Instituto Nacional de Cardiología
Recent publications
Background Evaluation of the venous system has long been underestimated as an important component of the circulatory system. As systemic venous pressure increases, the perfusion pressure to the tissues is compromised. During initial resuscitation in cardiac surgery, excessive fluid administration is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Methods We conducted a cross‐sectional study of 60 consecutive adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery and in whom it was possible to obtain the venous excess ultrasound (VExUS) grading system and mean systemic filling pressure (Pmsf) in the postoperative period upon admission, at 24 and 48 h. We then determined the correlation between VExUS grading and Pmsf. Results On admission, patients with VExUS grading 0 predominated, with a progressive increase in venous congestion and an increase in Pmsf over the course of the first 48 h. There was a strong positive correlation between VExUS grading and the invasive measurement of Pmsf at 24 and 48 h after arrival. The presence of grade 2 or grade 3 venous congestion in the postoperative period poses an increased risk of developing acute kidney injury. Conclusion The VExUS grading system indicates a high degree of systemic venous congestion in the first 48 h of the postoperative period after cardiac surgery and correlates with the Pmsf, which is the best surrogate of stressed circulatory volume.
Natural products are recognized as potential analgesics since many of them are part of modern medicine to relieve pain without serious adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. italica sprouts (AEBS) and one of its main reported bioactive metabolites sulforaphane (SFN). Antinociceptive activity of the AEBS (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, i.p. or 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) and SFN (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated in the plantar test in rats to reinforce its analgesic-like activity at central level using the reference drug tramadol (TR, 50 mg/kg, i.p.). The anti-inflammatory-like response was determined in the carrageenan-induced oedema at the same dosages for comparison with ketorolac (KET, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) or indomethacin (INDO, 20 mg/kg, p.o.). A histological analysis of the swollen paw was included to complement the anti-inflammatory response. Additionally, acute toxicity observed in clinical analgesics as the most common adverse effects, such as sedation and/or gastric damage, was also explored. As a result, central and peripheral action of the AEBS was confirmed using enteral and parenteral administration, in which significant reduction of the nociceptive and inflammatory responses resembled the effects of TR, KET, or INDO, respectively, involving the presence of SFN. No adverse or toxic effects were observed in the presence of the AEBS or SFN. In conclusion, this study supports that Brassica oleracea var. italica sprouts are a potential source of antinociceptive natural products such as SFN for therapy of pain alone and associated to an inflammation condition.
There is a clear clinical overlap between fibromyalgia, myalgic encephalomyelitis, and post-COVID 19 condition. Chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, and widespread pain characterize these 3 syndromes. A steady line of investigation posits fibromyalgia as stress-evoked sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome and places dorsal root ganglia dysregulation with the ensuing small fiber neuropathy at the epicenter of fibromyalgia pathogenesis. This article discusses emerging evidence suggesting that similar mechanism may operate in post-COVID 19 condition.
Anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies are promising biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although their significance in seronegative disease (SNRA) remains uncertain. To assess the influence of anti-CarP antibodies on disease activity and erosive joint damage in SNRA patients. In RA patients, rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and anti-CarP antibodies were measured. Disease activity was assessed using DAS28-CRP and SDAI indices, while musculoskeletal ultrasound identified bone erosions. A total of 77 patients were enrolled, comprising 49 with seropositive RA (SPRA) and 28 with SNRA. Notably, 28% of SPRA and 10% of SNRA patients were positive to anti-CarP antibodies. Anti-CarP-positive patients exhibited elevated C-reactive protein (median 10.6, interquartile range 4.6–20.0 vs. 3.4, 1.7–9.9 mg/L; p = 0.005), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (34, 19–46 vs. 16, 7–25 mm/h; p = 0.002), DAS28-CRP (3.2, 2.6–4.2 vs. 2.6, 1.9–3.5; p = 0.048), and SDAI (19.9, 6.3–32.1 vs. 10.9, 5.5–18.1; p = 0.034) indices. Multivariate analysis revealed RF positivity as the sole predictor for anti-CarP antibodies (odds ratio [OR] = 5.9). Musculoskeletal ultrasound revealed bone erosions in 36% of RA patients; 35% among anti-CarP-negative patients and 40% among anti-CarP-positive patients. Notably, RF presence (OR = 44.3) and DAS28-CRP index (OR = 2.4) emerged as predictors of musculoskeletal ultrasound-confirmed erosive joint disease. Anti-CarP antibodies are detected at similar frequencies among both SPRA and SNRA patients. While associated with increased disease activity, these antibodies did not correlate with increased erosive joint damage.
