Iran University of Medical Sciences
Recent publications
In optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) radiotherapy, vital organs with a low tolerance dose are very close to the target volume. Thus dose fall-off steepness around the target volume is the most critical parameter in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning for this malignancy. We hypothesized that one of the parameters that can impact the dose fall-off steepness is dose calculation grid sizes. This study aimed to assess the impact of different dose calculation grid sizes on the newly introduced dose gradient indices (DGIs) for the steepness of dose fall-off around the target volume. Results showed that decreasing the dose calculation grid size in IMRT treatment planning of ONSM patients had a significant difference in the dosimetric parameters and DGIs of the target volume and at-risk organs. This study demonstrates that using a finer dose calculation grid size is preferred in treating ONSM patients.
An esophageal lung is a subtype of communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (CBPFM) where the lung, often right side, communicates with the esophagus, which causes hypoplastic and consolidated diseased lung, and is usually diagnosed late in its clinical course. Clinical suspicion based on patient history, signs, and symptoms should lead to this opinion. A chest CT scan combined with esophagography is highly recommended for suspicious cases. Here, we describe the case of a 3-month-old female infant who was referred to our hospital because of respiratory distress. The diagnosis of the congenital esophageal lung was made following a chest CT scan and esophagography. This is a very rare case that is misdiagnosed as a tracheoesophageal fistula. CBPFMs are rare abnormalities caused by an abnormal connection between the respiratory tract and the gastroesophageal system. Early diagnosis and differentiation of these abnormalities from sequestration and tracheoesophageal fistula could improve the outcome.
Background People living with schizophrenia (PLS) suffer frequent relapse accompanied by emergency room visits, premature mortality, lower quality of life and a substantial social and economic burden on families and health systems. There is a dearth of community-based relapse prevention interventions (RPIs) in Iran. Aims To determine an ideal model for a community-based RPIs for PLS. Methods A qualitative study with 27 experts in Iran was carried out to understand the ideal RPIs for PLS and the key components of such interventions. Results In 16 semi-structured interviews and 8 group-discussions, the participants identified six major stages of family and community-based RPIs including preparation, social mobilization, local team formation, design an RPI, implementing the RPI, participatory monitoring, and evaluation of the RPI. Conclusions Given the suboptimal healthcare systems and lack of professionals and services, PLS in Iran may benefit from family and community-based RPIs. Our findings warrant pilot testing of such initiatives across developing communities like Iran to improve health outcomes of PLS.
Gastric cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality and one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) accounts for the majority of gastric cancer cases. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been shown to be associated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression. This research aims to investigate GAC-associated circRNAs and the underlying mechanisms of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks in the development and progression of GAC. Differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs (DEMs and DEGs) were identified in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarray datasets using the R package Limma. A microarray meta-analysis was performed to identify potential GAC-associated circRNAs with high statistical power, resulting in 13 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated circRNAs. CircRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks were constructed by combining predicted and experimentally validated databases and considering differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs. The constructed ceRNA networks revealed the potential regulatory effect of hsa_circ_0002019 and hsa_circ_0074736 on key survival-related genes. The expression levels of these two circRNAs were measured in plasma samples from GAC patients and healthy controls using SYBR Green-based real-time PCR. Axon guidance, cellular senescence, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, and AMPK signaling pathway were among the major significant (P-value <0.05) enriched pathways of "main mRNAs" in the constructed ceRNA networks. In conclusion, we identified strongly correlated circRNAs and their likely mechanisms of action in GAC, which may improve the knowledge of regulatory networks underlying GAC formation and contribute to developing better strategies for early diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.
