Wildfire disturbances can profoundly impact many aspects of both ecosystem functioning and resilience. This study proposes a satellite-based approach to assess ecosystem resilience to wildfires based on post-fire trajec-tories of four key functional dimensions of ecosystems related to carbon, water, and energy exchanges: (i) vegetation primary production; (ii) vegetation and soil water content; (iii) land surface albedo; and (iv) land surface sensible heat. For each dimension, several metrics extracted from satellite image time-series, at the short, medium and long-term, describe both resistance (the ability to withstand environmental disturbances) and recovery (the ability to pull back towards equilibrium). We used MODIS data for 2000-2018 to analyze trajectories after the 2005 wildfires in NW Iberian Peninsula. Primary production exhibited low resistance, with abrupt breaks immediately after the fire, but rapid recoveries, starting within six months after the fire and reaching stable pre-fire levels two years after. Loss of water content after the fire showed slightly higher resistance but slower and more gradual recoveries than primary production. On the other hand, albedo exhibited varying levels of resistance and recovery, with post-fire breaks often followed by increases to levels above pre-fire within the first two years, but sometimes with effects that persisted for many years. Finally, wildfire effects on sensible heat were generally more transient, with effects starting to dissipate after one year and overall rapid recoveries. Our approach was able to successfully depict key features of post-fire processes of ecosystem functioning at different timeframes. The added value of our multi-indicator approach for analyzing ecosystem resilience to wildfires was highlighted by the independence and complementarity among the proposed indicators targeting four dimensions of ecosystem functioning. We argue that such approaches can provide an enhanced characterization of ecosystem resilience to disturbances, ultimately upholding promising implications for post-fire ecosystem management and targeting different dimensions of ecosystem functioning.
There are several motives underlying the process of deciding to become an adoptive family. However, research exploring this issue is scarce and essentially focused on infertility as the main motivation. The present mixed‐method study aims to fill in this gap by exploring, retrospectively, the motives to adopt of 126 Portuguese adoptive parents. The Parents' Interview on the Adoption Process was used to identify the motives to adopt and describe the adoption decision‐making process. Seven main motives (biological issues, filling in a void/loneliness, adoption as a life project, expanding the family, philanthropy, contact with the child protection system and parenthood) were identified. These motives can be centred on the self, the child or both simultaneously and are characterized by dynamism, permeability and interconnection. Findings allowed for establishing conceptual considerations on motivations to adopt and recommendations for adoption practice.
One of the most often-used task constraints in designing small-sided games (SSGs) is the manipulation of pitch size to promote increases or decreases in the relative area per player. Such adjustments cause changes in the acute responses during SSGs. This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to compare the effects of smaller vs. larger pitch sizes on soccer players’ physiological, physical, technical, and tactical responses during SSGs. Comparisons between smaller and larger pitches were not considered based on a specific size, but also between using at least two dimensions in the same comparative study, aiming to understand differences between using smaller and larger (independently of the specific dimensions). The data sources utilized were PubMed, PsycINFO, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. The database search initially yielded 249 titles. From those, 41 articles were eligible for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Results revealed that, compared to smaller pitches, SSGs played on larger pitches induced greater values for heart rate (p<0.001; ES=0.50), rate of perceived exertion (p<0.001; ES=0.70), total distance (p<0.001; ES=1.95), high-speed running (p<0.001; ES=1.20), stretch index (p<0.001; ES=1.02) and surface area (p<0.001; ES=1.54). No significant differences were found between pitch size regarding the numbers of accelerations (p=0.232; ES=0.45), decelerations (p=0.111; ES=0.85), passes (p=0.897; ES=0.02), dribbles (p=0.823; ES=-0.05), or positional centroid (p=0.053; ES=0.56). Larger pitch sizes can be implemented as a meaningful task constraint to increase the internal and external load experienced by soccer players during SSGs, as well as to increase the dispersion of players while acting together. These results were found independent of format and age group.
