Metabolic disorders present in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the associated risk of obesity may result in increased oxidative stress and reproductive failure. Therefore, we evaluated the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reductase (GR), as well as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Kelch-like ECH-associating protein1 (Keap1) in the serum of 56 women with PCOS divided according to the visceral to subcutaneous fat surface ratio (VAT/SAT) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) values. Antioxidant parameter levels were measured by competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay technique. As the VAT/SAT ratio and WHR increased, we observed significantly higher concentrations of GSSG and Keap1 protein and a lower value of the GSSG/GSH ratio (R-index), which is considered an index of cellular redox (p < 0.05). Negative correlations were found between the R-index and body weight, BMI, WHR, subcutaneous and visceral fat surface and the VAT/SAT ratio, and total body fat; positive links were found with fat free mass and total body water. Opposite associations were noted between GSSG level and the aforementioned body composition parameters. Oxidative stress characterized by a depleted reduced-to-oxidized glutathione index is associated with anthropometric and body composition parameters in women with PCOS. In particular, abdominal obesity expressed by the VAT/SAT ratio and/or WHR seems to have a negative impact on glutathione status, which may lead to a disruption of many biological cell processes. The observed negative association of Keap1 with R-index suggests that the elevated oxidative changes dependent on the VAT/SAT ratio may lead to Nrf2 activation to promote antioxidant enzyme expression. Although the GSH/GSSG index as well as the VAT/SAT ratio appear to be good indicators of oxidative status, studies on a larger group of patients should continue to confirm these links among women with PCOS.
Scientific studies reported that most vegetarians meet the total protein requirements; however, little is known about their amino acid intakes. We aimed to assess dietary intake and serum amino acid levels in relation to bone metabolism markers in prepubertal children on vegetarian and traditional diets. Data from 51 vegetarian and 25 omnivorous children aged 4–9 years were analyzed. Dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients were assessed using the nutritional program Dieta 5®. Serum amino acid analysis was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography technique, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathormone–electrochemiluminescent immunoassay, and bone metabolism markers, albumin, and prealbumin levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Vegetarian children had a significantly lower intake of protein and amino acids with median differences of about 30–50% compared to omnivores. Concentrations of four amino acids (valine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine) in serum varied significantly by diet groups and were lower by 10–15% in vegetarians than meat-eaters. Vegetarian children also had lower (p < 0.001) serum albumin levels compared to omnivores. Among bone markers, they had higher (p < 0.05) levels of C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX-I) than omnivores. Correlation patterns between amino acids and bone metabolism markers differed in the vegetarian and omnivore groups. Out of bone markers, especially osteoprotegerin was positively correlated with several amino acids, such as tryptophan, alanine, aspartate, glutamine, and serine, and ornithine in vegetarians. Vegetarian children consumed apparently sufficient but lower protein and amino acids compared to omnivores. In circulation these differences were less marked than in the diet. Significantly lower amino acid intake and serum levels of valine, lysine, leucine, and isoleucine as well as the observed correlations between serum amino acids and biochemical bone marker levels indicated the relations between diet, protein quality, and bone metabolism.
Oxidant-antioxidant balance is crucial for maintaining one’s health, and the diet is possibly one of the most important factors affecting this balance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the oxidant-antioxidant balance in children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. The study was conducted between January 2020 and December 2021. The concentrations of total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced (GSH), and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and calprotectin were measured in serum samples of 72 healthy prepubertal children (32 vegetarians and 40 omnivores). The oxidative stress index (OSI) and the GSH/GSSG ratio (R-index) were calculated. Children on a vegetarian diet had significantly lower median values of TOC, GSH, and GSSG, and higher TAC compared with the omnivores. OSI was significantly lower in vegetarians, while R-index, as well as median values of CRP and calprotectin did not differ between both groups of children. Significant negative correlations were observed between TOC and TAC levels in the whole group of children and in vegetarians. GSH and GSSG levels correlated positively in the groups of vegetarians, omnivores, and in all the children. There were significant positive correlations between TOC and GSH, as well as GSSG levels in all the studied groups of children. Our study results suggest that the vegetarian model of nutrition allows to maintain the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the serum of prepubertal children.
