The paper presents the effect of conventional (use of NPK mineral fertilizers and pesticides) and organic (no use of agrochemicals) farming systems on selected parameters of antioxidant properties of winter wheat, spring barley and oat grain. The research was carried out during the period 2017–2019 at the Czesławice Experimental Farm (central Lublin region, Poland) on loess soil (second quality class). The aim of the research was to evaluate the functional (antioxidant) properties of winter wheat, spring barley and oat grain in whole grain and its milling fractions (dehulled grain, flour and bran). The reduction potential (Fe+3 → Fe+2 ), the ability to eliminate the free DPPH• radical and the total antioxidant potential in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system were determined. Polyphenol content was also determined using Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. The organic system did not significantly increase the antioxidant properties of cereal grains compared to the conventional system. Under organic farming conditions, oat grain was characterised only by the most favourable antioxidant properties. A highly statistically significant correlation was found between total polyphenol content and DPPH• free radical quenching capacity, especially for oat and barley in the organic system. The closest correlations were for the fractions of bran and whole grain. Dehulling of grain, with the exception of oat grain, irrespective of the farming system, resulted in a significant deterioration of the antioxidant potential of grain extracts. In summary, the study showed that the bran obtained from oat grown under an organic system had the strongest antioxidant activity.
Santalum genus belongs to the family of Santalaceae, widespread in India, Australia, Hawaii, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia, and valued as traditional medicine, rituals and modern bioactivities. Sandalwood is reported to possess a plethora of bioactive compounds such as essential oil and its components (α-santalol and β-santalol), phenolic compounds and fatty acids. These bioactives play important role in contributing towards biological activities and health-promoting effects in humans. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown the role of sandalwood extract as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, neuroleptic, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and anticancer activities. Safety studies on sandalwood essential oil (EO) and its extracts have proven them as a safe ingredient to be utilized in health promotion. Phytoconstituents, bioactivities and traditional uses established sandalwood as one of the innovative materials for application in the pharma, food, and biomedical industry.
One of the macronutrients indispensable for plant growth and development is nitrogen (N). It is responsible for starch and storage protein (gliadins and glutenins) biosynthesis and, in consequence, influences kernels’ quality and yields. However, applying N-fertilizers increases gluten content in wheat, and it may intensify the risk of developing allergy symptoms in gluten-sensitive individuals. The purpose of our research was to analyse whether and how the elimination of N-fertilizers during the cultivation of wasko.gl− wheat (modified genotype lacking ω-gliadins) changes the secondary structures of gliadin proteins. To this aim, using the FT-Raman technique, we examined flour and gliadin protein extracts obtained from kernels of two winter wheat lines: wasko.gl+ (with a full set of gliadin proteins) and wasko.gl− (without ω-gliadin fraction) cultivated on two different N-fertilization levels—0 and 120 kg N·ha−1. On the basis of the obtained results, we proved that nitrogen fertilization does not have a major impact on the stability of the secondary structures of gliadin proteins for wasko.gl− wheat line with reduced allergenic properties. Furthermore, the results presented herein suggest the possibility of increasing the stability of glutenin structures as a result of the N-fertilization of wasko.gl− wheat line, which gives hope for its use in the production of wheat articles devoted to people suffering from diseases related to gluten sensitivity.
Soil moisture monitoring is crucial for a variety of activities involving soil water regime estimation. Different phenomena such as drought, exhibit impacts of a variable extent in the soil profile, requiring moisture content monitoring as well as reliable analyses of the soil properties. In the village of Solec, located in central Poland, monitoring of the moisture content was attempted for a sandy soil in order to estimate soil moisture distributions for two dry years (2015, 2016) and a wet one (2017). Simple and easily obtainable drought indices, such as dry spells, climatic water balance, groundwater table depth, soil water content and potential were estimated and related with spatiotemporal evolution of soil water conditions. Soil layers subject to drought were found to be different either from a moisture (15–45 cm) or soil water potential (10–25 cm), showing diverse physical properties and relations with the ground water table. The coherence of the analysed drought indices was proven for a light, sandy soil, which has national significance for the state, drought monitoring network. Knowledge obtained during previous studies, which omitted soil water conditions for this type of the soil was supplemented. Based on its own water content, the profile of the analysed soil (Stagnic Folic Gleysols–Arenic) exhibits a negative climatic water balance and requires irrigation practices to mitigate drought effects.
