Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute
Recent publications
This paper presents the results of analyses that were focused on pollutant emissions from road vehicles classified into the generalised categories with respect to vehicle use. The analyses were performed using the authorised results of Poland's pollutant emission inventory, carried out in 1990–2020 by the National Centre for Emissions Management (KOBiZE) at the Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute (IOŚ-PIB) in order to meet requirements for the national emissions reporting under EU legislation and the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. The following road vehicle categories were analysed: passenger cars, light duty vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, buses (urban buses and coaches) and L category (motorcycles, mopeds, quads, microcars). The emissions of selected pollutants that are harmful to the health of living beings were studied, i.e. nitrogen oxides, non-methane volatile organic compounds, sulfur compounds, particulate matter size fractions, carbon monoxide and lead compounds. The shares of national annual pollutant emissions from each studied vehicle category of the total pollutant emissions from road transport were determined. With the aim to assess trends in improving environmental properties of road vehicles, there were determined changes of the energy emission factors for individual pollutants in all the vehicle categories under the study. The results obtained showed dynamic decreases in the energy emission factors for nitrogen oxides, non-methane volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide. In the case of particulate matter emission, the improvement was not as pronounced. The evident reduction in the emissions of sulfur and lead compounds in the 21st century was confirmed to be a consequence of practical elimination of these compounds from road vehicle fuels.
Life cycle analysis allows for the assessment of the qualitative and quantitative relationship between selected areas of human activity and the consequences for the environment. One of the important areas is the production of electricity and heat, for which the main raw material in Poland is hard coal. An alternative may be to use biogas as a fuel for energy purposes. This article presents the assessment of environmental hazards caused by the production of energy from biogas. The analysis took into account the change of the substrate from maize silage, commonly used in Polish biogas plants, to waste from the domestic agri-food industry. The evaluation covered the acquisition of substrates, their transport to a biogas plant, generation of electricity from biogas, and management of the generated by-products. The analysis was done in terms of both the impact and sensitivity categories. It was found that the emission of pollutants related to the acquisition of the substrate plays a key role and the use of waste for the production of biogas used for energy production brings environmental benefits. The analysis has shown that replacing coal with biogas, regardless of the raw materials used in its production, results in a positive environmental effect, especially in the areas of human health and resources categories. The positive environmental effect of the production of electricity from biogas can be enhanced by switching raw materials from purpose-grown crops to waste from the agri-food industry and agriculture. An important factor influencing the environmental impact is the degree of heat utilization (the greater the percentage of heat utilization, the greater the environmental benefits) and management of all by-products.
The idea of agricultural sustainable in the EU is based on, both minimizing interference with the soil system as well as diversifying crop rotation what relates to the limited cultivation system (changed from plow to no-plowing tillage) as well as organic fertilization is often abandoned. Taking above into account, our goal was determined of the structure, composition, and metabolic profiles of soil microbiomes in various cultivation methods (under multiannual plow and no-plow cultivation) using metagenomic analysis. Having regard to the recommendations contained in EU report (European Commission et al., 2020) of the Mission board for Soil health and food, 2020 indicating the lack of microbiological indicators of “healthy soil”. So, we have tried to select of microbiological indicators showing sensitivity and resistance to use the methods of soil cultivation. The research object was located on almost 100-year field experiments at the Experimental Station of the Faculty of Agriculture and Biology in Skierniewice/near Warsaw on, luvisoils dominated in the temperate climate of Central Europe. Soil microorganisms respond with changes in their abundance and taxonomic composition depending on the methods of soil cultivation. Actinobacteria were the most abundant, while Planctomycetes were the least abundant in the metagenome of soil fertilized with manure, whereas the uncultivated soil was dominated by Nitrospirae. We can recommend the following taxa, including Gemmatimonas sp. as a microbiological indicator sensitive to the long-term lack of both plow cultivation of soil and organic fertilization, and Mycobacterium sp. as a resistancivity indicator to this soil cultivation method. Sorangium sp. could be recommended as microbiological indicators which responds by reducing the quantity under effect of the organically fertilized soil, while the plow and no-plow cultivation does not affect changes in its quantity. The use of various cultivation methods changed the biochemical functions in soil metagenoms, including nitrogen and sulfur metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, and in the production of plant hormones and siderophores. Additionally, soil cultivation ways changed the response of microorganism’s stresses, including oxidative stress. The conducted research indicates the necessity to conduct further research on the influence of various cultivation methods, on the diversity of the microorganism community and soil metabolism. The result of which may be the selection of appropriate microbiological indicators for determining “soil health” depending on the type of soil under cultivation located in different climatic zones, not only presented in the paper.
