Population growth, growing urbanization, and industrialization sectors have caused a worrisome rise in global waste generation. The sustainable production of bioenergy, including biohydrogen from different waste, is the more environmentally friendly approach that is an excellent response to global concerns such as rising energy needs, cost of fuel, and environmental pollution mitigation. Non-renewable fossil fuels emit greenhouse gases, contributing to climate change and global warming. In the future, biofuels such as bioethanol, biohydrogen, biodiesel, and bioethanol may be used to replace fossil fuels. Novel nanomaterials are a significant choice for maximizing and improving bioenergy and biofuel production rates. Nanotechnology can help build more effective catalysts for biofuel generation. Improving renewables to meet growing global energy demand is the main priority, notably in the most developed nations. Thus, it is necessary to improve bioenergy production from waste biomass using nanomaterials for various reasons, including sustainability, energy demand maintenance, and socio-economic concerns. Novel technologies' contributions to resource optimization and nanoparticle processes for energy conversion were addressed. Numerous biofuels and their artificial pathways are discussed, along with future solutions. This review describes nanomaterials as highly efficient photocatalysts used for bioenergy and biohydrogen production from waste toward a sustainable environment. Bioenergy production from waste is also discussed, along with its key parameters, benefits, and challenges. Aberrations: NPs, Nanoparticles; NMs, Nanomaterials; CNTs, Carbon nanotubes; SWCNTs, Single-walled carbon nanotubes; MWCNTs, Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; FCC, Facilitated cubic; BCC-Body centered cubic; MON, Monoclinic; LMNPs, Lignin magnetic nanoparticles; CSL, Corn steep liquor.
Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have become a major concern to human health and the environment due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. Traditional treatment measures for removing toxic substances from the environment have largely failed, and thus development and advancement in newer remediation techniques are of utmost importance. Rising environmental pollution with HMs & PAHs prompted the research on microbes and the development of genetically engineered microbes (GEMs) for reducing pollution via the bioremediation process. The enzymes produced from a variety of microbes can effectively treat a range of pollutants, but evolutionary trends revealed that various emerging pollutants are resistant to microbial or enzymatic degradation. Naturally, existing microbes and enzymes can be engineered using various techniques including, gene engineering, directed evolution, protein engineering, media engineering, strain engineering, cell wall modifications, rationale hybrid design, and encapsulation or immobilization. The immobilization of microbes and enzymes using a variety of nanomaterials, membranes, and supports with high specificity toward the emerging pollutants is also an effective strategy to capture and treat the pollutants. The current review focuses on successful bioremediation techniques and approaches that make use of GEMs or engineered enzymes. Such engineered microbes are more potent than natural strains and have greater degradative capacities, as well as rapid adaptation to various pollutants as substrates or co-metabolizers. The future for the implementation of genetic engineering to produce such organisms for the benefit of the environment and, ultimately, public health is indeed long and valuable.
Senna is a medicinal herb widely utilized in Ayurveda, Unani, and allopathic medicine. The leaves and pods of Senna are the most valuable portions, as they contain the compounds sennoside-A and sennoside-B. The laxative properties of sennoside-A and sennoside-B are the fundamental reasons for their use. The demand for Senna on a global scale provides opportunities to cultivate this plant commercially. Farmers are more lucrative towards this crop owing to the low cost of cultivation, drought tolerance crop, being a good source of income, and requiring less maintenance. The availability of improved cultivars and agronomic practices provides an excellent opportunity for the farmers to take up the cultivation under residual moisture during the Rabi season will enhance the yield and socioeconomic status of the farmers.
Pelargonium graveolens L. or rose scented geranium is an essential oil-bearing plant with extended economic value. It has strong pharmacological and aromatic properties along with its frequent application in perfumery, food, cosmetics, and pharma industries. Seasonal fluctuations in northern India have a detrimental effect on the survival of P. graveolens. Due to its male sterility, the plant is unable to propagate by sexual reproduction, so, vegetative propagation is the only option to grow and protect the mother plant for the next season. To protect the plant in adverse conditions our researchers had developed a protective shed i.e. transparent polythene + green net shed (S) but the reason for the increased survival and growth of the plant in the shed was not well understood. In the present research, approximately 91% of P. graveolens mother plants were protected under the shed compared to open conditions (O). The current study also reported high humidity, increased air temperature and increased microbial infection in open condition, exerting various physiological and chemical changes which further have detrimental effects on plant growth and survival. In shed conditions, a decreased level of antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant metabolites, and elevated level of photosynthetic pigments were observed. Further, an increased density of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and an improved quality and quantity of essential oil were observed in shed conditions. Considering the above observations, polythene + green net shed can be used as an auspicious approach for protecting the P. graveolens mother plant in monsoon season due to its effect on soil moisture, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), trichome morphology/density and yield of essential oil.