This paper analyses the impact of the diatomaceous earth/peat (DEP; 3:1) microbial carrier on changes in the bacterial microbiome and the development of biofilm in the anaerobic digestion (AD) of confectionery waste, combined with digested sewage sludge as inoculum. The physicochemical properties of the carrier material are presented, with particular focus on its morphological and dispersion characteristics, as well as adsorption and thermal properties. In this respect, the DEP system was found to be a suitable carrier for both mesophilic and thermophilic AD. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative changes in the genetic diversity of bacterial communities, carried out using next-generation sequencing (NGS), showed that the material has a modifying effect on the bacterial microbiome. While Actinobacteria was the most abundant cluster in the WF-control sample (WF—waste wafers), Firmicutes was the dominant cluster in the digested samples without the carrier (WF-dig.; dig.—digested) and with the carrier (WF + DEP). The same was true for the count of Proteobacteria, which decreased twofold during biodegradation in favor of Synergistetes. The Syntrophomonas cluster was identified as the most abundant genus in the two samples, particularly in WF + DEP. This information was supplemented by observations of morphological features of microorganisms carried out using fluorescence microscopy. The biodegradation process itself had a significant impact on changes in the microbiome of samples taken from anaerobic bioreactors, reducing its biodiversity. As demonstrated by the results of this innovative method, namely the BioFlux microfluidic flow system, the decrease in the number of taxa in the digested samples and the addition of DEP contributed to the microbial adhesion in the microfluidic system and the formation of a stable biofilm.
Sea buckthorn ( Elaeagnus rhamnoides ; syn. Hippophae rhamnoides ) is a thorny shrub or a small tree belonging to the Elaeagnaceae family, native to Eurasia. Sea buckthorn fruit is rich in vitamins and minerals, oils from the seeds and fruit flesh find use in medicine and the cosmetic industry or as nutraceutical supplements. Fruit, leaves and other parts of buckthorn have been used in traditional medicine, especially in China, Tibet, Mongolia, and Central Asia countries, and are a rich source of many bioactive substances. Due to its health-promoting and medicinal properties, the plant has been extensively investigated for several decades, and its phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties are well characterized. The years 2010–2021 brought significant progress in phytochemical research on sea buckthorn. Dozens of new compounds, mainly phenolics, were isolated from this plant. Numerous pharmacological studies were also performed, investigating diverse aspects of the biological activity of different extracts and natural products from sea buckthorn. This review focuses on the progress in research on sea buckthorn specialized metabolites made in this period. Pharmacological studies on sea buckthorn are also discussed. In addition, biosynthetic pathways of the main groups of these compounds have been shortly described. Graphical abstract
The microbial structure and metabolic function of plant-associated endophytes play a key role in the ecology of various environments, including trees. Here, the structure and functional profiles of the endophytic bacterial community, associated with Paulownia elongata × fortunei, in correlation with seasonality, were evaluated using Biolog EcoPlates. Biolog EcoPlates was used to analyse the functional diversity of the microbiome. The total communities of leaf endophyte communities were investigated using 16S rRNA V5-V7 region amplicon deep sequencing via Illumina MiSeq. Community level physiological profiling (CLPP) analysis by the Biolog EcoPlate™ assay revealed that the carboxylic acids (19.67-36.18%) and amino acids (23.95-35.66%) were preferred by all by all communities, whereas amines and amides (0.38-9.46%) were least used. Seasonal differences in substrate use were also found. Based on the sequencing data, mainly phyla Proteobacteria (18.4-97.1%) and Actinobacteria (2.29-78.7%) were identified. A core microbiome could be found in leaf-associated endophytic communities in trees growing in different locations. This work demonstrates the application of Biolog EcoPlates in studies of the functional diversity of microbial communities in a niche other than soil and shows how it can be applied to the functional analyses of endomicrobiomes. This research can contribute to the popularisation of Biolog EcoPlates for the functional analysis of the endomicrobiome. This study confirms that the analysis of the structure and function of the plant endophytic microbiome plays a key role in the health control and the development of management strategies on bioenergy tree plantations.
