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ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy increases the risk of thyroid cancer (TC); patients submitted to this treatment should undergo a long-term follow-up. Our aim is to describe the features and outcomes of young patients who developed TC after radiotherapy. At our center, patients undergoing radiotherapy directly or indirectly involving the thyroid are regularly followed up in order to detect early dysfunction or nodules. Herein, we report the cases of 10 patients who were submitted to radiotherapy and developed TC. Seven patients were irradiated in the neck and 3 in nearby regions. The mean age at the last radiotherapy session was 10 ± 5.5 years. The average time until the appearance of the first thyroid nodule was 14 ± 4.7 years. The mean size increment of the nodules was 2.4 ± 1.6 mm/year. On the first cytology, only 2 results were suspicious of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). All patients presented a histology of PTC. Eight were in stage I and 2 in stage II. The median follow-up from primary diagnosis to TC and beyond was 20 and 3 years, respectively. In these patients, cytologies may be difficult to interpret due to persistent benign results. The threshold for surgical indication may be anticipated, considering the increased risk of TC. We report the evolution of these nodules over time, from the end of primary oncological treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Acute erythroleukemia (AEL) is a rare form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often associated with a poor prognosis. It is more frequent in elderly patients, limiting the use aggressive therapies. Azacitidine is a hypomethylating agent with recognized efficacy in high risk myelodysplasia and AML in the elderly. Here we report 5 cases of AEL treated with Azacitidine. The cohort included 4 men and 1 woman, median age 70. One patient had been refractory to intensive chemotherapy, the others received Azacitidine as first line. Treatment was well tolerated. Four patients achieved transfusion independence. Two patients achieved complete remission and 1 achieved partial remission. After a median follow up time of 20 months, the median survival of the cohort was 20 months. Three patients died of disease progression. These results confirm the therapeutic value of Azacitidine in AEL.
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