Mesothelioma is a rare and insidious neoplasm and is characterized by its highly malignant and aggressive nature. The most common etiology is asbestos exposure, but there are some reports without known asbestos exposure and other factors leading to malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Here, we present the case of a 58-year-old woman with pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, and fever on presentation to the emergency department (ED), which caused several admissions to the ED in 20 days. The patient was then admitted to the internal medicine department with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia with parapneumonic effusion. During hospitalization, a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, thoracic computed tomography (CT), and pleural biopsy were performed and a final diagnosis of malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma was made. Six weeks after the onset of symptoms, the patient presented with an exponential disease progression, dying two months after the diagnosis, despite the initiation of chemotherapy. MPM remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with a very poor prognosis. However, studies show that mesothelioma patients who undergo treatment live at least twice as long as patients who do not receive treatment. This case report is particularly significant because, although it was epithelioid mesothelioma, multiple solid masses were noted on CT and the patient exhibited rapid disease progression, dying a few weeks after starting treatment.
Natural products are increasingly becoming part of our daily lives through their use in industry, food, as therapeutic agents, etc. To evaluate their possible applications, it is essential to characterize them chemically to explore their potential. Different techniques may be used to characterize natural products, including microextraction techniques. These techniques have been gaining popularity due to the advantages associated with their low use of organic solvents and the small amount of sample used relative to more classical sample preparation techniques. Their application in the extraction of compounds from natural products is still scarce. This manuscript intends to review the most used solid-based miniaturized sample preparation techniques applied to determining compounds in natural products. The main applications of these methodologies will be discussed , with a particular focus on natural product analysis, as well as their advantages and disadvantages over traditionally used sample preparation techniques.
Background: Hamstrings injuries are common in sports and the reinjury risk is high. Despite the extensive literature on hamstrings injuries, the effectiveness of the different conservative (i.e., non-surgical) interventions (i.e., modalities and doses) for the rehabilitation of athletes with acute hamstrings injuries is unclear. Objective: We aimed to compare the effects of different conservative interventions in time to return to sport (TRTS) and/or time to return to full training (TRFT) and reinjury-related outcomes after acute hamstrings injuries in athletes. Data Sources: We searched CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases up to 1 January, 2022, complemented with manual searches, prospective citation tracking, and consultation of external experts. Eligibility Criteria: The eligibility criteria were multi-arm studies (randomized and non-randomized) that compared conservative treatments of acute hamstrings injuries in athletes. Data Analysis: We summarized the characteristics of included studies and conservative interventions and analyzed data for main outcomes (TRTS, TRFT, and rate of reinjuries). The risk of bias was judged using the Cochrane tools. Quality and completeness of reporting of therapeutic exercise programs were appraised with the i-CONTENT tool and the certainty of evidence was judged using the GRADE framework. TRTS and TRFT were analyzed using mean differences and the risk of reinjury with relative risks. Results: Fourteen studies (12 randomized and two non-randomized) comprising 730 athletes (mostly men with ages between 14 and 49 years) from different sports were included. Nine randomized studies were judged at high risk and three at low risk of bias, and the two non-randomized studies were judged at critical risk of bias. Seven randomized studies compared exercise-based interventions (e.g., L-protocol vs C-protocol), one randomized study compared the use of low-level laser therapy, and three randomized and two non-randomized studies compared injections of platelet-rich plasma to placebo or no injection. These low-level laser therapy and platelet-rich plasma studies complemented their interventions with an exercise program. Only three studies were judged at low overall risk of ineffectiveness (i-CONTENT). No single intervention or combination of interventions proved superior in achieving a faster TRTS/TRFT or reducing the risk of reinjury. Only eccentric lengthening exercises showed limited evidence in allowing a shorter TRFT. The platelet-rich plasma treatment did not consistently reduce the TRFT or have any effect on the risk of new hamstrings injuries. The certainty of evidence was very low for all outcomes and comparisons. Conclusions: Available evidence precludes the prioritization of a particular exercise-based intervention for athletes with acute hamstrings injuries, as different exercise-based interventions showed comparable effects on TRTS/TRFT and the risk of reinjuries. Available evidence also does not support the use of platelet-rich plasma or low-level laser therapy in clinical practice. The currently available literature is limited because of the risk of bias, risk of ineffectiveness of exercise protocols (as assessed with the i-CONTENT), and the lack of comparability across existing studies. Clinical Trial Registration: PROSPERO CRD42021268499 and OSF (https://osf.io/3k4u2/).