Grains from four naked oat varieties (Amant, Maczo, Polar and Siwek) and one covered oat variety (Kozak) grown with three different nitrogen fertilization regimes were malted in a laboratory setting using specifications typical for barley malt production (45% moisture content, temperature of germination equal to 15 °C, germination time equal to 120 h). The goal was to determine, whether malting process could be used to improve pro-health properties and aroma of the covered oat and naked oat grain. Malting increased concentration of phenolic compounds (from 44.92 to 64.39 mg GAE per 100 g of grain to 158.06–393.69 mg GAE per 100 g of malt) and increased the antioxidative potential of grains (analysed by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays) by 200–300%. Malting also had an effect on the changes in composition of volatile compounds: the HS-SPME-GC-MS detected 23 compounds in grain samples and 34 compounds were detected in malt samples. The total concentration of volatiles in malts was significantly higher (1659.70–39708.33 ng per 100 g) than in grain samples (882.45–2098.74 ng per 100 g). Malting mostly increased concentration of aldehydes, such as nonanal, decanal and undecanal and pyrazines, such as trimethyl- and tetramethylpyrazine in the acquired malts.
Defense-related metabolome traits in pine species after infestation by Sirex noctilio are largely unknown, despite, in most cases, trees being overwhelmed. Using LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics, we revealed the systemic metabolic changes induced by this insect in 14-year-old Pinus radiata trees, the most affected species worldwide. An immediate metabolome alteration was expressed in needles after infestation, including the up-regulation of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, oxyneolignans, auxins, proline, and tryptophan, among others. The flavan-3-ols (catechin and procyanidin B1) suggested a rapidly induced photoprotection mechanism aided by diverting proline as an alternative substrate for respiration to compensate for the progressive chlorosis that degrades photosystems. Meanwhile, glutathione, glutamate, and ascorbate levels significantly dropped in needles, which may indicate the critical oxidative stress that trees had to face since the onset of the infestation. They were not fully replenished after long-term infestation, and redox homeostasis was probably not achieved, compromising tree survival. Nevertheless, a huge auxins overexpression detected in needles throughout the infestation may reflect tolerance against the premature senescence caused by the woodwasp venom. In contrast, the metabolome of wood tissues remained initially unchanged, although it seems to collapse after three months. Overall, the metabolomics strategy adopted in this work evidenced its usefulness in uncovering the fundamental roles of plants’ chemical defense that govern interactions with specific stressors.
Agriculture has been historically one of the main sectors of the Ukrainian economy. Considered for centuries as a “bread basket of Europe”. In recent years Ukraine’s agriculture has been consistently improving and has been the only part of the country’s economy to buck the recession, but Ukraine is still a country with relatively large untapped agricultural potentials. The study concerns the production of the main crops in Ukraine in the years 1992-2020 witch a short-term prediction until 2027. The analysis covered the following variables: area harvested, share in arable land, yield and production. The analysis showed that plant production in Ukraine in 1992-2020 was characterized by a significant growth dynamics. This was especially true for yields of wheat and potato and cultivation area, yields and production of grain maize, rape, sunflower and soybean. On the other hand, the cultivation area and production of sugar beet, barley, buckwheat, rye and oats were decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of changes taking place in the discussed years allowed us to conclude that the importance of Ukraine in this respect will increase. However, the war in this country will reduce the production of the species in question.
The article presents predicted changes in soil water content in the Bystra river catchment (eastern Poland) for various scenarios of climate change and adaptation practices obtained on the basis of a SWAT model simulation for three regional climate models driven by the global climate model EC-EARTH for the years 2041–2050 and the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 RCP scenarios. Climate scenarios were put against five adaptation scenarios presenting changes in land use and protective measures compared against a zero scenario of BaU (Business as Usual) kept in the future climate. Adaptation scenarios 1–5 are modifications of Scenario 0 (S-0). The 0–5 scenarios’ analysis was based on comparing soil water content and total runoff, sediment yield, actual evapotranspiration. The first adaptation scenario (AS-1) assumes an increase in afforestation on soils from the agricultural suitability complex of soil 6–8 (semi-dry, permanent dry, semi-wet). The second adaptation scenario (AS-2) assumes the creation of a forested buffer for the Bystra River and its tributaries. The third adaptation scenario (AS-3) shows one of the erosion prevention practices, the so-called filter strips. The fourth adaptation scenario (AS-4) assumes the reduction in plowing on arable land. The fifth adaptation scenario (AS-5) involves increasing soil organic carbon to 2%. Simulations revealed that each of the adaptation scenarios 1, 2, 3, 5 does not generally contribute to increasing the water content in soil on BARL (spring crops), CANP (rape), WWHT (winter crops), CRDY (other crops) on arable lands (which together account for over 50% of the catchment area). However, they can contribute to the reduction in sediment yield, total runoff and changes in actual evapotranspiration. The adaptation scenario 4 (AS-4) shows a slight increase in the soil water content on Bystra catchment in the 2041–2050 perspective. Scenario 4 indicated a slight increase in total runoff and a decrease in sediment yield, which in combination with slightly higher water content reflects the protective role of plant residue mulch, lowering the evaporation from the bare soil surface during warm seasons. The no-till adaptation practice had the highest effect in positively affecting water balance at the catchment scale among the adaptation scenarios considered.
