Instituto Nacional de Cardiología
Recent publications
To evaluate soluble CD147 levels in COVID-19 and identify whether these are associated with hyperinflammation and disease severity. One-hundred and nine COVID-19 patients and 72 healthy blood donors were studied. Levels of CD147, matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and inflammatory markers were measured on hospital arrival, while the need for mechanical ventilation and the occurrence of death during hospitalization were recorded. CD147 levels were higher in COVID-19 (1.6, 1.0-2.3 vs 1.3, 1.0-1.6 ng/ml; P = 0.003) than controls. MMP-2 (9.2, 4.5-12.9 vs 4.2, 3.7-4.6 ng/ml; P < 0.001), MMP-3 (1.1, 0.9-1.3 vs 0.9, 0.7-1.0 ng/ml; P < 0.001) and MMP-9 (0.9, 0.5-1.2 vs 0.4, 0.2-0.6 ng/ml; P < 0.001) were also higher in COVID-19, while MMP-1 (0.6, 0-1.4 vs 0.6, 0.3-0.7 ng/ml; P = 0.711) was not different. Significant correlations were found between CD147 and MMP-2 (ρ = 0.34), MMP-3 (ρ = 0.21), interleukin 6 (ρ = 0.21), and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (ρ = 0.26). Furthermore, CD147 levels were higher in patients who required mechanical ventilation (1.8, 1.4-2.4 vs 1.2, 0.8-1.9 ng/ml; P < 0.001) and in those who ultimately died (1.9, 1.4-2.7 vs 1.4, 0.9-1.9 ng/ml; P = 0.009). CD147 is elevated in COVID-19 and appears to contribute to hyperinflammation and disease severity.
A 63-year-old female with previous history of diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and secondary hyperparathyroidism with parathyroid hormone 154 pg/mL (ULN 56 pg/mL) levels. Present with a history of effort dyspnoea, oedema of the pelvic limbs and three episodes of syncope. An echocardiogram showed dilation of the cavities with segmental mobility alterations, the X-ray showing severe aortic and coronary calcification (Panel), a coronary angiography was performed in which demonstrated severe calcification with CTO of the left anterior descending artery, 99% ostial lesion in the circumflex (supplementary materials). The approach was completed with CT angiography, a ‘porcelain aorto-coronary complex’ stands out (Panel, and supplementary materials). Porcelain aorta is a relatively rare entity, but recently it has been increasingly recognized in patients aged greater than 60 years, particularly those with coronary artery disease, chronic renal disease, and calcific aortic stenosis. Incidence rate ranges from 1 to 20%. Two pathophysiological processes have been described in the pathogenesis of this condition; atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic: the first is characterized by calcification of tunica intima of the aortic wall due to atherosclerotic plaques development, and the second calcification occurs in the tunica media of the aortic wall in the absence of atherosclerosis. It is classified into two main types:
Euglenoids (Euglenida) are unicellular flagellates possessing exceptionally wide geographical and ecological distribution. Euglenoids combine a biotechnological potential with a unique position in the eukaryotic tree of life. In large part these microbes owe this success to diverse genetics including secondary endosymbiosis and likely additional sources of genes. Multiple euglenoid species have translational applications and show great promise in production of biofuels, nutraceuticals, bioremediation, cancer treatments and more exotically as robotics design simulators. An absence of reference genomes currently limits these applications, including development of efficient tools for identification of critical factors in regulation, growth or optimization of metabolic pathways. The Euglena International Network (EIN) seeks to provide a forum to overcome these challenges. EIN has agreed specific goals, mobilized scientists, established a clear roadmap (Grand Challenges), connected academic and industry stakeholders and is currently formulating policy and partnership principles to propel these efforts in a coordinated and efficient manner.