The COVID-19 pandemic, which modified levels of visitor attendance to urban forests and green spaces, provided a unique opportunity to measure the effects of human presence on wild animals and their activity. The aim of our study was to describe how the daily activity pattern of roe deer (i.e. proportion of day- and night-time observations) changed in response to visitor frequency in urban forests of Warsaw in four periods of 2020 (the year the COVID-19 pandemic was announced) compared to the same periods in 2019 (control year). In total, 662 observations of roe deer were recorded by camera traps in both years. The frequency of roe deer observations in urban forests of Warsaw in day- and night-time did not differ between March 2019 and 2020 (period before lockdown, no changes in the number of visitors). Next, between 1 and 20 April 2020 (national lockdown; urban forests were closed for public) the activity of roe deer increased during the day-time. Between 21 April and 30 June in both 2019 and 2020 the frequency of roe deer observations in day and night-time did not differ (green areas were reopened, remote learning). Finally, in July–August 2020 (summer holidays, tourist traffic in forests elevated all day round) the activity of roe deer visibly increased during the night-time. Our research shows how their activity rapidly shifted toward day-time when forests were closed for visitors, and toward night-time when the number of visitors was higher in urban forests after the lockdown. To summarize, roe deer in urban forests showed high ecological plasticity to human presence and rapidly adjusted to changes in the number of visitors in urban forest during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A multitude of spatial relations between the lake and its catchment prompts both water managers and scientists to use Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The paper presents the possibility of using GIS systems in the monitoring and management of Polish lakes, taking advantage of the dynamic development of geoinformatics. The focus is on the possibility of using GIS systems when creating documents necessary for the implementation of subsequent water management plans, as required by the Water Framework Directive. This review presents the currently existing spatial databases of Polish lakes and discusses the impact of the use of morphometric data of lakes on the process of water monitoring. Attention was paid to the problem of delimiting the catchment areas of lakes and the legal consequences of determining their boundaries. Tools used in the interpolation of limnological parameters and the models most often used in GIS software for water quality prediction are discussed.
Excessive plastic use has inevitably led to its consumption by organisms, including humans. It is estimated that humans consume 20 kg of plastic during their lifetime. The presence of microplastics in the human body can carry serious health risks, such as biological reactions e.g. inflammation, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, as well toxic compounds leaching of unbound chemicals/monomers, free radicals or adsorbed organic pollutants, which mainly depend on the properties of the ingested plastic. Plastics are exposed to different substances (e.g., enzymes and acids) in the digestive system, which potentially affects their properties and structure. By stimulating the human digestive system and applying a set of advanced analytical tools, we showed that the surface of polystyrene and high-density polyethylene plastics frequently in contact with food undergoes fundamental changes during digestion. This results in the appearance of additional functional groups, and consequent increase in the plastic adsorption capacity for hydrophobic ionic compounds (such as triclosan and diclofenac) while reducing its adsorption capacity for hydrophobic non-ionic compounds (such as phenanthrene). Micro- and nanostructures that formed on the flat surface of the plastics after digestion were identified using scanning electron microscopy. These structures became defragmented and detached due to mechanical action, increasing micro- and nanoplastics in the environment. Due to their size, the release of plastic nanostructures after digestion can become an "accidental food source" for a wider group of aquatic organisms and ultimately for humans as the last link in the food chain. This, combined with improved adsorption capacity of digested plastics to hydrophobic ionic pollutants, can pose a serious threat to the environment including human health and safety.