This work focuses on the achievements of Polish researchers in the field of vegetative reproduction of plants under in vitro conditions. For more than 50 years, micropropagation methods have been used in Poland whenever vegetative reproduction is necessary. Most perennial horticultural crops, such as fruit plants, the majority of ornamental geophytes, and some vegetables (e.g., rhubarb and horseradish), require clonal reproduction owing to their high heterozygosity, i.e., their offsprings when reproduced from seeds, do not repeat the parental characteristics. Various goals have been pursued in the development of regenerative and in vitro propagation systems for each of the aforementioned groups of plants, such as pathogen elimination, reproduction of healthy plants, rapid multiplication of newly obtained valuable breeding lines and cultivars, and breeding to obtain polyploids, haploids, and doubled haploids. Owing to the growing interest of researchers and plant producers in environmentally friendly technologies, one of the sections is devoted to the issue of biotization of micropropagated plants.
Fungal pathogens cause significant yield losses of many important crops worldwide. They are commonly controlled with fungicides which may have negative impact on human health and the environment. A more sustainable plant protection can be based on carbohydrate biopolymers because they are biodegradable and may act as antifungal compounds, effective elicitors or carriers of active ingredients. We reviewed recent applications of three common polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate and cellulose) to crop protection against pathogenic fungi. We distinguished treatments dedicated for seed sowing material, field applications and coating of harvested fruits and vegetables. All reviewed biopolymers were used in the three types of treatments, therefore they proved to be versatile resources for development of plant protection products. Antifungal activity of the obtained polymer formulations and coatings is often enhanced by addition of biocontrol microorganisms, preservatives, plant extracts and essential oils. Carbohydrate polymers can also be used for controlled release of pesticides. Rapid development of nanotechnology resulted in creating new promising methods of crop protection using nanoparticles, nano-/micro-carriers and electrospun nanofibers. To summarize this review we outline advantages and disadvantages of using carbohydrate biopolymers in plant protection.
Blood platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis, the process responsible for keeping blood flowing in the circulatory system. However, unnecessary platelet activation can lead to aggregation at the site of atherosclerotic plaque rapture and the formation of a thrombus, which promotes atherothrombotic diseases. Various dietary components, such as phenolic compounds, are known to demonstrate antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties, and it is possible that these could form an important element in the prophylaxis and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. Our present study examined the biological activity of isorhamnetin (1) and two isorhamnetin derivatives, (2): 3-O-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and (3): 3-O-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-(3″′-isovaleryl)-rhamnoside, isolated from the phenolic fraction of sea buckthorn fruit, against human washed blood platelets and human whole blood in vitro. The anti-platelet and anticoagulant potential was determined using (A) flow cytometry, (B) the thrombus-formation analysis system (T-TAS) and (C) colorimetry. The results of the T-TAS test indicate that the AUC10 (Area Under the Curve) of the tested phenolic compounds (compounds 1, 2 and 3; 50 µg/mL) was markedly reduced compared to the control values. Moreover, flavonol demonstrated anti-platelet potential, including anti-adhesive activity, with these effects being more intense in compound 2 than isorhamnetin. Different actions of flavonol on platelet activation may depend on their binding ability to various receptors on blood platelets. However, the mechanism of their anti-platelet potential requires further additional studies, including in vitro and in vivo experiments.
