectomy. Here, we aimed to investigate and evaluate the beneficial effects of metronidazole vaginal gel on the rate of surgical site infections in women undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy. Methods This is a randomized prospective, double-blind controlled clinical trial performed in 2020 in Isfahan on 108 candidates for elective hysterectomy. At the beginning of the study, we completed a checklist of the patient’s characteristics (patient age, body mass index [BMI], and history of medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, anemia, and immune deficiency) and the cause of hysterectomy. All patients were randomized into two groups. The first group received a lubricant vaginal gel single dosage, and the second group received a 0.75% metronidazole vaginal gel single dosage the night before surgery. Patients were visited up to 6 weeks after surgery, and the frequency of infection at the surgical site was determined. Findings The rates of infection were lower in patients who received metronidazole vaginal gel (5.8%) compared to the control group (11.6%) ( P = 0.03). Patients with an estimated blood loss volume of more than 500 mL had higher rates of infection (13.46%) compared to patients with a bleeding volume of fewer than 500 mL (1.9%) ( P = 0.001). We also found that patients with diabetes (13.5%) and patients with BMI more than 30 kg/m ² (13.5%) had higher rates of infection compared to patients without diabetes (5.8%) and patients with BMI <30 kg/m ² (11.5%) ( P = 0.001 for both). Patients with higher hospitalization duration had higher infection rates ( P = 0.009). Conclusion Administration of a single dosage of metronidazole vaginal gel before abdominal hysterectomy may reduce surgical site infection and have clinical values.
Previous surveys suggests that body mass index (BMI) may be positively related to development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, this association might be altered by metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of metabolic health status with CKD. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 3322 representative sample of Iranian adults. Metabolic syndrome was identified based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and BMI was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by modification of diet in renal disease-Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (MDRD-EPI) formula. Subjects were categorized into four phenotypes: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy overweight and obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUHNW), and metabolically unhealthy overweight and obesity (MUHO). Based on multivariate-adjusted models, the risk of CKD was significantly higher in MUHO compared with MHNW (OR: 1.48; p < 0.05). Although MUHNW and MUHO were associated with lower eGFR and albuminuria, the significant association was not observed in case of hematuria. Furthermore, subjects with kidney stones tended to be in MHO (OR: 1.42; p < 0.05) and MUHO phenotypes (OR: 1.64; p < 0.05), in comparison to the MHNW phenotype. The odds of kidney disorders were higher in adults with metabolic syndrome, regardless of BMI. However, this relationship might be strengthened by the concomitance of metabolic syndrome and obesity. To verify our findings, clarify the causality, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms, further research are warranted.
Key Clinical Message There is a need to pay more attention to cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic regions which may mimic other dermatoses and treatment should be initiated with a strong clinical suspicion even without any histopathologic or PCR confirmation to avoid disfigurement or development of secondary malignancy. Abstract Leishmaniasis is a vector‐borne disease with a variety of Clinical manifestations. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of disease and can mimic other dermatoses. We describe two unusual cases of chronic leishmaniasis that remained undiagnosed for many years and led to superimposition of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on lesions of one patient. These reports showed that the leishmaniasis should be borne in mind by clinicians when encountering any infiltrated lesion in patients from endemic regions and treatment should be initiated with a strong clinical suspicion even without any histopathologic or PCR confirmation to avoid disfigurement or development of secondary malignancy.