Zooplankton community data from 45 dimictic lakes, representing homogenous abiotic conditions, were used to distinguish indicator taxa of near-pristine, reference lakes with low anthropopression. Reference conditions were selected based on natural land use in the catchment, lack of or low human activity, and the absence of point sources of pollution, as well as good water quality. According to these criteria, six lakes were designated references and all represent mesotrophic conditions. Reference lakes had a low abundance of Cyclopoida and Rotifera, and significantly lower biomass compared to non-reference lakes. We have found that species characteristic of the reference lake were: Bosmina (Eubosmina) coregoni, Ascomorpha ecaudis, Collotheca pelagica, and Gastropus stylifer. The species responsible for differences among reference and non-reference lakes were Keratella tecta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Ascomorpha saltans, which are considered typical for eutrophic waters.
Food loss is a serious global problem, particularly in developed countries; in the European Union, approximately 20% of the food produced each year is wasted. Food losses occur in the entire agri-food chain, starting from primary production, through post-harvest operations and storage, processing, distribution and consumption. The paper presents the results of studies on the evaluation of food losses at the stage of primary production (agricultural production) of consumer cereals in Poland in the context of their impact on the environment and ensuring food security. It was shown that the amount of food losses in the first link of the agri-food chain in the cereal sector in 2017–2018 was on average 219.6 thousand tonnes per year. The level of losses per farm averaged 0.91 tonnes, which accounted for 1.7% of total production. The weight of consumer grain waste at the primary production stage, calculated on the basis of the results of food losses and taking into account the grain management methods, amounted to an average of 117.24 thousand tonnes/year, which accounted for 23.08% of all food waste generated at the primary production stage. By relating the amount of food losses in the primary production of consumer cereals in Poland to the assumed emission factor, it was calculated that food losses at the stage of production of consumer cereals during a year are responsible for the emission of 0.608 million tonnes of CO2.
Agronomy has significant impacts on climate stability due to the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases and C sequestration in soil and plants and can influence on reducing the negative impact of agronomy on climate does not need to result in a reduction in yield. Nevertheless, satisfying both goals require the implementation of new methods. The present assessment was based on over 190 scientific publications. Forecasts from the beginning of the 21st century showed that the increase in temperature and CO2 concentration would improve the productivity of crops by extending the growing season and allow for the cultivation of new species. However, this beneficial effect may be limited by the increasing intensity of the extreme weather phenomena such as: rainstorm, droughts, early frosts, storms etc. Here, we review more recent studies which indicate, however, that this beneficial effect of climate change will not be permanent and, consequently, will significantly reduce crop yields. Climate change is forcing the agronomy sector to implement adaptive methods for minimizing possible crop losses consisting, inter alia, (i) using crop species/varieties that are less sensitive; (ii) optimizing water management; (III) improving pest, disease and weed control efficiency. The pressure on the agriculture sector to increase food production due to the increase in the human population and the present hunger in specific regions run counter to the need to reduce the adverse climate impacts of agriculture. The current state of knowledge indicates that despite the implementation of new technologies, agricultural measures will not be able to significantly reduce climate change. Indeed, these approaches will not replace the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in other sectors. However, without the participation of agronomy in reducing GHG emissions by increasing carbon sequestration, the goals of the 2015 UN Climate Change Conference in Paris will not be achieved.
The aim of the present paper is to show the results of the studies of food losses, as conducted in Poland in 2019, and to estimate the amount of the food waste at the level of the primary (agricultural) production in Poland during the period of 2017-2018. Also, the differences between the food losses and food waste, based upon the current definitions and legal regulations obligatory in Poland and in the European Union, were indicated. The studies of the food losses in the primary production were carried out at the territory of the whole Poland on the representative sample of 1,378 respondents from six sectors of economy, with the utilization of survey-questionnaire, by PAPI (Paper& Pen Personal Interview) method. The mass of the food waste was estimated on the grounds of the results of food losses and wastage, with the consideration of the methods of management, excluding destination for the consumption purposes or for animal feeds. From the conducted studies it is followed that the directions of management of the food losses in the primary (agricultural) production are different and are greatly dependent on the sector, i.e. type of the managed raw material, the causes of the resulting losses and the stage of production where the mentioned losses are generated. The food losses in the agricultural production constitute 15% of total food losses in Poland, i.e. 749.48 thousand tonnes annually whereas the food waste are estimated at the level of 507.94 thousand tonnes per year. The appropriate management of the losses in accordance with the hierarchy of proceeding with the waste reduces the quantity of the waste, decreasing, in effect, a negative impact on the environment.