Bacterial infection of the wound could potentially cause serious complications and an enormous medical and financial cost to the rapid emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Nanomaterials are an emerging technology, that has been researched as possible antimicrobial nanomaterials for the inhibition of wound infection and enhancement of wound healing. Graphene is 2-dimensional (2D) sheet of sp² carbon atoms in a honeycomb structure. It has superior properties, strength, conductivity, antimicrobial, and molecular carrier abilities. Graphene and its derivatives, Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO), have antibacterial activity and could damage bacterial morphology and lead to the leakage of intracellular substances. Besides, for wound infection management, Graphene-platforms could be functionalized by different antibacterial agents such as metal-nanoparticles, natural compounds, and antibiotics. The Graphene structure can absorb near-infrared wavelengths, allowing it to be used as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Therefore, Graphene-based material could be used to inhibit pathogens that cause serious skin infections and destroy their biofilm community, which is one of the biggest challenges in treating wound infection. Due to its agglomerated structure, GO hydrogel could entrap and stack the bacteria; thus, it prevents their initial attachment and biofilm formation. The sharp edges of GO could destroy the extracellular polymeric substance surrounding the biofilm and ruin the biofilm biomass structure. As well as, Chitosan and different natural and synthetic polymers such as collagen and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) also have attracted a great deal of attention for use with GO as wound dressing material. To this end, multi-functional polymers based on Graphene and blends of synthetic and natural polymers can be considered valid non-antibiotic compounds useful against wound infection and improvement of wound healing. Finally, the global wound care market size was valued at USD 20.8 billion in 2022 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.4% from 2022 to 2027 (USD 27.2 billion). This will encourage academic as well as pharmaceutical and medical device industries to investigate any new materials such as graphene and its derivatives for the treatment of wound healing.
Background SOBERANA-02 is a COVID-19 conjugate vaccine (recombinant RBD conjugated to tetanus toxoid). Phases 1/2 clinical trials demonstrated high immunogenicity, promoting neutralising IgG and specific T-cell response. A third heterologous dose of SOBERANA-Plus (RBD-dimer) further increased neutralising antibodies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two immunisation regimes: two doses of SOBERANA-02 and a heterologous three-dose combination with SOBERANA-Plus added to it. Methods From March 8th to June 24th, 2021 we conducted in Havana, Cuba a multicentre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase-3 trial evaluating a two doses SOBERANA-02 scheme and a heterologous scheme with one dose SOBERANA-Plus added to it (RPCEC00000354). Participants 19–80 years were randomly assigned to receiving 28 days apart either the two or three dose scheme or placebo. The main endpoint was vaccine efficacy in preventing the occurrence of RT-PCR confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 at least 14 days after the second or third dose in the per-protocol population. We also assessed efficacy against severe disease and, in all participants receiving at least one vaccine/placebo dose, safety for 28 days after each dose. Findings We included 44,031 participants (52.0% female, 48.0% male; median age 50 years, range 19–80 years; 7.0% black, 24.0% mixed-race, 59.0% white) in a context of initial Beta VOC predominance, with this variant being partially replaced by Delta near the trial's end. Vaccine efficacy in the heterologous combination was 92.0% (95%CI 80.4–96.7) against symptomatic disease. There were no severe COVID-19 cases in the vaccine group against 6 in the placebo group. Two doses of SOBERANA-02 was 69.7% (95%CI 56.5–78.9) and 74.9% (95%CI 33.7–90.5) efficacious against symptomatic and severe COVID-19, respectively. The occurrence of serious and severe adverse events (AE) was very rare and equally distributed between placebo and vaccine groups. Solicited AEs were slightly more frequent in the vaccine group but predominantly local and mostly mild and transient. Interpretation Our results indicate that the straightforward to manufacture SOBERANA vaccines are efficacious in a context of Beta and Delta VOC circulation, have a favourable safety profile, and may represent an attractive option for use in COVID-19 vaccination programmes. Funding This study received funds from the National Fund for Science and Technology (FONCI-CITMA-Cuba, contract 2020–20) of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba.