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a multisystem genetic disorder with over 3000 mutations described in the fibrillin 1 (FBN1) gene. Like MFS, other connective tissue disorders also require a deeper understanding of the phenotype-genotype relationship due to the complexity of the clinical presentation, where diagnostic criteria often overlap. Our objective was to identify mutations in patients with connective tissue disorders using a genetic multipanel and to analyze the genotype-phenotype associations in a cohort of Mexican patients. We recruited 136 patients with MFS and related syndromes from the National Institute of Cardiology. Mutations were identified using next-generation sequencing. To examine the correlation between mutation severity and severe cardiovascular conditions, we focused on patients who had undergone Bentall-de Bono surgery or aortic valve repair. The genetic data obtained allowed us to reclassify the initial clinical diagnosis across various types of connective tissue disorders. The transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2) rs79375991 mutation was found in 10 out of 16 (63%) Loeys-Dietz patients. We observed a high prevalence (65%) of more severe mutations, such as frameshift indels and stop codons, among patients requiring invasive treatments like aortic valve-sparing surgery, Bentall and de Bono procedures, or aortic valve replacement due to severe cardiovascular injury. Although our study did not achieve precise phenotype-genotype correlations, it underscores the importance of a multigenetic panel evaluation. This could pave the way for a more comprehensive diagnostic approach and inform medical and surgical treatment decision-making.
Background: Solid Organ Transplant recipients (SOTR) appear to be at particular high risk for critical COVID-19 due to immunosuppressive drugs and comorbidities. We report the first description of clinical course and short-term outcomes of kidney and liver transplant recipients with confirmed COVID-19 in Mexico. The objective of this paper was evaluate the clinical course of transplant patients with COVID-19 infection. Material and methods: We retrospectively evaluated SOTR (kidney and liver) over 18 years of age with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from tertiary care centers in Mexico. Results: Data from 45 kidney transplant recipients were recorded. Median (IQR) age was 43 (IQR 25-70) years. Admission to hospital was required in 37 (75.5 %) patients, of which 8 (16.3%) were hospitalized at Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Acute kidney injury (AKI) stage was documented in 33 (67%) patients. The time of hospitalization was 8 (IQR 6-12) days. Six patients died (12.2%). Additionally, data from 10 liver transplant recipients were included. During their evolution, 5 / 10 required hospital admission and there were no deaths in this group. Conclusions: Transplant recipients show a higher fatality rate and complications from SARS-CoV-2 infection; more studies are needed to identify prognostic factors and effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies.