Enterococci exhibit clumping under the selective pressure of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of supernatants from a plasmid-free clone (C29) of Enterococcus faecalis subjected to 0.25×, 0.5×, and 0.75× of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin on the expression of an aggregation substance (AS) by a donor plasmid clone (1390R). A clumping assay was performed. The relative expression of prgB (gene that encodes AS) was determined and semiquantified in 1390R, and iad1 expression was determined and semiquantified in C29. AS expression was analyzed in the stimulated 1390R cells by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA. Adherence was also measured. Maximal clumping was observed with the pheromone medium 0.25×. Only the 1390R strain stimulated with the C29 supernatant without ampicillin and with 0.25× was able to express prgB. No expression of prgB was observed at 0.5× and 0.75×. The difference in relative expression (RE) of 1390R without ampicillin and with 0.25× was 0.5-fold. AS expression in 1390R showed the greatest increase upon stimulation with 0.25×. When 1390R was stimulated with 0.5× and 0.75×, AS expression was also observed but was significantly lower. Ampicillin stimulated C29 switch-off pheromone expression in recipient cells, which in turn switched off AS expression in donor cells. We observed that although prgB was switched off after 0.5× stimulation in C29, the supernatants induced expression in certain 1390R strains. In conclusion, ampicillin was able to modulate pheromone expression in free plasmid clones which, in turn, modulated AS expression in plasmid donor cells. The fact that PrgB gene expression was switched off after the ampicillin stimulus at 0.5× MIC, whereas AS proteins were present on the surface of the bacteria, suggested that a mechanism of rescue associated with mechanism pheromone sensing may be involved.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an established global public health problem that represents a key determinant for poor health outcomes. This chapter presents the available evidence of the distribution of CKD in disadvantaged populations across the globe, with a particular focus on the challenges and opportunities in the detection and treatment of CKD among such populations. Social determinants of health are mostly responsible for health inequities, the unfair and avoidable differences in health status seen within and between countries. Socioeconomic status usually encompasses education, occupation, and income as proxies for measurement of social and economic wellbeing. Apart from aging, there are two main determinants that predispose individuals to developing kidney disease and can be considered inherently biological: genetics and developmental programming. There are several challenges which need to be systematcally addressed in the context of CKD in disadvantaged populations.
Background Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the main cause of acquired thrombophilia where peripheral circulating cells such as monocytes have a key role. Currently, several studies have linked long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in different inflammatory and autoimmune processes, including lupus. However, the role of lncRNAs in antiphospholipid syndrome is unknown, therefore, we aimed to select and measure expression levels of three lncRNAs based on its abundance in monocytes from APS patients. Methods Selection of lncRNAs candidates were carried out based on its abundance in monocytes and their relationship with Perez-Sanchez miRNA signature by using miRNet 2.0 bioinformatic tool, then lncRNAs expression levels was measured in monocytes by RT-qPCR. ResultsThis is the first study to report that lncRNAs: FGD5-AS1, OIP5-AS1 and GAS5 are promising candidates for play a role on APS monocytes and they are expressed differently between patients and controls.ConclusionsOIP5-AS1, FGD5-AS1 and GAS5 are downregulated on monocytes from APS patients.
Background Three-vessel disease (3VD) is a cardiovascular disorder that affects the three main coronary arteries. Gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS) evaluates ventricular function, synchrony, and myocardial perfusion. However, the diagnostic performance of GMPS parameters to assess 3VD has not been fully explored.AimsTo assess the univariate performance capacity of GMPS parameters, and to evaluate whether phase parameters could provide additional predictive value for the detection of patients with 3VD compared to control subjects.Methods We designed paired retrospective samples of GMPS images of patients with 3VD (stenosis > 70% of left anterior descending, right coronary, and circumflex coronary arteries) and without 3VD. A GMPS in rest-stress protocol was performed using 99mTc-Sestamibi and thallium and analyzed with the 3D method. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC), decision curve analyses and diagnostic test performance were obtained for univariable analyses and stepwise binomial logistic regression for multivariable performance.Results474 Patients were included: 237 with 3VD (84% males, mean age 61.7 ± 9.9 years) and 237 with normal GMPS (51% women, mean age 63.8 ± 10.6 years). The highest AUROC for perfusion parameters were recorded for SSS, SRS and TID. For dyssynchrony parameters, both entropy and bandwidth in rest and stress phases displayed the highest AUROC and diagnostic capacity to detect 3VD. A multivariate model with SRS ≥ 4, SDS ≥ 2, TID > 1.19 and sBW ≥ 48° displayed the highest diagnostic capacity (0.923 [95% CI 0.897-0.923]) to detect 3VD.Conclusion Perfusion and dyssynchrony were the parameters which were most able to discriminate patients with 3VD from those who did not have CAD.
Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and resistin are associated with dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT)-related metabolic complications. The role of dietary eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids in this relationship is unknown. Aim: To investigate the association of EPA and DHA with PAI-1 and resistin, as well as the role of this association on the glucose metabolism of apparently healthy subjects. Methods: Thirty-six healthy individuals were included. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to analyse dietary habits. Inflammatory and glucose metabolism markers were quantified. Subcutaneous AT samples were obtained, and adipocyte number, area, and macrophage content were assessed. Results: In 36 subjects aged 56 ± 8 years and with a body mass index of 26 ± 4 kg/m2, logEPA, and logDHA showed significant association with logresistin and a marginal association with PAI-1. Adipocyte number, area, and lognumber of macrophages per adipocyte significantly correlated with PAI-1 but not with logresistin. Although logEPA and logDHA were independently associated with loginsulin, loginsulin resistance, and C-Peptide, the addition of logresistin, but not of PAI-1, into the multivariable modelabolished the associations. Conclusions: EPA and DHA could modulate glucose metabolism across AT functional states. Our data indicate that this association is independent of other metabolic risk factors.