Terrestrial plants act as ecosystem engineers modifying the flow of energy and matter and creating new habitats for other organisms. This vital concept also encompasses plants' effects on landforms and soils, crucial components of forested landscapes worldwide. In the present study, we investigate how trees through their roots and symbiotic organisms influence soil-weathering processes. The aim of the study was to answer one of the big questions in Earth sciences: how do biological agents, including fungi, acting at the critical interface between the biosphere and the abiotic environment, shape soil and landscape evolution? Within the present study we ask what is the level of fungal activity within root systems of trees and how can it influence biological weathering. The area of interest is in the Poprad River gorge in the southern part of the Sącz Beskidy Mountains, the Outer Western Carpathians. We applied the following analyses: 1) determination of the structural diversity of fungi (ITS1) and 2) assessment of the metabolic profile of soils (Biolog FFPlates). The highest average number of classified genera were fungi which simultaneously carried out pathotrophic, saprotrophic and symbiotrophic functions. Boletales, Agaricales, Cantharellales and Archaeorhizomycetales were the most abundant orders, but in one sample we also found a particularly high proportion of the order Mortierellales. The order Boletales and its family Boletaceae were significantly enriched in rock crack samples, whereas the highest number of differentially abundant taxa was observed in reference samples. The most frequently utilised substrates by fungi were: glycyl-L-glutamic acids, L-ornithine, L-phenylalanine, L-proline, D-galacturonic acid, fumaric acids, D-saccharic acids, succinic acids and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Our study demonstrates that the fungal community in the root zone is geochemically active and the organic acids secreted by plant roots in oligotrophic conditions and nutrient limitations significantly affect soil weathering.
Paulownia is a fast-growing tree that produces a huge mass of leaves as waste that can be used as a feed source for ruminants. The previous study showed that phenolic compounds were the most active biological substances in Paulownia leaves, which affected the ruminal parameters and methane concentration. However, there are no scientific reports on the Paulownia leaves extract (PLE) containing phenolic compounds for their mode of action in the rumen. Phenolics constituted the main group of bioactive compounds in PLE (84.4 mg/g dry matter). PLE lowered the concentration of ammonia, modulated the VFA profile in the ruminal fluid, and decreased methane production. The PLE caused a significant reduction of in vitro dry matter degradability, reduced the number of methanogens and protozoa, and affected selected bacteria populations. PLE had a promising effect on the fatty acid profile in the ruminal fluid. Paulownia as a new dietary component or its extract as a feed additive may be used to mitigate ruminal methanogenesis, resulting in environmental protection and reducing ruminal biohydrogenation, improving milk and meat quality.
Different factors such as the genotype, environmental conditions, temperature stress, solar radiation and others can influence the phytochemical status of plants. The concentration of phenolic acids and alkylresorciols (ARs) as well as their chemical composition and biological activity have been determined in twelve winter wheat cultivars grown at eight European locations. This was the first winter wheat multi-location field trial of the European Consortium for Open Field Experimentation (ECOFE). Extracts from grain were analyzed using a UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS system (phenolic acids), UPLC-PDA-MS/MS (alkylresorcinols) and TLC-DPPH• test with ImageJ program (antiradical activity). The phenolic acid profile consisted of five hydroxybenzoic acid and four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, among which ferulic and sinapic acids were predominated. The ARs profile consisted of nine AR derivatives, among which 5-n-heneicosylresorcinol (C21:0) and 5-n-nonadecanylresorcinol (C19:0) were predominated. Our study showed significant differences in phenolic acids and AR content between wheat cultivars, as well as between locations. We observed a positive correlation between the biological activity of extracts and the total amount of phenolic acids and ARs. Two cultivars, Chambo and Julius (average of all sites) and samples from the Spanish site (average of all cultivars) showed the highest content and composition of nutritional substances.