Nutrient targets based on pressure-response models are essential for defining ambitions and managing eutrophication. However, the scale of biogeographical variation in these pressure-response relationships is poorly understood, which may hinder eutrophication management in regions where lake ecology is less intensively studied. In this study, we derive ecology-based nutrient targets for five major ecoregions of Europe: Northern, Central-Baltic, Alpine, Mediterranean and Eastern Continental. As a first step, we developed regressions between nutrient concentrations and ecological quality ratios (EQR) based on phytoplankton and macrophyte communities. Significant relationships were established for 13 major lake types; in most cases, these relationships were stronger for phosphorus than for nitrogen, and stronger for phytoplankton than for macrophytes. Using these regressions, we estimated the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations at which lakes of different types are likely to achieve good ecological status. However, in the very shallow lakes of the Eastern Continental region, relations between nutrient and biological communities were weak or non-significant. This can be attributed to high nutrient concentrations (in the asymptotic zone of phosphorus-phytoplankton models) suggesting other factors (light, grazing) limit primary production. However, we also show that fish stocking is a major pressure on Eastern Continental lakes, negatively affecting ecological status: lakes with low fish stocking show low chlorophyll-a concentrations and good ecological status despite high nutrient levels, while the lakes with high fish stocking show high chlorophyll-a and low ecological status. This study highlights the need to better understand lakes in biogeographic regions that have been, for historical reasons, less studied. This, in turn, helps reveal factors that challenge the dominant paradigms of lake assessment and management.
This study explores the possibility of estimation of the sensible surface heat flux using satellite-derived surface temperature and road pavement temperature together with in-situ wind and air temperature measurements by the profile method. A 10-year series of data from the roadside weather observation network was used. This dataset contained wind (measured at 5.8–9.5 m above ground) and air temperature (measured at 2.6–4.8 m) together with road surface temperature. Another dataset consisted of 254 simultaneous MODIS observations. A high correlation (0.94) of the surface temperature measured by both methods was noted despite coarse pixel size. We considered satellite-derived surface temperature to determine the sensible heat flux by the profile method; these results were compared to the values obtained using road temperature measured by pavement-mounted sensors. While the overall correlation is relatively strong (0.70) and considerable systematic differences exist, the values of heat flux calculated at different locations show a high spatial coherence - either when using the in situ pavement temperature (correlation ranging from 0.84 to 0.94 for daytime and 0.63–0.84 for nighttime) or the satellite-derived temperature (correlation coefficient 0.72). In most cases, differences between the two flux estimates can be linked to local factors such as the land use structure.
The paper compares the emissions from vehicles including ICEVs (internal combustion engine vehicles) with equivalent emissions from BEVs (battery electric vehicles). Additionally, it analyzes the available source research and the specific energy mix for Poland based on carbon. Mathematical calculations estimate air pollutant emissions. To carry out the analysis and calculations, data were provided by the manufacturers of electricity consumption in the case of vehicles equipped with electric motors and the COPERT model for internal combustion engines. Air pollutants are considered: CO2, NOx, SOx, CO, and Total Suspended Particles (TSP). In addition to exhaust emissions, all solids emissions from road abrasion and tire and brake wear are also considered. The emission of pollutants is estimated based on the emission factors using the average mileage in Polish conditions. The paper compares emissions for three scenarios considering electric vehicles, combustion engine cars, and hybrid cars. Analyses show that introducing cars with electric engines into traffic at the expense of withdrawing vehicles with internal combustion engines is not favorable in Polish conditions. The analysis indicates that CO, CO2, and TSP emissions have decreased, while NOx and SOx emissions have increased.