Several biological processes related to cancer malignancy are regulated by 17-β estradiol (E2) in ER+- breast cancer. To establish the role of E2 on the atypical cancer energy metabolism, a systematic study analyzing transcription factors, proteins, and fluxes associated with energy metabolism was undertaken in multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) from human ER+ MCF-7 breast cancer cells. At E2 physiological concentrations (10 and 100 nM for 24 h), both ERα and Erβ receptors, and their protein target pS2, increased by 0.6-3.5 times vs. non-treated MCTS, revealing an activated E2/ER axis. E2 also increased by 30-470% the content of several transcription factors associated to mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) (p53, PGC1-α) and glycolytic pathways (HIF1-α, c-MYC). Several OxPhos and glycolytic proteins (36-257%) as well as pathway fluxes (48-156%) significantly increased being OxPhos the principal ATP cellular supplier (>75%). As result of energy metabolism stimulation by E2, cancer cell migration and invasion processes and related proteins (SNAIL, FN, MM-9) contents augmented by 24-189% vs. non-treated MCTS. Celecoxib at 10 nM blocked OxPhos (60%) as well as MCTS growth, cell migration and invasiveness (>40%); whereas the glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate (0.5 µM) and doxorubicin (70 nM) were innocuous. Our results show for the first time using a more physiological tridimensional cancer model, resembling the initial stages of solid tumors, that anti-mitochondrial therapy may be useful to deter hormone-dependent breast carcinomas.
Background Respiratory failure in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a severe inflammatory response. Acetylcholine (ACh) reduces systemic inflammation in experimental bacterial and viral infections. Pyridostigmine increases the half-life of endogenous ACh, potentially reducing systemic inflammation. We aimed to determine if pyridostigmine decreases a composite outcome of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death in adult patients with severe COVID-19. Methods We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3 randomized controlled trial of oral pyridostigmine (60 mg/day) or placebo as add-on therapy in adult patients admitted due to confirmed severe COVID-19 not requiring IMV at enrollment. The primary outcome was a composite of IMV or death by day 28. Secondary outcomes included reduction of inflammatory markers and circulating cytokines, and 90-day mortality. Adverse events (AEs) related to study treatment were documented and described. Results We recruited 188 participants (94 per group); 112 (59.6%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 52 (44–64) years. The study was terminated early due to a significant reduction in the primary outcome in the treatment arm and increased difficulty with recruitment. The primary outcome occurred in 22 (23.4%) participants in the placebo group vs. 11 (11.7%) in the pyridostigmine group (hazard ratio, 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.24–0.9; P = 0.03). This effect was driven by a reduction in mortality (19 vs. 8 deaths, respectively). Conclusion Our data indicate that adding pyridostigmine to standard care reduces mortality among patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19.
The clinical phenotype of LMNA-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) varies even among individuals who share the same mutation. LMNA encodes lamin AC, which interacts with the lamin-associated protein 2 alpha (LAP2α) encoded by the TMPO gene. The LAP2α/Arg690Cys polymorphism is frequent in Latin America and was previously found to disrupt LAP2α-Lamin AC interactions in vitro. We identified a DCM patient heterozygous for both a lamin AC truncating mutation (Ser431*) and the LAP2α/Arg690Cys polymorphism. We performed protein modeling and docking experiments, and used confocal microscopy to compare leukocyte nuclear morphology among family members with different genotype combinations (wild type, LAP2α Arg690Cys heterozygous, lamin AC/Ser431* heterozygous, and LAP2α Arg690Cys/lamin AC Ser431* double heterozygous). Protein modeling predicted that 690Cys destabilizes the LAP2α homodimer and impairs lamin AC-LAP2α docking. Lamin AC-deficient nuclei (Ser431* heterozygous) showed characteristic blebs and invaginations, significantly decreased nuclear area, and increased elongation, while LAP2α/Arg690Cys heterozygous nuclei showed a lower perimeter and higher circularity than wild-type nuclei. LAP2α Arg690Cys apparently attenuated the effect of LMNA Ser431* on the nuclear area and fully compensated for its effect on nuclear circularity. Altogether, the data suggest that LAP2α/Arg690Cys may be one of the many factors contributing to phenotype variation of LMNA-associated DCM.