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common genomic disorder with an extremely broad phenotypic spectrum. The aim of our study was to investigate how often the additional variants in the genome can affect clinical variation among patients with the recurrent deletion. To examine the presence of additional variants affecting the phenotype, we performed microarray in 82 prenatal and 77 postnatal cases and performed exome sequencing in 86 postnatal patients with 22q11.2DS. Within those 159 patients where array was performed, 5 pathogenic and 5 likely pathogenic CNVs were identified outside of the 22q11.2 region. This indicates that in 6.3% cases, additional CNVs most likely contribute to the clinical presentation. Additionally, exome sequencing in 86 patients revealed 3 pathogenic (3.49%) and 5 likely pathogenic (5.81%) SNVs and small CNV. These results show that the extension of diagnostics with genome-wide methods can reveal other clinically relevant changes in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome.
Aim: Real-world data and real-world evidence (RWE) are becoming more important for healthcare decision making and health technology assessment. We aimed to propose solutions to overcome barriers preventing Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries from using RWE generated in Western Europe. Materials & methods: To achieve this, following a scoping review and a webinar, the most important barriers were selected through a survey. A workshop was held with CEE experts to discuss proposed solutions. Results: Based on survey results, we selected the nine most important barriers. Multiple solutions were proposed, for example, the need for a European consensus, and building trust in using RWE. Conclusion: Through collaboration with regional stakeholders, we proposed a list of solutions to overcome barriers on transferring RWE from Western Europe to CEE countries.
Background: Despite observable improvement in the treatment outcomes of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), adequate weight control is still a clinical problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the profiles of neuroendocrine peptides regulating appetite-mainly nesfatin-1 and spexin-in children with PWS undergoing growth hormone treatment and reduced energy intake. Methods: Twenty-five non-obese children (aged 2-12 years) with PWS and 30 healthy children of the same age following an unrestricted age-appropriate diet were examined. Serum concentrations of nesfatin-1, spexin, leptin, leptin receptor, total adiponectin, high molecular weight adiponectin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and total and functional IGF-binding protein-3 concentrations were determined using immunoenzymatic methods. Results: The daily energy intake in children with PWS was lower by about 30% (p < 0.001) compared with the controls. Daily protein intake was similar in both groups, but carbohydrate and fat intakes were significantly lower in the patient group than the controls (p < 0.001). Similar values for nesfatin-1 in the PWS subgroup with BMI Z-score < -0.5 and the control group, while higher values in the PWS subgroup with BMI Z-score ≥ -0.5 (p < 0.001) were found. Spexin concentrations were significantly lower in both subgroups with PWS than the controls (p < 0.001; p = 0.005). Significant differences in the lipid profile between the PWS subgroups and the controls were also observed. Nesfatin-1 and leptin were positively related with BMI (p = 0.018; p = 0.001, respectively) and BMI Z-score (p = 0.031; p = 0.027, respectively) in the whole group with PWS. Both neuropeptides also correlated positively in these patients (p = 0.042). Conclusions: Altered profiles of anorexigenic peptides-especially nesfatin-1 and spexin-in non-obese children with Prader-Willi syndrome during growth hormone treatment and reduced energy intake were found. These differences may play a role in the etiology of metabolic disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome despite the applied therapy.
This paper presents the role, tasks, and place of a hospital pharmacy in the structure of the entire facility. The role of hospital drug management and pharmacy seems to be extremely important in providing patients with high-quality care. Particular emphasis was placed on the distribution systems of medicinal products and medical devices in the hospital. The advantages and disadvantages of the classical distribution system and modern systems such as unit-dose and multi-dose—and the most important differences between them—are presented. Difficulties related to implementing modern distribution systems in hospitals were also discussed. The information provided is presented in the context of the legal regulations in Poland.
Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by the arrest of fetal lung formation, resulting in neonatal death due to acute respiratory failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Heterozygous single-nucleotide variants or copy-number variant (CNV) deletions involving the FOXF1 gene and/or its lung-specific enhancer are found in the vast majority of ACDMPV patients. ACDMPV is often accompanied by extrapulmonary malformations, including the gastrointestinal, cardiac, or genitourinary systems. Thus far, most of the described ACDMPV patients have been diagnosed post mortem, based on histologic evaluation of the lung tissue and/or genetic testing. Here, we report a case of a prenatally detected de novo CNV deletion (~0.74 Mb) involving the FOXF1 gene in a fetus with ACDMPV and hydronephrosis. Since ACDMPV is challenging to detect by ultrasound examination, the more widespread implementation of prenatal genetic testing can facilitate early diagnosis, improve appropriate genetic counselling, and further management.
The present study aimed to assess the association between the cribriform pattern (CP)/intraductal carcinoma (IDC) and the adverse pathological and clinical outcomes in the radical prostatectomy (RP) cohort. A systematic search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement (PRISMA). The protocol from this review was registered on the PROSPERO platform. We searched PubMed®, the Cochrane Library and EM-BASE® up to the 30th of April 2022. The outcomes of interest were the extraprostatic extension (EPE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), lymph node metastasis (LNS met), risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR), distant metastasis (MET) and disease-specific death (DSD). As a result, we identified 16 studies with 164 296 patients. A total of 13 studies containing 3254 RP patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. The CP/IDC was associated with adverse outcomes, including EPE (pooled OR = 2.55, 95%CI 1.23–5.26), SVI (pooled OR = 4.27, 95%CI 1.90–9.64), LNs met (pooled OR = 6.47, 95%CI 3.76–11.14), BCR (pooled OR = 5.09, 95%CI 2.23–11.62) and MET/DSD (pooled OR = 9.84, 95%CI 2.75–35.20, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the CP/IDC belong to highly malignant prostate cancer patterns which have a negative impact on both the pathological and clinical outcomes. The presence of the CP/IDC should be included in the surgical planning and postoperative treatment guidance.
Study question: Are there specific autoantibody profiles in patients with endometriosis that are different from those in controls? Summary answer: This study did not reveal a significantly higher prevalence of autoantibodies in the studied groups of patients. What is known already: Various inflammatory factors are postulated to be involved in the pathomechanisms of endometriosis, and a potential link exists with autoimmune diseases, which may also play an important role. As the diagnosis of endometriosis remains invasive, it can only be confirmed using laparoscopy with histopathological examination of tissues. Numerous studies have focused on identifying useful biomarkers to confirm the disease, but without unequivocal effects. Autoantibodies are promising molecules that serve as potential prognostic factors. Study design, size, duration: A multicentre, cross-sectional study was conducted over 18 months (between 2018 and 2019), at eight Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in several cities across Poland on 137 patients undergoing laparoscopic examination for the diagnosis of endometriosis. Participants/materials, settings, methods: During laparoscopy, we obtained plasma samples from 137 patients and peritoneal fluid (PF) samples from 98 patients. Patients with autoimmune diseases were excluded from the study. Autoantibody profiling was performed using HuProt v3.1 human proteome microarrays. Main results and the role of chance: We observed no significant differences in the expression of autoantibodies in the plasma or PF between the endometriosis and control groups. The study revealed that in the PF of women with Stage II endometriosis, compared with other stages, there were significantly higher reactivity signals for ANAPC15 and GABPB1 (adj. P < 0.016 and adj. P < 0.026, respectively; logFC > 1 in both cases). Comparison of the luteal and follicular phases in endometriosis patients revealed that levels of NEIL1 (adj. P < 0.029), MAGEB4 (adj. P < 0.029), and TNIP2 (adj. P < 0.042) autoantibody signals were significantly higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase in PF samples of patients with endometriosis. No differences were observed between the two phases of the cycle in plasma or between women with endometriosis and controls. Clustering of PF and plasma samples did not reveal unique autoantibody profiles for endometriosis; however, comparison of PF and plasma in the same patient showed a high degree of concordance. Limitations, reasons for caution: Although this study was performed using the highest-throughput protein array available, it does not cover the entire human proteome and cannot be used to study potentially promising post-translational modifications. Autoantibody levels depend on numerous factors, such as infections; therefore the autoantibody tests should be repeated for more objective results. Wider implications of the findings: Although endometriosis has been linked to different autoimmune diseases, it is unlikely that autoimmune responses mediated by specific autoantibodies play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of this inflammatory disease. Our study shows that in searching for biomarkers of endometriosis, it may be more efficient to use higher-throughput proteomic microarrays, which may allow the detection of potentially new biomarkers. Only research on such a scale, and possibly with different technologies, can help discover biomarkers that will change the method of endometriosis diagnosis. Study funding/competing interest(s): This study was funded by a grant from the Polish Ministry of Health (grant no. 6/6/4/1/NPZ/2017/1210/1352). It was also funded by the Estonian Research Council (grant PRG1076) and the Horizon 2020 Innovation Grant (ERIN; grant no. EU952516), Enterprise Estonia (grant no. EU48695), and MSCA-RISE-2020 project TRENDO (grant no. 101008193). The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Trial registration number: N/A.