The rhizosphere is the most active soil area for material transformation and energy flow of soil, root, and microorganism, which plays an important role in soil biochemical cycling. Although the rhizospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) were easily disturbed in the agroecosystem, the effects of rhizosphere on the dynamics of soil N and P cycling have not yet been systematically quantified globally. We summarized the magnitude, direction, and driving forces of rhizosphere effects on agroecosystem's N and P dynamics by 1063 observations and 15 variables from 122 literature. Rhizosphere effects increased available N (AN, 9%), available P (AP, 11%), and total P (TP, 5%), and decreased nitrate N (NO3–N, 18%) and ammonia N (NH4–N, 16%). The effect of rhizosphere on total N (TN) was not significant. These effects improved AN in tropical (12%) and subtropical (14%) regions. The effect of rhizosphere on TP was greater under subtropical conditions than in other climates. The most substantial effects of the rhizosphere on TP and AP were observed under humid conditions. Rhizosphere effects increased AN and AP in vegetables more than in other crop systems. Application of N > 300 kg ha⁻¹ had the most significant and positive rhizosphere effects on TN and AN. P application of 100–150 kg ha⁻¹ had the greatest rhizosphere effects on TP and AP. These effects also improved the microbial (biomass N and P) and enzymatic aspects (urease, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase) of soil P and N cycling. Structural equation modeling suggested that aridity indices, fertilizer application rate, soil pH, microbial biomass, and soil enzymes strongly influence the magnitude and direction of the rhizosphere's effect on the P and N cycles. Overall, these findings are critical for improving soil nutrient utilization efficiency and modeling nutrient cycling in the rhizosphere for agricultural systems.
This work aimed to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of semolina with 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of ground buckwheat hull (BH) on the chemical composition, antioxidant properties, color, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of wheat pasta. Pasta samples were prepared by dough lamination (tagliatelle shape) and dried at 55 °C until the moisture content was 11-12% (wet basis). Analyses of samples showed that the addition of BH caused an increase in fiber content in pasta from 4.31% (control pasta) to 14.15% (pasta with 20% of BH). Moreover, the brightness and yellowness of BH-enriched products were significantly decreased compared to the control sample, and the total color difference ranged from 23.84 (pasta with 1% of BH) to 32.56 (pasta with 15% BH). In addition, a decrease in optimal cooking time, as well as an increased weight index and cooking loss, was observed in BH-enriched pasta samples. Furthermore, BH-enriched cooked pasta had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity but an unpleasant smell and taste, especially if the level of BH was higher than 10%.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of soil amendments, characterized by different sorption properties, on the effectiveness of trace elements’ (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr) stabilization and bioavailability to earthworms. The study was conducted as a microcosm experiment using soil derived from a heavily contaminated post-industrial area. The Eisenia veneta earthworm was cultured for 4 weeks in soils amended with materials characterized by different properties, origins, and potential effects on limiting the availability of metals in soils: two type of compost (Zabrze compost-ZC; GWDA compost-GC), two types of biosolid (Bełchatów biosolids-BB, Grabów biosolids-GB), calcium phosphate (CP), iron oxide (IO), bentonite (BE), rock waste (RW), and limestone (CC). After the incubation, the biomass and survival numbers of the earthworm species decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The accumulation of metals in the earthworm tissues expressed by the bioaccumulation factor value (BSAF) were dependent on the type of amendment applied to the soil. The highest decrease in the earthworms’ weight and survival rate was caused by compost (72%) and bentonite (33%), while the lowest was caused by the rock waste (10%) and iron oxide (11%). The biosolids exhibited the greatest toxicity, causing the mortality of all the earthworms. The accumulation of metals in earthworm tissues and the BSAF value were dependent on the type of amendment applied to the soil. The BSAF for the contaminated soil by Cd decreased to the greatest extent after the addition of ZC (by 57%), GC (55%), CP (41%), and IO (37%). A similarly positive effect was noted for Pb after IO addition (45% decrease). The Zn, Cr, and Ni concentration in earthworms, contrary to other elements, increased, regardless of the amendment. The results showed that the applied soil amendments were characterized by varying potential for the reduction in the metal bioavailability in the soil, depending on their composition and physicochemical properties. Moreover, earthworms may exhibit a diversified response to soil amendments as a result of the impact of amendment on the metal forms in soils and their direct impact on organisms. Generally, the Cd was easily transferred from the soil into and accumulated in the earthworm tissues. Our study confirms that this element creates the highest risk for the trophic chain in soils affected by the Zn and Pb smelting industry. Moreover, greater Zn supply reduces the accumulation of Cd in animal bodies. This study provides valuable practical knowledge on the short-term biological effects of a range of soil amendments in metal-contaminated soils.
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