Background Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) provide a safe, effective alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment, as shown via intention-to-treat comparative effectiveness analysis. However, on-treatment analysis is imperative in observational studies because anticoagulation choice and duration are at investigators' discretion. Objectives The aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of DOACs and VKAs on 12-month outcomes in VTE patients using on-treatment analysis. Methods The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD - VTE (GARFIELD-VTE) is a world-wide, prospective, non-interventional study observing treatment of VTE in routine clinical practice. Results In total, 8,034 patients received VKAs (n = 3,043, 37.9%) or DOACs (n = 4,991, 62.1%). After adjustment for baseline characteristics and follow-up bleeding events, and accounting for possible time-varying confounding, all-cause mortality was significantly lower with DOACs than VKAs (hazard ratio: 0.58 [95% confidence interval 0.42–0.79]). Furthermore, patients receiving VKAs were more likely to die of VTE complications (4.9 vs. 2.2%) or bleeding (4.9 vs. 0.0%). There was no significant difference in rates of recurrent VTE (hazard ratio: 0.74 [0.55–1.01]), major bleeding (hazard ratio: 0.76 [0.47–1.24]), or overall bleeding (hazard ratio: 0.87 [0.72–1.05]) with DOACs or VKAs. Unadjusted analyses suggested that VKA patients with active cancer or renal insufficiency were more likely to die than patients treated with DOAC (52.51 [37.33–73.86] vs. 26.52 [19.37–36.29] and 9.97 [7.51–13.23] vs. 4.70 [3.25–6.81] per 100 person-years, respectively). Conclusion DOACs and VKAs had similar rates of recurrent VTE and major bleeding. However, DOACs were associated with reduced all-cause mortality and a lower likelihood of death from VTE or bleeding compared with VKAs.
Kounis syndrome is an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) caused by an anaphylactoid reaction secondary to noxa. It is caused by the overpro- duction and degradation of mast cells that play a role in the patho- physiology of significant coronary vasospasm that can produce myocardial ischemia and symptoms indistinguishable from a type 1 myocardial infarction (due to rupture or erosion of the atherosclerotic plaque) We present the case of a pediatric patient who presented with ACS after a loxosceles bite that remitted after the administration of anti-lox- osceles serum.
American trypanosomiasis is a worldwide health problem that requires attention due to ineffective treatment options. We evaluated n-butyl and isobutyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives against trypomastigotes of the Trypanosoma cruzi strains NINOA and INC-5. An in silico analysis of the interactions of 1,4-di-N-oxide on the active site of trypanothione reductase (TR) and an enzyme inhibition study was carried out. The n-butyl series compound identified as T-150 had the best trypanocidal activity against T. cruzi trypomastigotes, with a 13% TR inhibition at 44 μM. The derivative T-147 behaved as a mixed inhibitor with Ki and Ki’ inhibition constants of 11.4 and 60.8 µM, respectively. This finding is comparable to the TR inhibitor mepacrine (Ki = 19 µM).
Background Cardiogenic shock (CS) commonly complicates the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with high mortality. Pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) monitoring can be valuable for personalizing critical care interventions. We hypothesized that patients with AMI-CS experiencing persistent congestion measure in the first 24 h of the PAC installment would exhibit worse in-hospital survival. Methods and Results 295 patients with AMI-CS, from January 2006-December 2021, first 24 h PAC-derived hemodynamic measures were divided by the congestion profiling and proposed 2022 SCAI classification. Biventricular congestion was the most common profile and was associated with the highest patient mortality at all time points (mean 56.6%). A persistent congestive profile was associated with increased mortality (HR=1.85; p=0.002) compared with patients who achieved a decongestive profile. Patients with SCAI stages D/E had higher levels of right atrial pressure (RAP; 14–15 mmHg) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP; 18–20 mmHg) compared with stage C (RAP, 10–11 mmHg, mean difference 3–5 mmHg; p<0.001; PCWP 14–17 mmHg; mean difference 1.56–4 mmHg; p=0.011). In SCAI stages D/E, the pulmonary artery pulsatility index (0.8-1.19) was lower than in those with grade C (1.29–1.63, mean difference 0.21–0.73; p<0.001). Conclusions Continuous congestion profiling using the SCAI classification matched the grade of hemodynamic severity and the increased risk of in-hospital death. Early decongestion appears to be an important prognostic and therapeutic goal in patients with AMI-CS and warrants further study.