Indoor radon (Rn) concentration is pointed out by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the second leading cause of lung cancer. Adopting mitigation measures based on ventilation procedures is an effective solution for most cases. However, the occurrence of abnormal concentrations of indoor Rn in heritage buildings, where most interventions are restricted, may lead to alternative remediation techniques. In these cases, constructive mitigation measures, such as the use of barrier membranes on the floor or specific coating mortars on the walls, can be adequate solutions. In the current investigation, two constructive measures were applied and analyzed sequentially. The preliminary long-term monitoring campaign registered extremely high indoor Rn concentration measurements. The application of a barrier membrane covering the floor of the test compartment allowed a 90% reduction in the average Rn concentration, but it nevertheless remained substantially above the recommended value of 300 Bq·m−3. Subsequently, a coating mortar was applied on the walls. The combined measures contributed to a total reduction of 94% in the average indoor Rn concentration, which remains slightly above the recommended exposure limit. Despite the verified reduction and the apparent effectiveness of the measures, it is still necessary to carry out more monitoring campaigns to test their general applicability.
A study on fasciolosis prevalence, gross pathological lesions, fluke genetic identification and coprological analysis was carried out in slaughtered cattle from one abattoir in Cape Verde. Of the 131 cattle inspected over two months, 12 (9.0%) presented fasciolosis-compatible lesions (FCL) that resulted in liver condemnation. The genetic characterization of the flukes collected, through restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified fragments (PCR-RFLP), confirmed the presence of Fasciola gigantica; therefore, being the first identification of this species in cattle from Cape Verde. Animals that released Fasciola spp. eggs and, thus, responsible for environment contamination (positive shedders), were identified through coprological analysis (natural sedimentation technique). Of the 12 animals with FCL, samples from 11 were submitted to coprological analysis and 7 (63.6%) were found to be positive shedders. Furthermore, of the 82 animals with non-FCL, randomly selected for coprological analysis, 4 (4.9%) were also found to be positive shedders for Fasciola spp. The results of this study, regarding species identification and coprological analysis, are epidemiologically important to update the information regarding fasciolosis in Cape Verde. The new data could help implement effective strategies for disease control and mitigation, consequently reducing economic loss and the level of animal and human infection from the One Health perspective.
Introduction The transition to digital pathology has been carried out by several laboratories across the globe, with some cases described in Portugal. In this article, we describe the transition to digital pathology in a high-volume private laboratory, considering the main challenges and opportunities. Material and methods Our process started in 2020, with laboratory workflow adaptation and we are currently using a high-capacity scanner (Aperio GT450DX) to digitize slides at 20x. The visualization system, Aperio eSlide Manager WebViewer, is integrated into the Laboratory System. The validation process followed the Royal College of Pathologists Guidelines. Results Regarding validation, the first phase detected an error rate of 6.8%, mostly due to digitization errors. Phase optimization and collaboration with technical services led to improvements in this process. In the second validation phase, most of the slides had the desired quality for evaluation, with only an error rate of 0.6%, corrected with a new scan. The interpathologist correlation had a total agreement rate of 96.87% and 3.13% partial agreement. Conclusion The implementation and validation of digital pathology was a success, being ready for prime time. The total integration of all laboratory systems and the acquisition of new equipment will maximize their use, especially with the application of artificial intelligence algorithms.