This article investigated an economical hybrid solution while meeting the residential community load for the best storage technology in the backward regions of India. In this way, the financial and technical aspects of standalone hybrid renewable energy system are analysed, considering the environmental benefits of standalone PV/WT/DG/BS configurations. Lead-Acid Flow (LAF) based technology is found suitable among considered battery-storage. The optimised Hybrid arrangement shows the lowest COE and NPC as 0.192 $/kWh and 1, 23,851 $. The Renewable fraction is found higher in optimal system 93.3%.In addition, the feasibility analysis of solar, wind, and diesel generator associated with Lead Acid Flow-based technology is performed for three different climate locations in Northern and Eastern India. The validation of an optimised hybrid energy system is performed for the rural locality's combined residential and agricultural load. The PDAV tool, interlinked with HOMER- Pro software, executes the renewable resource assessment. India's northern – Tarai region has been found most suitable for the optimised hybrid arrangement PV / WT / DG / LAF with the lowest COE (0.183 $/kWh) NPC (2, 33,276 $) and renewable fraction (94.9 %).The feasible optimised arrangement is further analysed for utilisation of excess produced energy to improve social parameters. The social parameters included here for the analysis with sensitivity analysis and energy balance for different seasons.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between online reviews and ratings through text mining and empirical techniques. An Indian food delivery portal (Zomato.com) was used, where 50 restaurants on Presence Across Nation (PAN) basis were selected through stratified random sampling. A total of 2530 reviews from were collected, scrutinized, and analyzed. Using the NVivo software for qualitative analysis, seven themes were identified from collected reviews, out of which, the ‘delivery’ theme was explored further for identifying sub-themes. Linear regression modelling was used to identify the variables affecting delivery ratings and sentiment analysis was also performed on the identified sub-themes. Regression results revealed that hygiene and pricing (delivery subthemes) demonstrated lower delivery ratings.These variables can be established as indicators for restaurants and related online food delivery services to build their business model around them. Similarly, negative sentiments were observed in pricing and hygiene sub-themes. Restaurants and online food services can enhance hygiene levels of their food delivery process in order to receive higher delivery ratings. Similarly, pricing of food items can be modified such that customers are not deterred from ordering the items – food and ordering service do not become cost-prohibitive. This study devised a standardized methodology for analysing vast amounts of online user-generated content (UGC). Findings from this study can be extrapolated to other sectors and service industries such as, tourism, cleaning, transportation, hospitals and engineering especially during the pandemic.
The level of precursors involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), glucosamine synthase, and N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG), are significantly reduced in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This results in deficient GAG content in mucosa, which eventually disrupts the gut wall integrity, provoking abnormal immunological responses. This is characterized by colossal liberation of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukins (IL), and reactive oxygen species provoking colonic inflammation. D-glucosamine (D-GLU) is reported to suppress oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and acts as a starting material for biosynthesis of NAG. The potential of D-GLU and its combination with mesalamine (5-ASA) was investigated in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-instigated IBD in Wistar rats. Standard and test drugs were given orally for five days to separate groups of rats. Colonic inflammation was evaluated by disease activity score rate (DASR), colon/body weight ratio, colon length, diameter, colon pH, histological injury and score. Inflammatory biomarkers IL-1β, TNF-α, along with reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Combination of D-GLU +5-ASA significantly ameliorated severity of colonic inflammation by lowering DASR (P < 0.001) and colon/body weight ratio (P < 0.001), restored the colonic architecture and suppressed the histopathological score (P < 0.001), along with the absence of major adverse reactions. The combination suppressed the levels of inflammatory markers (P < 0.001) and MDA (P < 0.001) while enhancing GSH level (P < 0.001). In comparison to individual 5-ASA and D-GLU, combination of drugs significantly diminished colitis severity through their combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by acting on multiple targets simultaneously. The combination holds remarkable potential in the management of IBD.
