Background Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. (Korean pine) is a key species of the mixed cold temperate forests of Northeast Asia. Current climate change can significantly worsen the quality of P. koraiensis habitats and therefore lead to a large-scale structural and functional transformation of the East Asian mixed forests. We built a species distribution model (SDM) for P. koraiensis using the random forest classifier – a versatile machine learning algorithm, to discover overlap areas of potential species occurrence in the climate condition of the Last Glacial Maximum (∼21,000 year before present) and in the projected future climates (2070 year), from which possible permanent refugia for P. koraiensis were identified. Results Using the random forest supervised learning algorithm, we developed models of the modern distribution of P. koraiensis in accordance with the five selected bioclimatic variables (Kira’s warmth and coldness indices, the index of continentality, the rain precipitation index, and the snow precipitation index). In addition to current climatic conditions, we performed this analysis for the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum and for the future projected climate (2070) under scenarios RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. Among the predictors, the rain index appears to be the most significant. The land area estimates with high suitability for P. koraiensis was 303,785 km² under current climatic conditions, 586,499 km² for the Last Glacial Maximum, and 337,573 km² for the future (2070) period under the RCP2.6 scenario, and 397,764 km² under the RCP8.5 scenario. Conclusions Most of the potential range of P. koraiensis during the Last Glacial Maximum was located outside the current distribution area of the species. The climatically suitable P. koraiensis habitats will likely disappear in the western part of its modern range. In the southern part of the range, which includes glacial refugia, the areas of continuous distribution of the P. koraiensis populations since the end of the Pleistocene are expected to be fragmented, but some localities in the north of the Korean Peninsula, northeast China, southern Primorye (Russia), and central Honshu (Japan) with suitable climatic conditions for the species will support the existence of populations.
Attempts to avoid discussing the catastrophic situation in science and higher education can have the most severe consequences for the country in wartime. The most important goal of the special operation in Ukraine is the nationalization of the elites. It was obviously not possible to nationalize the scientific community. The off–scale percentage of disapproval of thisoperation among scientists (85%) is quite an adequate assessment of the policy in the field of science and higher education. The legacy of Vladimir Vernadsky is now of particular importance. Being a hereditary opponent of the tsarist autocracy, and in Soviet times – a brave critic of the government and the dominance of official ideology, the great scientist clearly divided thegovernment and the country, which allowed him to always stand on patriotic positions, putting fundamental national interests, unchanged under any government at the forefront. If the planned economy in its Soviet outgrowth grew on domestic soil, then all the worst that destroys science, grossly deforming the value orientation of scientists and destroying the institution of reputations, came from the West. In the field of science, the West still retains its dominance to the greatest extent, having significantly lost its position in other areas – economy, politics, ideology, military power. The pro-Western orientation of most of our scientific community is due precisely to this dominance, and not to devotion to the great ideals of science, whichwere betrayed in the West much earlier than at us. These ideals require the maximum degree of separation between the science and the politics, but in practice there is a tendency to mix them. The revolutionary transformations in the country not only open up a huge front of work for science, but will allow it to dramatically increase its social status. However, this requires scientists to return resolutely from internal emigration. It is necessary to move not to the side of power, but to constructive opposition. The latter presupposes close cooperation with the authorities in some issues with its harsh criticism in others
Education for sustainable development (ESD) of protected areas is proposed to deal with global climate change and biodiversity conversation. It focuses on the “quality education” and “protection” of the United Nations’ sustainable development goals (UN SDGs), not only taking protected areas as the education place, but also as the theme and content of education. Based on cognitive-behavior theory and social emotional learning theory, this study constructs a “cognitive–emotion–behavior” dimension framework of ESD in protected areas, selecting Potatso National Park in Yunnan as a case study. Based on 529 valid visitor questionnaires, this study uses structural equation modeling to verify theoretical hypotheses, and analyzes the impact of ESD in protected areas on public cognition, emotion, and behavior. The results show that: (1) Cognitive and emotional factors jointly drive the behavioral intentions of ESD in protected areas, and social-emotional factors are slightly higher than cognitive factors; (2) Environmental knowledge, personal norms, nature connectedness, and places attachment positively affects behavioral intentions; (3) Indigenous knowledge has an impact on behavioral intentions through emotional mediation, and personal norms have an impact on behavioral intentions through direct effects; (4) Gender and visit frequency are important moderating variables in the ESD of protected areas. These conclusions provide the following suggestions for further development of ESD. First, by forming environment-friendly social norms and focusing on the mining and presentation of indigenous knowledge, the behavioral intention can also be enhanced to a certain extent; second, improving people’s emotion can also promote people’s behavioral intention, especially referring to optimizing nature connectedness, strengthening place attachment, and creating emotional connections; Third, specific groups of people should be taught specifically, and improve the supporting services of ESD.