Abstract The evolution of female soccer is related to the increase in high-intensity actions and choosing the abilities that best characterize the players' performance. Determining the capabilities that best describe the players' performance becomes essential for coaches and technical staff to obtain the results more efficiently within the competitive calendar. Thus, the study aimed to analyze the correlations between performance in the 20-m sprint tests with and without the ball and the Zigzag 20-m change-of-direction (COD) test without the ball in professional female soccer players. Thirty-three high-level professional female soccer players performed the 20-m sprint tests without a ball, 20-m sprint tests with the ball, and the Zigzag 20-m COD test without the ball. The shortest time obtained in the three trials was used for each test. The fastest time in the three trials was used for each test to calculate the average test speed. The Pearson product–moment correlation test was applied to analyze the correlation between the performance in the tests. Pearson's product–moment correlation test was used to analyze the correlation between the performance in the trials, with a significance level of α
Due to the chaotic nature of soccer, the predictive statistical models have become in a current challenge to decision-making based on scientific evidence. The aim of the present study was to systematically identify original studies that applied machine learning (ML) to soccer data, highlighting current possibilities in ML and future applications. A systematic review of PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and FECYT (Web of Sciences, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, and SCIELO) was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 145 studies initially identified, 32 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analyzed. In summary, all articles were clustered into three groups: injury (n = 7); performance (n = 21), which was classified in match/league outcomes forecasting, physical/physiological forecasting, and technical/tactical forecasting; and the last group was about talent forecasting (n = 5). The development of technology, and subsequently the large amount of data available, has become ML in an important strategy to help team staff members in decision-making predicting dose-response relationship reducing the chaotic nature of this team sport. However, since ML models depend upon the amount of dataset, further studies should analyze the amount of data input needed make to a relevant predictive attempt which makes accurate predicting available.
Olive oils from seven Portuguese regions were selected to study the effect of the geographical origin on the oils’ composition. Quality parameters, fatty acids, tocopherols, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol derivatives, and oxidative stability were evaluated. All olive oils could be classified as extra virgin, and the geographical origin significantly affected the oils chemical composition. Principal component analysis further confirmed the significant impact of the geographical origin on the composition and, indirectly, on stability of the oils, showing that the evaluated parameters could be used as markers for geographical origin identification. Alternatively, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was applied, allowing to establish a linear discriminant model that correctly identified the geographical origin of the olive oils with a mean sensitivity of 99±3% (internal validation), confirming the impact of the oil origin on its characteristics. This finding allowed foreseeing the future application of the spectroscopy approach as a green, fast and non-invasive authentication tool.
The role of new technologies such as additive manufacturing and blockchain technology in designing and implementing circular economy ecosystems is not a trivial issue. This study aimed to understand if blockchain technology can be an enabler tool for developing additive symbiotic networks. A real case study was developed regarding a circular economy ecosystem in which a fused granular fabrication 3D printer is used to valorize polycarbonate waste. The industrial symbiosis network comprised four stakeholders: a manufacturing company that produces polycarbonate waste, a municipality service responsible for the city waste management, a start-up holding the 3D printer, and a non-profit store. It was identified a set of six requirements to adopt the blockchain technology in an additive symbiotic network, bearing in mind the need to have a database to keep track of the properties of the input material for the 3D printer during the exchanges, in addition to the inexistence of mechanisms of trust or cooperation between well-established industries and the additive manufacturing industry. The findings suggested a permissioned blockchain to support the implementation of the additive symbiotic network, namely, to enable the physical transactions (quantity and quality of waste material PC sheets) and monitoring and reporting (additive manufacturing technology knowledge and final product's quantity and price). Future research venues include developing blockchain-based systems that enhance the development of additive symbiotic networks.
According to the Quality Education and Gender Equality ambitions established at the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals, we aimed to test the feasibility of a flexible planning and assessment process, using ongoing, bidirectional feedback between planning and assessment. Eighteen players (11.5 ± 0.5 years of age) from a U13 female volleyball team were randomized into an experimental group (in which the plan could be changed daily) or a contrast group (pre-defined planning, adjusted monthly). The pedagogical intervention lasted three months. Besides ongoing daily assessments from the training practices, the Game Performance Assessment Instrument was adopted as a starting point for the weekly assessments in 4 vs. 4 game-forms (i.e., the instrument was modified monthly based on feedback from the training process). Information from daily and weekly formal assessment was used in the planning of the experimental group, and monthly in the contrast group. Data suggested that pre-established and strict planning (even updated monthly) failed to fit current learner needs. Over 12 weeks, the pre-established planning suffered regular modifications in the experimental group, and the assessment tool changed monthly. In conclusion, both planning and assessment should be open and flexible to exchange information mutually, and support the design of tailor-made learning environments
Understanding the motivations, objectives, advantages and constraints in participating in music activities is the topic for the present investigation, organized as an exploratory and descriptive study. In this communication we point out the results of our investigation, analysing what music means in the lives of individuals and identifying the advantages and constraints felt in participating in musical activities. A questionnaire survey “Music in lifelong learning (MALV)” and the scales “SWLS—Satisfaction with life scale” and “Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS)” were applied to our target audience, defined according to the following criteria: age over 65 years, involved in some activity with music. The results point to medium or high levels of satisfaction with life associated with pleasure and a sense of accomplishment in the performance of musical activities.