Background/aims: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), vitamin-D binding protein (VDBP) and neutrophil granule proteins are specifically related to the neutrophil function and may be considered candidate biomarkers detected and measured in meconium (the first feces of newborn infants) as signals indicating abnormal processes in the fetal stage. Individual proteins found in meconium can be a source of information pertaining to the intrauterine metabolic processes. Methods: Concentrations of AAT, VDBP, calprotectin, myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin and elastase were measured using ELISA tests in 80 meconium samples collected from 19 healthy, full-term neonates. Results: The meconium concentrations of VDBP and AAT (mean±SD, [mg/g meconium]: 3.74±6.93, 3.72±1.79, respectively) were approximately 1000 times higher than those of the protein granule proteins calprotectin, myeloperoxidase, elastase and lactoferrin (mean ± SD, [µg/g meconium]: 285.7±215.8, 1.83±1.73, 1.72±2.70, 45.58±78.89, respectively). The correlation between VDBP and AAT was negative (r= - 0.40. p=0.000) and those between VDBP and calprotectin (r=0.38, p=0.000) and VDBP and myeloperoxidase (r=0.45, p=0.000) were positive. AAT was found to correlate positively with lactoferrin (r=0.38, p=0.000). Conclusion: The correlations between the concentrations of VDBP and AAT, and with neutrophil granule proteins observed in meconium indicate their functional relationship in the intrauterine environment of the developing fetus. Meconium can be seen as an apparently underutilized source of biomarkers for evaluation of metabolic processes specific to fetal development.
Despite the impact of the COVID‐19 outbreak being largely negative on parents and children, for some families, lockdown could also bring about some positive effects, for example, increased emotional closeness, and more time for joint activity. The aim of the current study was to investigate cross‐sectionally the most important correlates of the positive experiences in the parent–child relationship among Polish mothers and fathers during the lockdown in the initial phase of the COVID‐19 outbreak. In May 2020, 228 mothers and 231 fathers completed the Brief version of the Empathic Sensitivity Questionnaire, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale Short Form, Social Support Scale, Parenting Self‐Agency Measure, and Scale of Positive Experiences in Parent–Child Relationship during the COVID‐19 lockdown. Our results showed that parenting self‐efficacy and social support were the strongest correlates of positive experiences in the parent–child relationship in both mothers and fathers during the lockdown. Perspective‐taking was positively related to the positive experiences in mothers, whereas personal distress was positively associated with the positive experiences in the parent–child relationship in fathers. Our results point to factors of potential importance in designing preventive and therapeutic interventions for mothers and fathers to enhance positive experiences in the parent–child relationship during the pandemic.