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic brought with it a large number of adverse consequences for public health with serious socioeconomic repercussions. In this study we characterize the social, demographic, morbidity and mortality conditions of individuals treated for COVID-19 in one of the SARS-CoV-2 reference hospitals in Mexico City. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 259 patients discharged from the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, between April 11, 2020 and March 14, 2021. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the association between sociodemographic and clinical variables. An optimization was performed using maximum likelihood calculations to choose the best model compatible with the data. The maximum likelihood model was evaluated using ROC curves, goodnessof-fit estimators, and multicollinearity analysis. Statistically significant patterns of comorbidities were inferred by evaluating a hypergeometric test over the frequencies of co-occurrence of pairs of conditions. A network analysis was implemented to determine connectivity patterns based on degree centrality, between comorbidities and outcome variables. Results: The main social disadvantages of the studied population are related to the lack of social security (96.5%) and the lag in housing conditions (81%). Variables associated with the probability of survival were being younger (p < 0.0001), having more durable material goods (p = 0.0034) and avoiding: pneumonia (p = 0.0072), septic shock (p < 0.0001) and acute respiratory failure (p < 0.0001); (AUROC: 91.5%). The comorbidity network for survival cases has a high degree of connectivity between conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias and essential arterial hypertension (Degree Centrality = 90 and 78, respectively). Conclusions: Given that among the factors associated with survival to COVID-19 there are clinical, sociodemographic and social determinants of health variables, in addition to age; It is imperative to consider the various factors that may affect or modify the health status of a population, especially when addressing emerging epidemic phenomena such as the current COVID-19 pandemic.
Objective: The objective of the study is to identify clinical and angiographic characteristics of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) but without clinical manifestations of COVID-19 infection during the pandemic, compared with patients 1 year before the pandemic. Methods: Observational study that included 138 consecutive patients hospitalized with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) without COVID-19 infection during the 2020 pandemic. A group of 175 STEMI patients treated with PCI in the year before the pandemic served as the control group. Results: During the periods analyzed, compared with the control group, patients admitted during the pandemic without clinical manifestations of COVID-19 did not have significant differences in demographic characteristics, comorbidities, or delayed time and location of the acute myocardial infarction. Furthermore, there were no differences between the two groups concerning levels of CK-MB and NT-proBNP, or in inflammation markers and left ventricular ejection fraction. In patients without COVID-19 during the pandemic compared with control, we found a higher intracoronary thrombus burden (thrombus grade 5; 78.3% vs. 62.9%, respectively. p = 0.002). Accordingly, the use of glycoprotein IIB/IIIa inhibitors (37.7% vs. 26.3%, p = 0.03) was higher in these patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an increased thrombus burden in STEMI patients without clinical manifestation of COVID-19 during the pandemic compared with the same time period in the previous year.
Background: Social inequalities in adult mortality have been reported across diverse populations, but there is no large-scale prospective evidence from Mexico. We aimed to quantify social, including educational, inequalities in mortality among adults in Mexico City. Methods: The Mexico City Prospective Study recruited 150 000 adults aged 35 years and older from two districts of Mexico City between 1998 and 2004. Participants were followed up until Jan 1, 2021 for cause-specific mortality. Cox regression analysis yielded rate ratios (RRs) for death at ages 35-74 years associated with education and examined, in exploratory analyses, the mediating effects of lifestyle and related risk factors. Findings: Among 143 478 participants aged 35-74 years, there was a strong inverse association of education with premature death. Compared with participants with tertiary education, after adjustment for age and sex, those with no education had about twice the mortality rate (RR 1·84; 95% CI 1·71-1·98), equivalent to approximately 6 years lower life expectancy, with an RR of 1·78 (1·67-1·90) among participants with incomplete primary, 1·62 (1·53-1·72) with complete primary, and 1·34 (1·25-1·42) with secondary education. Education was most strongly associated with death from renal disease and acute diabetic crises (RR 3·65; 95% CI 3·05-4·38 for no education vs tertiary education) and from infectious diseases (2·67; 2·00-3·56), but there was an apparent higher rate of death from all specific causes studied with lower education, with the exception of cancer for which there was little association. Lifestyle factors (ie, smoking, alcohol drinking, and leisure time physical activity) and related physiological correlates (ie, adiposity, diabetes, and blood pressure) accounted for about four-fifths of the association of education with premature mortality. Interpretation: In this Mexican population there were marked educational inequalities in premature adult mortality, which appeared to largely be accounted for by lifestyle and related risk factors. Effective interventions to reduce these risk factors could reduce inequalities and have a major impact on premature mortality. Funding: Wellcome Trust, the Mexican Health Ministry, the National Council of Science and Technology for Mexico, Cancer Research UK, British Heart Foundation, and the UK Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit.