Objective: Hypertension is one of the major modifiable risk factors in developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Hence, we aimed to ascertain age- and sex-specific population attributable fraction (PAF) for CVD in different blood pressure levels to implement efficient preventive strategies at the population level. Methods: Participants' data were obtained from the Iranian stepwise approach for surveillance of noncommunicable disease risk factors (STEPs) survey to calculate PAF in four subsequent phases. In phase 0, PAF was measured, irrespective of the diagnosis status. In phase 1, the theoretical minimum range of 115 ≤SBP less than 130 mmHg was considered as the low-risk and measurements equal to or higher than 130 mmHg as the high-risk group. Across phase 2, patients were divided into normal and hypertensive groups based on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline. In phase 3, patients were divided into two categories based on treatment coverage. Results: A total number of 27 165 participants aged ≥25 years had valid blood pressure measurements and were enrolled. Phase 0: PAF generally had an upward trend with age advancing. Phase 1: participants with BP ≥130 mmHg comprised the largest PAF, extending from 0.31 (0.25-0.37) in older male individuals to 0.85 (0.79-0.91) in younger females. Phase 2: higher values were found in younger ages for hypertension. Phase 3 represented that attributable fractions among hypertensive patients who received treatment were much lower than drug-naïve hypertensive participants. Conclusion: Our study enlightens the necessity for implementing effective screening strategies for the younger generation and providing adequate access to antihypertensive medications for the low-risk population.
Aims: Allergic asthma is associated with anxiety-related behaviors, leading to poor quality of life. Previous studies mainly described the neuropathophysiology of asthma-induced anxiety. However, the effects of corticosteroids, the most common anti-inflammatory agents for asthma treatment, on the neurophysiological foundations of allergic asthma-induced anxiety are unexplored. Main methods: Here, we evaluated lung and brain inflammation as well as anxiety in an animal model of allergic asthma pretreated with inhaled fluticasone propionate. Furthermore, to define the neurophysiological bases of these conditions, we studied the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-amygdala circuit, which is previously shown to accompany asthma-induced anxiety. Key findings: Our data showed that allergen induces anxiety, mPFC and amygdala inflammation, as well as disruptions in the local and long-range oscillatory activities within the mPFC-amygdala circuit. Interestingly, we observed a roughly consistent trend of changes with inhaled fluticasone pretreatment. Namely, the asthma-induced behavioral, inflammatory, and neurophysiological changes were partly, but not totally, prevented by inhaled fluticasone pretreatment. Significance: We suggest that early treatment of asthmatic patients with inhaled corticosteroids improves mPFC-amygdala circuit function by attenuating neuroinflammation leading to reduced anxiety. These findings could lead clinical guidelines of asthma to consider the neuropsychiatric disorders of patients in treatment recommendations.
A growing body of evidence has revealed that microRNA (miRNA) expression is dysregulated in cancer, and they can act as either oncogenes or suppressors under certain conditions. Furthermore, some studies have discovered that miRNAs play a role in cancer cell drug resistance by targeting drug-resistance-related genes or influencing genes involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. In this regard, the abnormal expression of miRNA-128 (miR-128) has been found in various human malignancies, and its verified target genes are essential in cancer-related processes, including apoptosis, cell propagation, and differentiation. This review will discuss the functions and processes of miR-128 in multiple cancer types. Furthermore, the possible involvement of miR-128 in cancer drug resistance and tumor immunotherapeutic will be addressed.
Introduction This study was intended to investigate the clinical features and predisposing factors of fungal keratitis (FK), as well as molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of causative agents in Tehran, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2019 to May 2021. All fungi isolates were identified using conventional methods and were confirmed by DNA-PCR-based molecular assays. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) was used to identify yeast species. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of eight antifungal agents were assessed according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) microbroth dilution reference method. Results Fungal etiology was confirmed in 86 (7.23%) of 1189 corneal ulcers. A significant predisposing factor for FK was ocular trauma caused by plant materials. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was required in 60.4% of cases. The predominant fungal species isolated was Fusarium spp. (39.5%) followed by Aspergillus spp. (32.5%) and Candida spp. (16.2%). Discussion The MIC results indicate that amphotericin B may be appropriate for treating FK caused by Fusarium species. FK caused by Candida spp. can be treated with flucytosine, voriconazole, posaconazole, miconazole, and caspofungin. In developing countries such as Iran, corneal infection due to filamentous fungi is a common cause of corneal damage. In this region, fungal keratitis is observed primarily within the context of agricultural activity and subsequent ocular trauma. Fungal keratitis can be managed better with understanding the ”local“ etiologies and antifungal susceptibility patterns.
