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ABSTRACT: Endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and chicory (C. intybus L.) both have 2n = 18, but until now, there has been no detailed karyomorphological characterization. The present work evaluated five accessions of each species using FISH with rDNA probes and fluorochrome staining with CMA and DAPI. Both species presented distinct banding patterns after fluorochrome staining: while endive had proximal CMA(++)/DAPI(-) bands in the short arms of pairs 1, 2 and 3, chicory had proximal CMA-positive bands in chromosomes 1 and 3 and interstitial in the short arm of chromosome 8. Among endive accessions, FISH procedures revealed conserved position and number of 5S and 45S rDNA sites (two and three pairs, respectively), associated with the CMA-positive bands. Notwithstanding, polymorphisms were detected within chicory accessions regarding the number and the distribution of rDNA sites in relation to the most frequent karyotype (two pairs with 45S and one with 5S rDNA). The karyological markers developed allowed karyotypic differentiation between both species, uncovering peculiarities in the number and position of rDNA sites, which suggest chromosome rearrangements, such as translocations in chicory cultivars. The interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms observed emphasize the potential of karyomorphological evaluations, helping our understanding of the relationships and evolution of the group.
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ABSTRACT: Line shape effects of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the gold-water interface have been exploited, towards extending instrumental performance in the angular interrogation mode. Comprising a micro-fluidic set-up both, SPR-line broadening and associated signal symmetry/asymmetry features have been monitored in real time for selected adsorption systems and are compared with the simultaneously taken resonance angle that represents the commonly recorded SPR feature. Four angular broadening contributions have been identified: an intrinsic, temperature independent fraction, a temperature dependent part that dominates at ambient temperature, a surface morphology/roughness contribution and an adsorption related fraction. The latter, and substantially smaller contribution, is crucially affected by surface conditions, as the transition from hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface state. Anionic sub-monolayer adsorption has been clearly resolved, along with detection of a pronounced calorimetric effect that originates from an exothermic surface reaction upon exposure of the protein covered gold surface to a strong chemical oxidant. KeywordsLine broadening-Signal symmetry/asymmetry-Surface plasmon resonance
Article: The angiogenic process and cancer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the growth of new capillaries from pre-existing vessels, is closely related to processes essential for the organism, which are entirely physiological, for example embryogenesis, reproductive cycle, and wound healing, and is also associated with pathological conditions such as tumor progression, metastasis, diabetic retinopathy, hemangioma, arthritis, psoriasis and atherosclerosis, among other chronic diseases. The development of specific anti-angiogenic agents arises as an attractive therapeutic approach to treat cancer and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Many of these agents are being evaluated in clinical trials and have shown promising antitumor activity. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of key knowledge accumulated on angiogenesis and its role in cancer, including the components of signal transduction pathways that have been explored in this process. Additionally, this review focuses on the current approaches for the discovery of new compounds that inhibit angiogenesis, emphasizing on the clinical developmental status of antiangiogenic drugs.
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