In mobile networks, 5G Ultra-Dense Networks (UDNs) have emerged as they effectively increase the network capacity due to cell splitting and densification. A Base Station (BS) is a fixed transceiver that is the main communication point for one or more wireless mobile client devices. As UDNs are densely deployed, the number of BSs and communication links is dense, raising concerns about resource management with regard to energy efficiency, since BSs consume much of the total cost of energy in a cellular network. It is expected that 6G next-generation mobile networks will include technologies such as artificial intelligence as a service and focus on energy efficiency. Using machine learning it is possible to optimize energy consumption with cognitive management of dormant, inactive and active states of network elements. Reinforcement learning enables policies that allow sleep mode techniques to gradually deactivate or activate components of BSs and decrease BS energy consumption. In this work, a sleep mode management based on State Action Reward State Action (SARSA) is proposed, which allows the use of specific metrics to find the best tradeoff between energy reduction and Quality of Service (QoS) constraints. The results of the simulations show that, depending on the target of the 5G use case, in low traffic load scenarios and when a reduction in energy consumption is preferred over QoS, it is possible to achieve energy savings up to 80% with 50 ms latency, 75% with 20 ms and 10 ms latencies and 20% with 1 ms latency. If the QoS is preferred, then the energy savings reach a maximum of 5% with minimal impact in terms of latency.
Background: Field-based tests occupy an important space since they aim to guarantee ecological validity. Although most such tests are designed to assess physical fitness, tactical and technical dimensions are also determinants in a full battery of tests. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was two-fold: (a) summarize the criterion validity and reliability of technical and tactical field-based tests applied in soccer and (b) list the valid and reliable technical and tactical field-based tests. Methods: A systematic review of EBSCO, PubMed, Scielo, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science databases was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. The eligibility criteria included (i) population (soccer players from any age group, competitive level, or sex); (ii) exposure (exposure to technical and/or tactical field-based tests covering individual technical skills, tactical behaviors, tactical knowledge, and decision-making in the field); (iii) comparator (a laboratory test and/or a criterion field-based test); (iv) outcome (measures of reliability); and (v) no restrictions with regard to study design. The synthesis of results focused on the outcomes considered in the eligibility criteria. Results: A total of 5008 titles were identified, of which 21 met the eligibility criteria. Eight studies’ analyses centered on tactical tests. Of those, six studies tested the same instrument (FUT-SAT), one study was dedicated to divergent thought, and one study was dedicated to used a soccer-specific skills test. Among the ten included studies centered on technical tests, only two repeated the same tests (the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test). Three studies included tests concurring with physical ones. Regarding the main findings, the eight studies that used tactical tests revealed the reliability of the outcomes from the tests and observers. Similarly, the ten studies that used technical tests revealed good reliability levels, as well as the three concurrent studies. From the eight studies that used tactical tests, seven involved youth participants. Furthermore, of the ten studies that conducted technical tests, three were done on adults. Of the concurrent tests, the three involved youth athletes. From the included studies, only one study in tactical analysis researched presented values on validity, while three studies in technical tests provided information about validity. The four studies provided information about validity of the tests. Conclusions: The overall technical and tactical selected tests revealed their validity and reliability. The majority of the tests were executed in youth players. Although most studies have focused on reliability (which was confirmed independently of the test included), criterion validity was also observed in the few studies that analyzed such factors. Thus, the current tests proposed for assessing technical and tactical behaviors are acceptable in terms of criterion validity and reliability.