Although the safety and efficacy of vaccinations have been evaluated through clinical trials, medical experts and authorities are very interested in the reporting and investigation of adverse events following SARS-CoV-2 immunization in the general public. This article reports a 41-year-old man without history of underlying diseases, complaining of continuous morning stiffness and acute discomfort in his left elbow joint, 20 days after taking the first dosage of Sputnik V. The case was extensively studied, and a possible diagnosis of reactive arthritis was made.
Background and aims: Alteration in humans' gut microbiota was reported in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The gut and upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota harbor a dynamic and complex population of microorganisms and have strong interaction with host immune system homeostasis. However, our knowledge about microbiota and its association with SARS-CoV-2 is still limited. We aimed to systematically review the effects of gut microbiota on the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severity and the impact that SARS-CoV-2 could have on the gut microbiota. Methods: We searched the keywords in the online databases of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane on December 31, 2021. After duplicate removal, we performed the screening process in two stages; title/abstract and then full-text screening. The data of the eligible studies were extracted into a pre-designed word table. This study adhered to the PRISMA checklist and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale Bias Assessment tool. Results: Sixty-three publications were included in this review. Our study shows that among COVID-19 patients, particularly moderate to severe cases, the gut and lung microbiota was different compared to healthy individuals. In addition, the severity, and viral load of COVID-19 disease would probably also be influenced by the gut, and lung microbiota's composition. Conclusion: Our study concludes that there was a significant difference in the composition of the URT, and gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients compared to the general healthy individuals, with an increase in opportunistic pathogens. Further, research is needed to investigate the probable bidirectional association of COVID-19 and human microbiome.
Objectives This study is aimed to compare the effect of oral misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol to induce labor as a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Electronic databases including PubMed [Medline], Scopus, Web of science, Embase, Ovid, Cochrane library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched using the relevant keywords. All RCTs comparing the effect of oral vs vaginal misoprostol on labor induction were considered. The Cochrane Risk of Bias checklist was used for assessing quality of included RCTs. All statistical analyses were completed using STATA (Version 16) and Revman (Version 5). Results Thirty-three RCTs with 5162 patients (1560 in oral and 2602 in vaginal groups) were included in this meta-analysis. Labor induction length did differ significantly between the two routes of misoprostol administration [Standardized Mean Difference: 0.40 h, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34, 0.46; I ² : 66.35%; P = 0.04]. In addition, the risk of neonatal death, tachysystole, uterine hyperstimulation, preeclampsia, non-FHR and abortion was lower in the oral misoprostol group and the risk of hypertonus, PROM, oxytocin need and cesarean fever was higher in this group than the vaginal misoprostol group. Conclusions Based on results of this meta-analysis, it can be inferred that currently, clinical specialists can decide to use this drug orally or vaginally on a case-by-case basis, depending on the condition of the pregnant mother and the baby.
Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and blastocystosis are among the most important parasitic diseases common between humans and cats. In addition, there are concerns about the possible transmission of zoonotic parasites from infected cats to humans. Hence, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Blastocystis sp. in stray and household cats and cat owners. Our study was performed on 132, 33, and 33 fecal samples of stray and household cats, as well as cat owners in Tehran, Iran. Cryptosporidium spp. was identified using a nested PCR targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA) and sequencing the internal amplified fragments. Furthermore, to perform multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis, the ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes were amplified to assess the DNA of G. duodenalis in the fecal samples of cats and cat owners. In addition, Blastocystis was detected by targeting the SSU rRNA gene, and the subtypes of Blastocystis were determined via the sequencing of amplicons. Cryptosporidium felis and Cryptosporidium canis were detected in seven stray cats (5.3%) and one household cat (3%). The bg gene of G. duodenalis was amplified and successfully sequenced in two (1.5%) stray cats and revealed assemblages F and B of G. duodenalis. Sequencing and phylogenic analysis of SSU rRNA gene nucleotide sequences of Blastocystis detected ST5 and ST10 in stray cats (1.5%), ST1 in household cats (9.1%), and ST1, ST2, ST3, and ST7 in owners (30.3%). The low prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Blastocystis in cats and the presence of species/assemblages/subtypes with limited zoonotic potential indicate that cats had a minor role in their owners' infection in the investigated population. However, the presence of zoonotic protozoa in cats suggests the necessity of special attention to high-risk individuals during close contact with cats. Therefore, it is recommended that veterinarians, physicians, and urban managers plan to prevent, control, or treat these parasites to help the urban community live healthily alongside cats.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is of immense importance to biomaterials science and biomedical engineering. It is finding applications in diverse areas of bioengineering ranging from scaffolds for disease modelling to tissue culture for reconstruction. This review focuses on recent research on the role of HA as a photo-cross-linked bioink and its importance in combating bone and cartilage-related disease, injury and disorders. Photo chemical modifications and 3D fabrication technologies employed to produce HA-modified materials are analysed to provide a fundamental understanding of the structure–function-property relationships that influence printability, shape fidelity and biological performance both in-vitro and in-vivo. The article concludes with a future vision for HA-based bioinks and their deployment in light-based bioprinting technologies for bone and cartilage repair.
Objectives Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are significant problems as public health issues which need attention. Such infections are significant problems for society and healthcare organizations. This study aimed to carry out a systematic review and a meta-analysis to analyze the prevalence of HAIs globally. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases including EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science between 2000 and June 2021. We found 7031 articles. After removing the duplicates, 5430 studies were screened based on the titles/ abstracts. Then, we systematically evaluated the full texts of the 1909 remaining studies and selected 400 records with 29,159,630 participants for meta-analysis. Random-effects model was used for the analysis, and heterogeneity analysis and publication bias test were conducted. Results The rate of universal HAIs was 0.14 percent. The rate of HAIs is increasing by 0.06 percent annually. The highest rate of HAIs was in the AFR, while the lowest prevalence were in AMR and WPR. Besides, AFR prevalence in central Africa is higher than in other parts of the world by 0.27 (95% CI, 0.22–0.34). Besides, E. coli infected patients more than other micro-organisms such as Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In hospital wards, Transplant, and Neonatal wards and ICU had the highest rates. The prevalence of HAIs was higher in men than in women. Conclusion We identified several essential details about the rate of HAIs in various parts of the world. The HAIs rate and the most common micro-organism were different in various contexts. However, several essential gaps were also identified. The study findings can help hospital managers and health policy makers identify the reason for HAIs and apply effective control programs to implement different plans to reduce the HAIs rate and the financial costs of such infections and save resources.
We examined the association between soy isoflavone intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in adults. We searched the online databases for relevant studies published up to September 2021. In total, 13 publications were included in the systematic review and 12 in the meta-analysis. We found that a high intake of soy isoflavones was significantly associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among whole populations (Pooled RR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85–0.99, I² = 41.0%, Pheterogeneity = 0.10) and a lower risk of overall CVD (Pooled RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84–0.98, I² = 30.7%, Pheterogeneity = 0.19) and CHD (Pooled RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83–0.96, I² = 14.4%, Pheterogeneity = 0.32) among Western population. In the linear dose-response analysis, a 3 mg/day increase in soy isoflavone intake was associated with 16% and 14% lower risks of overall CVD and CHD, respectively, among Western population. In conclusion, we found that soy isoflavone intake was associated with a lower risk of overall CVD and CHD in adults, particularly among Western population.