A 32-year-old female presented with palpitations and chest discomfort. The patient had a history of pericardiotomy due to pericardial effusion. Multimodal imaging, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) showed a single mass in the pericardium as the cause of the symptoms. Furthermore, its location and potential complications were accurately defined. The patient underwent a successful surgical resection of the pericardial cyst, microscopic histopathological examination was compatible with a bronchogenic cyst, a very rare congenital malformation. The article discusses the rarity of bronchogenic cysts in the pericardium and the importance of accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Purpose: To share a Latin-American perspective of the use of telemedicine, together with blood pressure measurements outside the medical office, as a potential contribution to improving access to the health system, diagnosis, adherence, and persistence in hypertension treatment. Material and methods: A document settled by a Writing Group of Mexico Hypertension Experts Group, Interamerican Society of Hypertension, Epidemiology and Cardiovascular Prevention Council of the Interamerican Society of Cardiology, and National Cardiologist Association of Mexico Results: In almost all Latin American countries, the health sector faces two fundamental challenges: (1) ensure equitable access to quality care services in a growing population that faces an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and (2) optimise the growing costs of health services, maintaining equity, accessibility, universality, and quality. Telehealth proposes an innovative approach to patient management, especially for chronic conditions, intending to provide remote consultation, education, and follow-up to achieve measurements and goals. It is a tool that promises to improve access, empower the patient, and somehow influence their behaviour about lifestyle changes, improving prevention and reducing complications of hypertension. The clinical practitioner has seen increased evidence that the use of out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurement and telemedicine are helpful tools to keep patients and physicians in contact and promote better pharmacological adherence and BP control. A survey carried out by medical and scientific institutions showed that practitioners are up-to-date with telemedicine, had internet access, and had hardware availability. Conclusions: A transcendent issue is the need to make the population aware of the benefits of taking blood pressure to avoid complications of hypertension, and in this scenario, promote the creation of teleconsultation mechanisms for the follow-up of patients diagnosed with hypertension.
Introduction: Hemodialysis uses municipal water that must be strictly purified and sterilized to be used for that procedure. Large amounts of decontaminants are often used, such as chlorine, and if these compounds are not subsequently removed they can be transferred to the blood of patients causing complications including methemoglobinemia. Methods: In this case series study, dialysis patients in one unit were evaluated. We reviewed clinical characteristics and laboratory findings obtained on the day when the water supply was disinfected with chlorine, with the aim to quantify methemoglobin concentrations. Our objective was to characterize the clinical presentation and management of patients who presented with methemoglobinemia on a specific index day. We also reviewed reported cases in the literature regarding this underreported complication. Results: Eight patients who presented with chlorine intoxication were evaluated. The methemoglobin concentrations were between 1.3% and 7.9% (reference value 0-1%). We believe this to be caused by water containing 0.78 mg/L of total chlorine. Seven patients presented with cyanosis, 4 with dizziness, 6 with dark brown blood, 4 with dyspnea, and 4 with headache and hemolytic anemia. Subjects were treated with supplemental oxygen, methylene blue, intravenous vitamin C, blood transfusions, and increased doses of erythropoietin. No patient died, and all continued with their usual hemodialysis sessions. Conclusion: Acute chlorine intoxication transferred by the water used during hemodialysis sessions can present with methemoglobinemia accompanied by cyanosis, oxygen desaturation, and hemolytic anemia. Chlorine levels should be carefully monitored in the water used for hemodialysis treatment.