Objectives The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide. This study aims to identify the degree to which sociodemographic variables and indicators of subjective well-being and psychological resilience are associated, positively and negatively, with the outcomes of burnout, stress, depression and anxiety among Portuguese HCWs observed during the first wave. It also aims to evaluate the strength of association of these variables and indicators with each outcome. Design Cross-sectional quantitative study. The statistical methods used are simple logistic model, multiple logistic regression model and −2*log-likelihood statistic. Setting Portuguese HCWs living in Portugal and working in the Portuguese healthcare system. Participants The study included 1535 professionals, with a mean age of 38 years. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Psychological variables were measured by Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, the Resilience Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results High levels of personal (55%; n=844), work-related (55.1%; n=846) and client-related burnout (35.4%; n=543) were found. Additionally, participants expressed substantial levels of depression (28.7%; n=441), stress (36.4%; n=558) and anxiety (33.1%; n=508). About 1202 participants (78.3%) demonstrated moderate-to-high levels of resilience. Profession, work regime during the pandemic, having a health problem, resilience and satisfaction with life are independent variables significantly associated with the outcomes of burnout, stress, depression and anxiety. Satisfaction with life was the independent variable that had a major association with all outcomes. Conclusions Governments and hospital administrations should take action to promote resilience and satisfaction with life as these variables are protective relating to mental health problems. Interventions as educational sessions, psychological support at work, programmes promoting resilience and coping mechanisms and better work conditions may improve mental health. The implementation of measures to protect healthcare students from developing prejudicial outcomes seams very adequate and important.
This study reports the electrochemical synthesis of bismuth iodide and bismuth oxyiodide from acidic baths containing bismuth nitrate, sodium nitrate, iodine and ethylene glycol by a simple pH control. Linear sweep voltammetry analyses determined the potential window for the reduction of iodine where bismuth ion does not get reduced. The concentration of the iodide ions in the bath is regulated by the applied potential and the equilibrium that exists between iodine-iodide and nitrate-nitrite pairs. At pH 0.2 and 0.5, bismuth is predominantly present as free Bi3+ ions, which react with iodide to form bismuth triiodide. On the other hand, even at slightly elevated pH 1.0 and 2.0, bismuth is predominantly complexed by water, nitrates and ethylene glycol. These complexes react with the iodide ions to form bismuth oxyiodide. X-ray diffraction confirms that bismuth oxyiodide is predominantly formed at higher pH (1.0 and 2.0), while at lower pH (0.2 and 0.5), bismuth triiodide is formed. Impedance spectra are consistent with the above mechanism. The deposited bismuth oxyiodide films exhibit a cactus-like morphology formed from interlinked nano-disks, while the bismuth iodide films form micron-size platelet crystallites, both with good surface coverage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the formation of pure BiI3 at pH 0.2, while binding energies of Bi 4f state in pure BiOI prepared at pH 2.0 has a slight shift towards higher binding energies. From diffuse reflectance spectroscopy studies, indirect bandgaps of electrochemically synthesized BiI3 and BiOI were found to be 1.72 eV and 1.98 eV, respectively.
Radon is an increasingly common concern, mainly when it is found indoors exposing the users of the space to radiation. As a gas, radon is an element produced due to uranium decay; it emanates naturally from soil and is considered by the World Health Organization as the second most common cause of lung cancer. Several methodologies are available for mitigating the indoor radon concentration, with distinct improvements and efficiencies that need to be proved with on-site testing. The case study here presented analyzes the effect of applying a barrier membrane, covering the pavement of a ground floor room located in a historic building with a high occupancy rate, on an abnormal radon concentration evidenced by experimental data. After the barrier membrane installation, a new long-term monitoring campaign (3 months) was carried out to assess indoor radon concentration. The obtained results showed that the barrier membrane lowered the indoor radon concentration by 90%. However, the radon exposure level remained higher than the recommended level to enable safe occupation and the regular use of space. Nevertheless, as the reduction in the radon concentration was very significant by the adoption of a barrier membrane, the combination of this technical solution with other mitigation methodologies, namely including the adoption of mechanical ventilation procedures, can become a very efficient solution for radon remediation, reducing the number of air changes per hour (ACH) from 30–60 to 4–6.
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Praça General Barbosa, 4900-347, Viana do Castelo, Viana do Castelo, Portugal
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Prof. Rui Alberto Martins Teixeira
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