Introduction Nearly 40% of patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been found to experience cognitive impairment in at least one domain. Cognitive impairment associated with MDD is disproportionately represented in patients that have not fully returned to psychosocial functioning. As awareness regarding cognitive dysfunction in MDD patients grows, so does the interest in developing newer treatments that specifically address these deficits. Method In the present study, we conduct a systematic review of controlled randomized clinical trials that used cognitive training and remediation interventions for improving cognitive functions and reducing symptom severity in adult patients with MDD. We selected studies published before March 2022 using search databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google scholar. For conducting the meta-analysis, standard differences in means with the random effect model and with a 95% confidence interval of change in outcome measures from baseline to post-intervention between the cognitive rehabilitation and the control groups were calculated. Results The database search resulted in identifying 756 studies of interest, which ultimately 15 studies with 410 participants in the cognitive rehabilitation group and 339 participants in the control group were included. The meta-analysis of the data extracted from these studies, shows a moderate and significant effect on the executive function (d = 0.59 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.93) p -value = 0.001, I ² = 15.2%), verbal learning (d = 0.45 (95% CI, 0.12 to 0.78) p -value = 0.007, I ² = 0.00%), and working memory (d = 0.41 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.64) p -value < 0.001, I ² = 33%) of MDD patients. Although, there were no significant difference between intervention and control group in attention (d = 0.32 (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.66) p -value = 0.058, I ² = 0.00%) or depressive symptoms. Conclusion This systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that cognitive rehabilitation is an effective intervention for the executive function, verbal learning, and working memory of MDD patients. Due to the importance of these neuropsychological deficits in day-to-day life and the core symptoms of MDD, cognitive rehabilitation should be considered an important part of treating MDD. Further research in this area and concentrated on these particular deficits is warranted.
Abstract Purpose: Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of disability in older people. Although often underemphasized, it may affect quality of life and imposes a considerable burden on the health system. This study evaluated the epidemiology of hand OA in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Methods: This epidemiological study was performed based on the Global Burden of Disease study from 1990 to 2019. The incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLD) in all 21 MENA countries during the study period were reported in rate, age-standardized, and percentage. Results: Hand osteoarthritis in MENA increased 2.7-fold, from 1.6 million cases to 4.3 million from 1990 to 2019 with an age-standardized incidence rate of 50.2 (95% CI, 38.2-66.4) per 100,000 people in 2019. Saudi Arabia had the highest age-standardized prevalence in both 1990 (2.3%) and 2019 (2.3%), whereas Turkey had the lowest (0.3%) in both years. Total YLDs due to hand osteoarthritis increased by more than 2.7-fold, from 50,335 to 135,336 during the study period. The highest rate of increase in YLD rate from 1990 to 2019 was in Iran (3.3) and the largest decrease was in Qatar (-11.5). Conclusions: In contrast to the global trend, MENA hand OA prevalence and YLDs did not decrease between 1990 and 2019 and remained constant over time. Aging and increasing obesity rates, particularly among women, might be the contributing factors. Hand OA epidemiology varies by country, possibly due to genetic, ethnic, and environmental factors. Type of study/level of evidence: Prognostic II. Keywords: Epidemiology; MENA; hand; hand osteoarthritis; incidence; osteoarthritis; prevalence; years lived with disability.
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2,357 members
Shima Tavakol
  • Cellular and Molecular Research Center
Marzieh Nojomi
  • Community Medicine
Mohammad Kamali
  • Rehabilitation Basic Sciences
Maryam Kashanian
  • Obstetrics and gynecology
Pedram Fadavi
  • Radiation Oncology
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Address
Hemmat Highway, 144961-4535, Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Head of institution
Dr. Koohpaiezadeh
Website
http://iums.ac.ir
Phone
+ 98 21 88622712