This review aimed to update the clinical practice guidelines for managing children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). The 22q11.2 Society, the international scientific organization studying chromosome 22q11.2 differences and related conditions, recruited expert clinicians worldwide to revise the original 2011 pediatric clinical practice guidelines in a stepwise process: (1) a systematic literature search (1992-2021), (2) study selection and data extraction by clinical experts from 9 different countries, covering 24 subspecialties, and (3) creation of a draft consensus document based on the literature and expert opinion, which was further shaped by survey results from family support organizations regarding perceived needs. Of 2441 22q11.2DS-relevant publications initially identified, 2344 received full-text reviews, including 1545 meeting criteria for potential relevance to clinical care of children and adolescents. Informed by the available literature, recommendations were formulated. Given evidence base limitations, multidisciplinary recommendations represent consensus statements of good practice for this evolving field. These recommendations provide contemporary guidance for evaluation, surveillance, and management of the many 22q11.2DS-associated physical, cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric morbidities while addressing important genetic counseling and psychosocial issues.
This review aimed to update the clinical practice guidelines for managing adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). The 22q11.2 Society recruited expert clinicians worldwide to revise the original clinical practice guidelines for adults in a stepwise process according to best practices: (1) a systematic literature search (1992-2021), (2) study selection and synthesis by clinical experts from 8 countries, covering 24 subspecialties, and (3) formulation of consensus recommendations based on the literature and further shaped by patient advocate survey results. Of 2441 22q11.2DS-relevant publications initially identified, 2344 received full-text review, with 2318 meeting inclusion criteria (clinical care relevance to 22q11.2DS) including 894 with potential relevance to adults. The evidence base remains limited. Thus multidisciplinary recommendations represent statements of current best practice for this evolving field, informed by the available literature. These recommendations provide guidance for the recognition, evaluation, surveillance, and management of the many emerging and chronic 22q11.2DS-associated multisystem morbidities relevant to adults. The recommendations also address key genetic counseling and psychosocial considerations for the increasing numbers of adults with this complex condition.
Introduction: All epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among the Polish general population. Since vitamin D deficiency was shown to be among the risk factors for many diseases and for all-cause mortality, concern about this problem led us to update the previous Polish recommendations. Methods: After reviewing the epidemiological evidence, case-control studies and randomized control trials (RCTs), a Polish multidisciplinary group formulated questions on the recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency both for the general population and for the risk groups of patients. The scientific evidence of pleiotropic effects of vitamin D as well as the results of panelists’ voting were reviewed and discussed. Thirty-four authors representing different areas of expertise prepared position statements. The consensus group, representing eight Polish/international medical societies and eight national specialist consultants, prepared the final Polish recommendations. Results: Based on networking discussions, the ranges of total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicating vitamin D deficiency [<20 ng/mL (<50 nmol/L)], suboptimal status [20–30 ng/mL (50–75 nmol/L)], and optimal concentration [30–50 ng/mL (75–125 nmol/L)] were confirmed. Practical guidelines for cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) as the first choice for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency were developed. Calcifediol dosing as the second choice for preventing and treating vitamin D deficiency was introduced. Conclusions: Improving the vitamin D status of the general population and treatment of risk groups of patients must be again announced as healthcare policy to reduce a risk of spectrum of diseases. This paper offers consensus statements on prophylaxis and treatment strategies for vitamin D deficiency in Poland.
Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients require regular airway clearance therapy (ACT). The aim of this study was to evaluate homecare therapeutic effects of a new ACT (Simeox®) added to the optimal standard of care, including home chest physiotherapy, in the treatment of clinically stable children. Methods: Forty pediatric CF patients (8-17 years old) with stable disease were randomized 1:1 in a single-center, prospective, open-label, cross-over trial into two groups: with or without Simeox®. Lung function (impulse oscillometry, spirometry, body plethysmography, multi-breath nitrogen washout) results, health-related quality of life, and safety were assessed during the study after 1 month of therapy at home. Results: A significant decrease in proximal airway obstruction (as supported by improvement in airway resistance at 20 Hz (R20Hz) and maximum expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (MEF75)) compared to the control group was observed after 1 month of therapy with the device. Lung-clearance index was stable in the study group, while it worsened in the control group. In addition, the device group demonstrated a significant increase in the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) physical score. No side effects were identified during the study. Conclusions: Simeox® may improve drainage of the airways in children with clinically stable CF and could be an option in chronic treatment of the disease.