One of the chief pathways to regulate p53 levels is MDM2 protein, which negatively controls p53 by direct inhibition. Many cancers overproduce MDM2 protein to interrupt p53 functions. Therefore, impeding MDM2's binding to p53 can reactivate p53 in tumor cells may suggest an effective approach for tumor therapy. Here, some Monastrol derivatives were designed in silico as MDM2 inhibitors, and their initial cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro on MFC‐7 and MDA‐MB‐231 cells. A small library of Monastrol derivatives was created, and virtual screening (VS) was performed on them. The first‐ranked compound, which was extracted from VS, and the other six compounds 5a‐5f were selected to carry out the single‐docking and docking with explicit waters. The compound with the best average results was then subjected to molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. Compounds 5a‐5f were chemically synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their initial cytotoxicity on MFC‐7 and MDA‐MB‐231 cells by MTT assay. The best compound was compound 5d with ΔG ave = −10.35 kcal/mol. MD simulation revealed a median potency in comparison with Nutlin‐3a. The MTT assay confirmed the docking and MD experiments. 5d has an IC 50 of 60.09 μM on MCF‐7 cells. We attempted to use Monastrol scaffold as a potent inhibitor of MDM2 rather than an Eg5 inhibitor using in silico modification. The results obtained from the in silico and in vitro evaluations were noteworthy and warranted much more effort in the future.
The use of natural and herbal products as alternative therapies, in conjunction with blood glucose-lowering medications, is on the rise for patients with diabetes. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis of both human and animal models to investigate the impact of chamomile consumption on glycemic control. A systematic search was conducted on all published papers from January 1990 up to January 2022 via Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Science. Human and animal articles evaluating the effect of chamomile on serum glycemic markers were included. We used the random-effects model to establish the pooled effect size. The dose-dependent effect was also assessed. Overall, 4 clinical trials on human and 8 studies on animals met the inclusion criteria. With regard to RCTs, a favorable effect of chamomile consumption on serum fasting blood glucose (Standardized Mean Differences (SMD): -0.65, 95% CI: -1.00, -0.29, P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) levels (SMD: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.39, -0.40, P < 0.001; I2 = 45.4%) was observed. Considering animal studies, consumption of chamomile extracts significantly reduced serum blood glucose (SMD: -4.37, 95% CI: -5.76, -2.98, P < 0.001; I2 = 61.2%). Moreover, each 100 mg/d increase in chamomile extract intervention resulted in a significantly declined blood glucose concentrations (MD: -54.35; 95% CI: -79.77, -28.93, P < 0.001; I2 = 94.8). The current meta-analysis revealed that chamomile consumption could exert favorable effects on serum blood glucose and HbA1C. However, additional randomized controlled trials are needed to further confirm these findings.
Background A comprehensive guideline named “Diagnostic Therapeutic Flow Chart for Covid-19″ (DTFC) was released by the Scientific Committee of Covid-19 of Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education and regularly was updated. The aim of this study was to compare the prescription pattern of drug treatment in outpatient Covid-19 patients with the DTFC. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the prescription pattern of drugs given to outpatients with a diagnosis of Covid-19, in Isfahan City from June to September 2021 (concurrent with the fifth peak of Covid-19 in Iran) taking into account the recommendations of the 9th version of DTFC (December 2020). A total of 8250 prescriptions were retrieved from the Public Health Department of Isfahan City. Results Famotidine 20, 40 mg tablets ( N = 936 patients) was the most prescribed drug followed by dexamethasone ampule ( N = 588), prednisolone 5, 50 mg tablets ( N = 478), azithromycin 250, 500 mg capsules ( N = 452), diphenhydramine syrup ( N = 362), vitamin D3 soft gel 50,000 Iu ( N = 526), naproxen 250, 500 mg tablets ( N = 266) and favipiravir 200 mg tablet ( N = 191). The following drugs were administered against the recommendation of the DTFC-9: azithromycin, favipiravir, remdesivir, cetirizine, corticosteroids, vitamin C, vitamin B12, multivitamins, proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omperazole, anticoagulants (rivaroxaban,….), aspirin and ivermectin. Administration of analgesics, famotidine, hydroxychloroquine, vitamin D3, diphenhydramine and statins were in concordance with the DTFC-9. Conclusion In this study, we showed frequent use of drugs with unproven efficacy in outpatient cases of Covid-19 mostly attributed to corticosteroids and antibiotics use. Our research highlights the discrepancy between recommendations for care and clinical practice and the need for strategy to bridge gaps in evidence-based informed decision-making.
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