We assessed whether allicin, through its antihypertensive and antioxidant effects, relieves vascular remodeling, endothelial function, and oxidative stress (OS), thereby improving experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Allicin (16 mg/kg) was administered to rats with PAH (monocrotaline 60 mg/kg). Allicin encouraged body weight gain and survival rate, and medial wall thickness and the right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy were prevented. Also, angiotensin II concentrations in the lung (0.37 ± 0.01 vs. 0.47 ± 0.06 pmoles/mL, allicin and control, respectively) and plasma (0.57 ± 0.05 vs. 0.75 ± 0.064, allicin and control respectively) and the expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor in lung tissue were maintained at normal control levels with allicin. In PAH rats treated with allicin, nitric oxide (NO) (31.72 ± 1.22 and 51.4 ± 3.45 pmoles/mL), tetrahydrobiopterin (8.43 ± 0.33 and 10.14 ± 0.70 pmoles/mL), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (5.54 ± 0.42 and 5.64 ± 0.73 pmoles/mL), and Ang-(1-7) (0.88 ± 0.23 and 0.83 ± 0.056 pmoles/mL) concentrations increased in lung tissue and plasma, respectively. In contrast, dihydrobiopterin increase was prevented in both lung tissue and plasma (5.75 ± 0.3 and 5.64 ± 0.73 pmoles/mL); meanwhile, phosphodiesterase-5 was maintained at normal levels in lung tissue. OS in PAH was prevented with allicin through the increased expression of Nrf2 in the lung. Allicin prevented the lung response to hypoxia, preventing the overexpression of HIF-1α and VEGF. Allicin attenuated the vascular remodeling and RV hypertrophy in PAH through its effects on NO-dependent vasodilation, modulation of RAS, and amelioration of OS. Also, these effects could be associated with the modulation of HIF-1α and improved lung oxygenation. The global effects of allicin contribute to preventing endothelial dysfunction, remodeling of the pulmonary arteries, and RV hypertrophy, preventing heart failure, thus favoring survival. Although human studies are needed, the data suggest that, alone or in combination therapy, allicin may be an alternative in treating PAH if we consider that, similarly to current treatments, it improves lung vasodilation and increase survival. Allicin may be considered an option when there is a lack of efficacy, and where drug intolerance is observed, to enhance the efficacy of drugs, or when more than one pathogenic mechanism must be addressed.
Background Ventricular septal defect (VSD) complicating acute myocardial infarction (MI) represents a life-threatening condition and has a mortality of >90% if left untreated. Case summary A 53-year-old man with a prior medical history of diabetes and hypertension presented with cardiogenic shock secondary to VSD as a mechanical complication of non-reperfused inferior MI. Discussion The choice of mechanical support can be difficult in this type of patient. Given the risk of an increased shunt because of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) and the increase in left ventricle (LV) afterload, several measures were taken to plan the best ECMO configuration. Given the absence of any real improvement in the LV and an elevated residual ratio between pulmonary and systemic flow (Qp/Qs), the final decision was to switch to left atrial VA-ECMO (LAVA-ECMO). The use of LAVA-ECMO improved the patient’s haemodynamics and allowed his condition to stabilize; LAVA-ECMO is feasible and may be effective as a mechanical circulatory support (MCS) strategy for patients in cardiogenic shock due to VSD as a mechanical complication of acute MI.
Objective To analyze the resistance to antimicrobials in clinical isolates from pediatric patients in Mexico. Methods Susceptibility data from relevant specimens were collected in the pediatric population over 6 months from 25 centers from 17 states of Mexico and analyzed using the WHONET 5.6 software. Data were stratified into three age groups: younger than 2 years, 2 to 6 years, and 6 to 18 years. Results For Escherichia coli, the infant/toddler group had higher resistance rates to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefepime, gentamicin, quinolones (p < 0.001), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (p = 0.003), and ceftazidime (p = 0.004) than the other two age groups. Additionally, a high proportion of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates for E. coli (75.3%) was detected in this age group. Comparable results were observed for Klebsiella pneumoniae, with higher resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam, ceftazidime, gentamicin, cefepime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, carbapenems (p = 0.001) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (p = 0.023) in the infant/toddler group. Moreover, a high proportion of ESBL producers (76%) was detected in this age group. Regarding wards, E. coli and K. pneumoniae had the highest carbapenem resistance in the ICU area, and Acinetobacter baumannii had the highest carbapenem resistance in medical wards. Conclusion High antibiotic resistance rates were detected in the infant/toddler group. This report presents baseline data for future prospective surveillance studies of antimicrobial resistance in pediatric patients in Mexico.