(1) Background: It was examined whether glucose-induced changes in the relative blood volume are suitable to identify subjects with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) during hemodialysis. (2) Methods: The relative blood volume was continuously recorded during hemodialysis and perturbed by the infusion of glucose comparable to the dose used for intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Indices of glucose metabolism were determined by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Body composition was measured by a bioimpedance analysis. The magnitude and the time course of hemodilution were described by a modified gamma variate model and five model parameters. (3) Results: A total of 34 subjects were studied, 14 with and 20 without T2D. The magnitude of the hemodilution and the selected model parameters correlated with measures of anthropometry, body mass index, absolute and relative fat mass, volume excess, baseline insulin concentration, and HOMA indices such as insulin resistance and glucose disposition in a continuous analysis, but were not different in a dichotomous analysis of patients with and without T2D. (4) Conclusions: Even though the parameters of the hemodilution curve were correlated with measures of impaired glucose metabolism and body composition, the distinction between subjects with and without T2D was not possible using glucose-induced changes in the relative blood volume during hemodialysis.
Dravet syndrome (DRVT) is a rare form of neurodevelopmental disorder with a high risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), caused mainly (>80% cases) by mutations in the SCN1A gene, coding the Nav1.1 protein (alfa-subunit of voltage-sensitive sodium channel). Mutations in SCN1A are linked to heterogenous epileptic phenotypes of various types, severity, and patient prognosis. Here we generated iPSC lines from fibroblasts obtained from three individuals affected with DRVT carrying distinct mutations in the SCN1A gene (nonsense mutation p.Ser1516*, missense mutation p.Arg1596His, and splicing mutation c.2589+2dupT). The iPSC lines, generated with the non-integrative approach, retained the distinct SCN1A gene mutation of the donor fibroblasts and were characterized by confirming the expression of the pluripotency markers, the three-germ layer differentiation potential, the absence of exogenous vector expression, and a normal karyotype. The generated iPSC lines were used to establish ventral forebrain organoids, the most affected type of neurons in the pathology of DRVT. The DRVT organoid model will provide an additional resource for deciphering the pathology behind Nav1.1 haploinsufficiency and drug screening to remediate the functional deficits associated with the disease.
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic presented the world with many new challenges such as rapid and accurate diagnosis of infected individuals. RT-PCR has become the gold standard in COVID-19 diagnostics, but its limitations are: long turnaround time and the need to be conducted by specialized staff. The need for rapid and easy-to-use diagnostic tests led to the development of ID NOW — a rapid molecular test that provides a COVID-19 diagnosis in less than 15 minutes and can be performed by support staff in point-of-care (POC) locations. It can also detect other infections with similar symptoms, such as influenza or RSV. Due to rapid differentiation between COVID-19 and other infections patients can be isolated quickly and hospital departments operate efficiently. In this publication we present the recommendations for the use of the diagnostic test ID NOW based on clinical research results and opinions of experts in different medical fields.
Background: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a frequent complication of hemodialysis (HD). Current methods of IDH prevention are insufficient. Methods: We analyzed the intradialytic time course of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), pulse pressure (PP), and heart rate (HR) in a group of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. First, 30 min into HD, a 40% glucose solution was injected into the venous line of the extracorporeal circulation at a dose of 0.5 g/kg of dry weight. Pressures and HR were measured in frequent intervals. Relative volume overload was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy. Results: Thirty-five participants were studied. SBP increased after 5, 10, and 20 min of glucose infusion. DBP increased after 2 and 3 h and also at the end of HD. PP increased after 5, 10, and 20 min of glucose infusion and fell after the 2nd and 3rd hour and also at the end of HD. MAP increased after 2 and 3 h of glucose injection and at the end of HD. Significant interactions of the time course of SBP, DBP, MAP, with HR at baseline and of the time course of PP with fluid overload were observed. Symptomatic hypotensive episodes were absent. Conclusions: Glucose infusions during HD prevent symptomatic IDH and do not cause severe hypertensive episodes.
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