Microplastics (MPs) are contaminants of emerging concern that attracted the attention of researchers over the last decade. They can occur in saliva and stool, and on scalp hair together with skin. Further, MPs can end up in the human diet through seafood, honey, salt, and mineral water. They can be taken up into the plants' roots and lead to the occurrence of MPs in fruits and vegetables. Concentration of the airborne MPs was also reported in the environment. These pieces of evidence clarify that introduction of MPs to the human body through ingestion and inhalation routes should not be overlooked. Following oral exposure to MPs, hazardous chemicals can be released in the gastrointestinal tract leading to toxicity. Inhalation route deserves more attention due to the oxidative potential of the inhaled plastic particles. Although the major characteristics of MPs are being investigated, there are currently few regulations to control concentration of MPs in the environment and their human health impacts remained unclear indicating the need for further investigation. For instance, it is not clear if the present air quality limits for PM2.5 and PM10 can be used for the areas with high suspended plastic particles. Without comprehensive knowledge about the retention and egestion rates of field populations, it is difficult to deduce the ecological and human health consequences. In general, more information about MP contamination in various species and the consequences of MP uptake and retention is required to gain a better idea of MPs in the food web and their environmental fate. The finer details on the MP translocation between tissues and the fate of the small plastic particles might be obtained when considering the existing information about the application of MPs in the pharmaceutical industry. In this review article, we presented a short bibliometric analysis and investigated the link between physicochemical properties of MPs and human health.
The paper presents unique research results on the effect of coking of diesel engine injector nozzles powered by mixtures of 10%, 20% and 30% biomethanol and diesel fuel compared to the engine being supplied with pure diesel fuel. The test results, obtained from an experiment conducted in accordance with the ISO 15550-1 standard, show the legitimacy of using biomethanol as an additive to diesel fuel due to the lower coking effect of the injector nozzles, which has a positive impact on the reduction of pollutant emissions during engine operation. Regarding the CEC PF-023 test, the tendency to reduce the coking tendency increases the percentage of biomethanol additive to diesel fuel. With a 10% share of biomethnol, the average coking effect of the injectors is over 1% lower, but with a share of 30% of bio-methanol, the coking effect is nearly 2% lower.
The prepared article by the team of authors aims to show research in the field of strengthening and developing knowledge and awareness from environmental education in the community of nature conservation services and the academic community. This paper is the result of research conducted in 2014–2015, in the Włoszczowa-Jędrzejów Protected Landscape Area, in the Świętokrzyskie Province. The material for the study was acacia robinia ( Robinia pseudoacacia L.) leaves collected on two research areas, differentiated due to the influence of anthropogenic factors. As a result of the study, 5,000 black locust leaves were collected, 65% of which were found to be damaged. Research stands under the influence of strong anthropopressure were characterised by a higher number of lesions on leaves.
Landfills remain widely used for waste disposal, despite their negative impact on human health and environment. Adverse impact is mainly due to gas and leachate emissions. Leachates are liquids that are characterized by high variability in composition, high ammonia and chloride content, and presence of toxic and non-biodegradable compounds. In recent years there has been growing interest in issues related with the reactions of living organisms to pollution - biomonitoring. However, bioindicative methods are not fully used in landfill studies and are still rarely applied. The aim of this work is finding the relationship between the composition and leachate seepage points and determining the possibilities of their practical utilization for the assessment of the applied mineral sealing of landfill surfaces. Additionally, detailed analysis of leachate composition was made. The hypothesis is that some species indicating natural salinity will also indicate landfill sites with the occurrence of leachate seepage, which increase salinity. Physico-chemical analysis of the leachate were carried out. Moreover, vegetation assessment was conducted by phytocoenological relevés. The landfill has different habitats in places where leachate seepage is observed. The results indicate that the presence of leachates alters the plant species composition. The composition shows increasing representation of species tolerant to salinization and a decreasing share of glycophytes in leachate seepage points. Based on the relation of glycophytes to plant species tolerant to salinization, a work procedure and index of leachate vegetation were created, which provide a fast identification of leachate seepage points. The presented results confirm the diagnostic potential of plants for the assessment and location of leachate seepage points. The results may be applied in the reclamation works on landfills.