A 52-year-old man assisted with peripheral venoarterial ECMO developed left ventricular distension, this situation was resolved with the placement of a pigtail catheter in the left ventricle accessed through the left radial artery, guided by transesophageal echocardiography, achieving successful unloading of the ventricle. This new procedure achieves an adequate unload of the left ventricle and can be performed at the patient’s bedside. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) has expanded beyond refractory cardiogenic shock. A 52-year-old patient with electrical storm was assisted with peripheral VA ECMO. He developed left ventricular distension that resolved with the percutaneous placement of a pigtail catheter in the left ventricle accessed through the left radial artery, guided by transesophageal echocardiography. This article presents a previously undescribed technique that achieved successful unload of the left ventricle and can be performed at the patient’s bedside.
Chromium Cr(VI) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant for any organism, its presence in the environment is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. The use of biotechnology has been implemented for the treatment of effluents contaminated with Cr(VI).Our working group has isolated several fungi and bacteria capable of removing Cr(VI) from the culture medium. Aspergillus niger var tubingensis Ed8 is a strain that can produce metabolites which reduce Cr (VI) to Cr (III). The objective of this work was to determine the effect of sodium salicylate on the growth of this strain and on the Cr(VI) reduction system, as well as to identify the metabolites that are produced from sodium salicylate. Our results show that the Culture medium containing sodium salicylate (20 mM) inhibits strain growth compared to the control condition (0 mM). However, it increases the specific reduction capacity of Cr (VI) red/mg Biomass in order of magnitude. Analysis of the culture medium corresponding to 48 h of incubation shows the presence of catechol and salicylate diminution. In addition, as a product of the enzymatic activity of a cell-free cellular extract, after 24 h of incubation, the consumption of salicylate is detected, as well as the presence of peaks corresponding to resorcinol and catechol. Our results show that it is possible to increase the Cr(VI) reducing capacity of the Ed8 strain, depending on the composition of the culture medium.
Gaucher type 3C disease with porcelain aorta can cause severe hemodynamic impairment. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a 13-year-old Mexican girl with a GBA1 homozygous c.1342G>C [p.Asp448His] (commonly known as p.D409H) pathogenic variant who underwent extensive aortic replacement. She has been on enzyme replacement therapy and is alive 5 years after surgery. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.)
Background The gut has been hypothesized to be a protagonist tissue in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) for the past three decades. Gastric reactance (XL) is a potential perfusion marker derived from gastric impedance spectroscopy (GIS), which is an emerging tool through which living tissue can be continuously measured to determine its pathophysiological evolution. This study aimed to compare the performance of XL [positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), and area under the curve (AUC)] against commonly used perfusion markers before and during hypovolemic shock in swine subjects. Methods Prospective, controlled animal trial with two groups, control group (CG) N = 5 and shock (MAP ≤ 48 mmHg) group (SG) N = 16. Comparison time points were defined as T-2 (2 h before shock), T-1 (1 h before shock), T0 (shock), T1 (1 h after shock), and T2 (2 h after shock). Shock severity was assessed through blood gases, systemic and hemodynamic variables, and via histological examination for assessing inflammation-edema and detachment in the gastric mucosa. Macroscopic assessment of the gastric mucosa was defined in five levels (0—normal mucosa, 1—stippling or epithelial hemorrhage, 2—pale mucosa, 3—violet mucosa, and 4—marmoreal mucosa). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of perfusion markers and XL were calculated to identify optimal cutoff values and their individual ability to predict hypovolemic shock. Results Comparison among the CG and the SG showed statistically significant differences in XL measurements at T-1, T0, T1, and T2, while lactate showed statistically significant differences until T1 and T2. Statistically significant differences were detected in mucosa class ( p < 0.001) and in inflammation-edema in the gastric body and the fundus ( p = 0.021 and p = 0.043). The performance of the minimum XL value per subject per event (XL_Min) was better (0.81 ≤ AUC ≤ 0.96, 0.93 ≤ PPV ≤ 1.00, 0.45 ≤ NPV ≤ 0.83) than maximum lactate value (Lac_Max) per subject per event (0.29 ≤ AUC ≤ 0.82, 0.82 ≤ PPV ≤ 0.91, 0.24 ≤ NPV ≤ 0.82). Cutoff values for XL_Min show progressive increases at each time point, while cutoff values for Lac_Max increase only at T2. Conclusions XL proved to be an indirect and consistent marker of inadequate gastric mucosal perfusion, which shows significant and detectable changes before commonly used markers of global perfusion under the hypovolemic shock conditions outlined in this work.
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Mexico City, Mexico