Quercetin is a flavonoid present in apples, onions, tea, red wines, and berries, and it has shown different beneficial effects, such as providing cardiovascular protection, possessing anti-inflammatory properties, and demonstrating anticancer activity, among others. These diseases are related to oxidizing molecules such as ROS because these species react and induce the oxidation of cellular biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids, DNA, or carbohydrates, which alters cellular homeostasis. Regarding lipids, the oxidation of these molecules induces lipid hydroperoxides which, if not decreased, particularly by GPX4, produce highly reactive aldehydes such as 4HNE and MDA. These oxidative conditions induce ferroptosis, a type of cell death associated with oxidation that differs from other types of cell death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, or autophagy. The induction of ferroptosis is desired in some diseases, such as cancer, but in others, such as cardiovascular diseases, this type of cell death is not wanted. The possible effects of quercetin associated with reducing or inducing ferroptosis have not been reviewed. Thus, this review focuses on the ability of quercetin to produce ferroptosis in diseases such as cancer as a treatment option and, conversely, on its role in deactivating ferroptosis to alleviate diseases such as cardiovascular diseases.
Long COVID, also called post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by a multitude of lingering symptoms, including impaired cognition, that can last for many months. This symptom, often called "brain fog", affects the life quality of numerous individuals, increasing medical complications as well as healthcare expenditures. The etiopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced cognitive deficit is unclear, but the most likely cause is chronic inflammation maintained by a viral remnant thriving in select body reservoirs. These viral sanctuaries are likely comprised of fused, senescent cells, including microglia and astrocytes, that the pathogen can convert into neurotoxic phenotypes. Moreover, as the enteric nervous system contains neurons and glia, the virus likely lingers in the gastrointestinal tract as well, accounting for the intestinal symptoms of long COVID. Fusogens are proteins that can overcome the repulsive forces between cell membranes, allowing the virus to coalesce with host cells and enter the cytoplasm. In the intracellular compartment, the pathogen hijacks the actin cytoskeleton, fusing host cells with each other and engendering pathological syncytia. Cell-cell fusion enables the virus to infect the healthy neighboring cells. We surmise that syncytia formation drives cognitive impairment by facilitating the "seeding" of hyperphosphorylated Tau, documented in COVID-19. In our previous work, we hypothesized that the SARS-CoV-2 virus induces premature endothelial senescence, increasing the permeability of the intestinal and blood-brain barrier. This enables the migration of gastrointestinal tract microbes and/or their components into the host circulation, eventually reaching the brain where they may induce cognitive dysfunction. For example, translocated lipopolysaccharides or microbial DNA can induce Tau hyperphosphorylation, likely accounting for memory problems. In this perspective article, we examine the pathogenetic mechanisms and potential biomarkers of long COVID, including microbial cell-free DNA, interleukin 22, and phosphorylated Tau, as well as the beneficial effect of transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation.
Purpose: This case report describes a patient with a pelvic kidney associated with an aortoiliac aneurysm amenable to open repair. Methods: We chose the selective cold renal perfusion to preserve renal function. Results: Other techniques such as transient or permanent extra-anatomic bypass, extracorporeal circulation and proximal aortic double clamping are also described in this report. Conclusions: Choosing the renal perfusion technique depended on the anatomical evaluations of the kidney and the renal artery location during the preoperative period.
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Mexico City, Mexico