The use of motor vehicles varies considerably under distinct traffic conditions: in cities, outside cities as well as on motorways and expressways. The impact of road traffic on the natural environment has been studied for many years, including in terms of the nature of the operation of motor vehicles. This problem is particularly important in highly urbanized areas, where traffic congestion is the source of increased emissions of harmful compounds contained in exhaust gases. For this reason, many cities have traffic restrictions, especially for those cars that do not meet the most stringent emission standards. Environmental protection is the driving force behind the development of modern combustion engine supply systems, which allow for proper control of the combustion of petroleum-derived fuels. The exhaust gas cleaning systems in the form of catalytic converters or particulate matter filters are also playing a very important role. Considerable differences in internal combustion engine operating states, both static and dynamic, result in important differences in pollutant emissions. Likewise, the national annual pollutant emission is affected by the share of distances travelled by vehicles under various traffic conditions. At the same time, it is very difficult to estimate exhaust emissions from road transport sources. Very interesting method of emission estimation is the application of the data included in the emission inventory which are a valuable source of information on exhaust emissions under various operating conditions. In the present study, the annual pollutant emissions were analyzed: at a national level (total pollutant emission) and in distinct traffic conditions. There were found large differences between individual pollutants’ shares in the emissions from vehicles under the tested traffic conditions. This is particularly evident for nitrogen oxides with the highest emission share outside cities, as opposed to other substances with the highest emission shares in cities, where traffic congestion is taking place.
Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) may affect neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are not currently known. We aim to assess whether PM affects the developing brains of schoolchildren in Poland, a country characterized by high levels of PM pollution. Children aged from 10 to 13 years (n = 800) are recruited to participate in this case–control study. Cases (children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) are being recruited by field psychologists. Population-based controls are being sampled from schools. The study area comprises 18 towns in southern Poland characterized by wide-ranging levels of PM. Comprehensive psychological assessments are conducted to assess cognitive and social functioning. Participants undergo structural, diffusion-weighted, task, and resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PM concentrations are estimated using land use regression models, incorporating information from air monitoring networks, dispersion models, and characteristics of roads and other land cover types. The estimated concentrations will be assigned to the prenatal and postnatal residential and preschool/school addresses of the study participants. We will assess whether long-term exposure to PM affects brain function, structure, and connectivity in healthy children and in those diagnosed with ADHD. This study will provide novel, in-depth understanding of the neurodevelopmental effects of PM pollution.
Food losses and waste are associated with inefficient use of agricultural land, water and other resources and agricultural raw materials. Reducing the scale of food wastage is one of the most urgent challenges for food system operators, starting from agriculture to food consumption in the households. This is all the more urgent as food insecurity has deepened during the COVID-19 pandemic. There are few studies on how to reduce food losses in food processing sectors, as most researchers focus on the demand side of the market, especially within household consumption. To fill the knowledge gaps related to the inefficient production system in the baking and confectionery industry (BCI), research was conducted to estimate the scale of losses in BCI in Poland, determine their causes and assess the risk of their occurrence, identify retrieve points (RP) and ways of reducing and preventing losses. Two research methods were used. Quantitative data were collected using an Internet survey method on a sample of 48 bakeries. The qualitative data was provided by 5 individual in-depth interviews with experts from the surveyed industry. The results showed that the total scale of losses in Polish BCI reached 2.39% (in 2017) and 2.63% (in 2018) of the weight of manufactured products. The loss analysis was presented within respective sections of production: raw materials magazine (RMM), production section (PS), final product magazine (FPM), final product transport (FPT). The highest loss level was reported for PS—1.56% (2017), 1.85% (2018). Additionally, 12 loss risks and nine main cause categories were identified. Potential 6 retrieve points (RP) during the baking processes were indicated: making and handling intermediate products and dough; portioning and forming of dough, baking, customised packing, shipping (storage), transport by own fleet. The type of risk, the cause of losses, their consequences, and manners of preventing losses were specified for each RP. Being the first study of this kind in Poland, its results are key to build a road map for further researches focused on reduction of food losses, more sustainable management of resources in BCI. It might contribute to corporate social responsibility and value co-creation.
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55 members
Agnieszka Karolina Kolada
  • Department of Freshwater Protection
Agnieszka Pasztaleniec
  • Department of Freshwater Protection
Marta Kijeńska
  • Environmental Chemistry & Risk Assessment Department
Robert Jeszke
  • The National Centre for Emissions Management
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