Food packaging sector is always dominated by petroleum‐derived synthetic plastics, and it is estimated that the use of plastic will be reached to 500 million tonnes by the year 2050. The intention of food packaging is to offer safety to the food product from external environment without harming its internal qualities. Along with plastics, other conventional methods, such as glasses, metals, and paper, were also used in food packaging. But these conventional materials also bring problems related to their degradability, disposable methods and recyclability. Biodegradable resources have the possibilities to replace conventional plastics as they are completely degradable in nature and gives high mechanical properties. PHA, PHB, starch, cellulose, and their derivatives are now extensively used for the food packaging. Blending of these biodegradable materials with other plasticizers increases its mechanical strength, improves gas barrier properties, and also increases the production which makes them cost effective. Another application of biodegradable materials is that they are also used in edible food packaging. The future perspectives of biodegradable materials are very promising as they will generate 249.5 billion USD by the year 2050. This chapter highlights the need of biodegradable composites applied for food packaging and an exposure of the various biological materials that are used for its production.
Background: Fungal infections are one of the most common dermatological issues worldwide. Candida species-caused fungal infections are frequent on the cutaneous surface. Eberconazole (EBZ) has the strongest antifungal action against Candida spp., the major source of fungal infections. Method: In the present study, the cold method followed by probe sonication was used to create EBZ-loaded ethosomal dispersion. The solubility of ethosomes in different lipids and surfactants was used to choose these components. Under magnetic stirring, the dispersion was absorbed into a carbopol 934 gel. In vitro antifungal activity was performed using the Agar well diffusion method, and their topical effectiveness against pathogenic Candida albicans was compared to that of a marketed formulation containing EBZ. Results: Eberconazol incorporated into gel displayed sustained release in an in vitro release assay. Based on the zone of inhibition diameters, EBZ formulation was determined to be efficient against C. albicans when compared to the commercialized cream and plain gel. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the current study found that EBZ possesses significant antifungal efficacy against C. albicans.
Poster session 3, September 23, 2022, 12:30 PM - 1:30 PM Candidemia is caused by Candida species which has become a common cause of fungal infection in the bloodstream infection throughout the world. In hematological malignancies, patients have a high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Candidemia. Aim: To identify Candidemia in immunocompromised patients with the help of various conventional methods as well as automated methods for early detection and treatment. Material and Methods: This study was conducted from 2018 to 2021. In this study, we enrolled immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. For early diagnosis of Candidemia we did conventional method as well as PCR. Compare the conventional, automated, and PCR methods for diagnosis of Candidemia and was performed antifungal susceptibility testing for treatment in hematological patients. Results Total 187 patients were enrolled on the basis of febrile neutropenia. A total of 125/187 males (66.8%) and 62/187 females (33.2%) participated in the present study followed by age range from 10 to 77 years (mean = 33.16, standard deviation = 16.29). A total of 5 patients (2.6%) were positive from blood culture, and 9 patients (4.8%) were positive from PCR. In 4 patients of AML C. tropicalis was (3; 1.60%) and C. auris (1; 0.5%) followed by 1 patient with pancytopenia C. tropicalis (1; 0.5%). The sensitivity was done according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline M27-A3 reference document for C. tropicalis (4), and C. auris (1). A total of 4 isolates of C. tropicalis were sensitive to drug VRC (MIC range 0.125 μg/ml), AMP (MIC range 1 μg/ml), FLU (MIC range 1 μg/ml), CAS (MIC range 0.25 μg/ml) and 1 resistant pattern toward FLU (MIC range 4 μg/ml). Candida auris was resistant toward AMP (MIC range 2 μg/ml), FLU (MIC range 64 μg/ml), and sensitive toward CAS (MIC range 0.5 μg/mL). A total of 4 isolates of C. tropicalis was sensitive for drug VRC (80%), AMP (80%), FLU (60%), CAS (80%), and resistant pattern for FLU (20%). Candida auris was resistant toward AMP (20%), FLU (20%), and sensitive toward CAS (20%). In all, 9/187 patients’ blood was positive for fungal infection, primer NL-1 and NL-4 were able to amplify the D1/D2 region of 28S r-DNA of large ribosomal subunit which target rDNA yielding Product of PCR give 600 bp related to all fungus. Primer P4501 and P4502 identify the P-450 lanosterol 14α-demethylase gene which is target Candida species genes single band of around 350 bp. Mannan antigen of Candida was performed by ELISA method for diagnosis of candidemia in hematological patients. Conclusion This present observational study recognizes the main association of Candidemia with hematological malignancies. We try to develop PCR and automated methods in routine mycology laboratory to diagnose Candidemia in an early stage in hematological malignancies along with other immunocompromised patients for better treatment to cure the disease.
Pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) are a concern owing to their toxicity to the aquatic environment. Several studies have investigated the removal of PhACs from wastewater by employing various treatments. However, hospital wastewater, a primary source of PhACs in wastewater, has yet to gain attention. Hence this study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of constructed wetlands coupled with tube settlers for hospital wastewater treatment. Constructed Wetlands (CWs) and tube settlers are economical and less energy-consuming wastewater treatment systems which can be employed to treat small community wastewater and enhance the effluent quality to conserve the environment. This study evaluates the combination of macrophyte CW-along with a tubesettler system to remove PhACs. The Constructed Wetland system was employed in series with tube settlers. Seven PhACs viz. paracetamol, ketoprofen, carbamazepine, lorazepam, Sulfamethoxazole, Ciprofloxacin, and Fluvastatin were analyzed for wastewater quality characterization. The removal efficiency of CW was 56 %, 72 %, 37 %, 54 %, 54 %, 53 %, and 46 % for PCM, KTF, CAB, LOR, SMZ, CIP and FUT respectively. The study concluded that CW could be successfully used to treat hospital wastewater, and tube settlers can be employed as a polishing treatment for the effluent of CW.
Aluminium alloys have remarkable properties like superior corrosion resistance, low density, small thermal coefficient of expansion and excellent weight to strength ratio. Due to these properties, aluminium is extensively used in aerospace, automobile and defence sector. Currently, in these days researcher has more focus on composite material to enhance quality and properties of material. Friction stir processing (FSP) emerged as an exceptional method to fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite. FSP is an emerging technique to refine microstructure of aluminium metal matrix composite material. Instead of other manufacturing processes, there has been the decline in distortion. The main intention of this paper is to summarize the previous work on aluminium as base metal with various reinforcement particle mentioning different process parameters.KeywordsFriction stir processingMetal matrix compositesAluminium alloySurface composite
Many studies have demonstrated the use of synthetic preservatives and chemical additives in food is causing poisoning, cancer, and other degenerative disorders. New solutions for food preservation with quality maintenance are currently emerging. As a result, public concern has grown, as they desire to eat healthier products that use natural preservatives and compounds rather than synthetic ones. Clove is a highly prized spice used as a food preservative and for a variety of therapeutic reasons. Clove essential oil and its principal active component, eugenol, indicate antibacterial and antifungal action, aromaticity, and safety as promising and valuable antiseptics in the food sector. Clove essential oil and eugenol are found to have strong inhibition e ects on a variety of food-source bacteria, and the mechanisms are linked to lowering migration and adhesion, as well as blocking the creation of biofilm and various virulence factors. This review emphasizes the importance of CEO (clove essential oil) in the food industry and how it can be explored with edible coatings to deliver its functional properties in food preservation.
A visible light-promoted, efficient, green, and sustainable strategy has been adopted to unlatch a new pathway toward the synthesis of a library of medicinally important 4,4'-(arylmethylene)bis(1H-pyrazol-5-ols) moieties using substituted aromatic aldehydes and sterically hindered 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one in excellent yield. This reaction shows high functional group tolerance and provides a cost-effective and catalyst-free protocol for the quick synthesis of biologically active compounds from readily available substrates. Synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and single-crystal XRD analysis. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against a panel of five different human cancer cell lines and compared with Tamoxifen using MTT assay. Compound 3m exhibited maximum antiproliferative activity and was found to be more active as compared to Tamoxifen against both the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines with an IC50 of 5.45 and 9.47 μM, respectively. A molecular docking study with respect to COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) (PDB ID: 6LU7) has also been carried out which shows comparatively high binding affinity of compounds 3f and 3g (-8.3 and -8.8 Kcal/mole, respectively) than few reported drugs such as ritonavir, remdesivir, ribacvirin, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and olsaltamivir. Hence, it reveals the possibility of these compounds to be used as effective COVID-19 inhibitors.
The generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) through nonenzymatic protein glycation contributes to the pathogenesis of long-lived diabetic problems. Metformin (MTF) is the very first drug having antihyperglycemic effects on type II diabetes mellitus which also possess interaction with dicarbonyl compounds and blocks the formation of AGEs. In the current study, MTF is bioconjugated with glycation-derived synthesized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of significant size. Additionally, using various biophysical and biochemical approaches, we investigated the antiglycating capacity MTF-GNPs in contrast to MTF against d-ribose-derived glycation of bovine serum albumin. Our key findings via utilizing various assays demonstrated that MTF-GNPs were able to inhibit AGEs development by reducing hyperchromicity, early glycation products, carbonyl content, hydxoxymethylfurfural content, production of fluorescent AGEs, normalizing the loss of secondary structure (i.e., α-helix and β-sheets) of proteins, elevating the levels of free lysine and free arginine more efficiently compared to pure MTF. Based on these results, we concluded that MTF-GNPs possess a considerable antiglycation property and may be developed as an outstanding anti-AGEs treatment drug. Further in vivo and clinical research are necessary to determine the therapeutic effects of MTF-GNPs against AGE-related and metabolic disorders.
Software development has an inflated probability of project failure and the major reason for it is the poor requirement engineering process. Potential threats or risks related to requirements must be identified at the earlier stages of the development itself, so as to minimize the negative impact of subsequent affects. Researches reveal that VUCA risks, i.e., Requirement Volatility, Requirement Uncertainty, Requirement Complexity, and Requirement Ambiguity, are the basic sources of risks for other risks too. Complexity in requirements is one of the important factors affecting quality of the product. Computing and analysis of the product complexity in the requirement analysis phase of SDLC will give benefits in assessing the required development and testing efforts for the prospective software product. Failing to which, software designers and testers will need further clarification, thus slowing down the design and verification process. This paper attempts to establish a connection between the VUCA risks and propose a methodology to minimize requirement complexity. The various factors affecting requirement complexity are identified, in the requirement engineering phase. A Bayesian approach is proposed to predict the requirement complexity. The proposed model uses various complexity factors found through extensive literature review to manage requirement complexity of the software products.KeywordsRequirement complexityBayesian networkSoftware developmentSoftware requirement risk
The structure, properties, synthesis, negligible toxicity, and surface modification of PAMAM (polyamidoamine dendrimers) are all discussed in this review. The properties of supramolecular PAMAM dendrimers in nanopolymer science have shown great progress in delivering medicines. A divergent strategy was used to construct a Generation four (G4.0) PAMAM dendrimer with an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid core and repeating units of acrylic acid and ethylenediamine. PAMAM dendrimers, have an aminodoamine repeat branching architecture that starts with an ethylene diamine initiator core. A generation [G] is a set of branching steps that follow each other. Drug molecules can be transferred either as covalently bonded to the functional groups on the dendrimer surface or by forming non-covalent complexes with dendrimers. Full generation PAMAM dendrimers are terminated with amine surface [G0, G1, G2, G3, G4], whereas half-generation dendrimers are terminated with carboxylate [G1.5, G2.5, etc]. PAMAM dendrimers appear to have negligible toxicity and immunogenicity, as well as favorable biodistribution-: according to the current study they can improve drug solubility, prevent drug degradation, increase circulation time, and potentially target drugs. According to the characterization study, they exhibit strong lipophilic qualities, allowing them to easily pass the blood-brain barrier. Due to cheaper polydispersity index of dendrimers, they possess greater stability and the void spaces of dendrimers are accessible for drug loading. The existence of a duplet functional group on the dendrimers enables appending vectors, ligands and devices for targed the drug delivery in the body.
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