In summer 2016, we observed premature feather malformation among goslings of greater white-fronted goose (Anser alb. albifrons), between 7 and 10 weeks of age on family gathering areas on Kolguev Island, Russia, the most important breeding island in the Western Palearctic. Rarely reported in wild birds, to our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been recorded in wild geese of this species, despite continuous ringing and marking of thousands of wild geese across Northern Europe and Arctic Siberia. This feather malformations were documented in 36 unfledged goslings showing weak feather basis, deformed or unevenly grown wing feathers or even dead feather buds. Approximately about one-third of all chicks were affected. Feather malformations like this, causing flightless chicks as a result, have never been noticed in any other of our 12 study years since 2006. The lesion was characterised by soft feather buds, weak or incomplete wing feathers and lack of feather development. No other abnormalities were observed in the goslings, so goslings did not differ in weight or body sizes. Affected fledglings never became airworthy and were killed in large numbers by predators or at latest perished during the Arctic winter. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10344-022-01603-9.
The data set presented represents 15 years of collection. It contains tree-ring width measurements from 64 sites of living trees and ten historical chronologies based on archaeological and construction wood up to year 572 CE, altogether 2909 tree-ring series and more than 450000 measured and cross-dated tree rings. It covers the vast territory of European Russia, including its forested northern and central parts, and the Northern Caucasus mountains. The potential use of these data include climatic reconstructions of regional and hemispheric scale, dendrochronological dating of historical and cultural wood, ecological and remote sensing studies.
Absract Water-stable macro- (WSAma) and free microaggregates (WSAmi) were isolated from the 2-1 mm air-dry macroaggregates from the surface horizons of Haplic Chernozem in contrasting variants of land use: the steppe and the bare fallow. The ¹³C NMR data and the ¹³C natural abundance of the Occluded organic matter (OM) (LFoc) and Clay within WSAs in the steppe obviously indicate a lower degree of microbiological processing of OM within WSAmi as compared with WSAma. This is reflected in lower degrees of decomposition (DI) and aromaticity (ARI) of OM and the C/N ratio, as well as lower ¹³C enrichment. This implies that the “labile” part of OM within WSAmi (LFoc and Clay, which are components of microaggregates within water-stable aggregates (mWSAs)) is more physically protected compared to that within WSAma. However, the heavier total δ¹³C signature of OM within WSAmi indicates its greater degree of microbiological processing compared to that within WSAma. This seems contrary to the concept of greater physical protection of OM within microaggregates as compared to macroaggregates. It was revealed that the heavier total δ¹³C signature of OM within WSAmi (greater degree of microbiological processing) is determined by the “oldest” OM located in the inter-aggregate space of WSAs, which is concentrated in the Residue fraction (Res). Due to its quantitative dominance, the Residue fraction is crucial for the total δ¹³C signature of WSAs. Negative changes in the quality of OM under the long-term bare fallow (52-yr) were reflected in a sharp increase in the integral indices of the chemical structure (DI, ARI), as well as the hydrophobicity index (HI) in all studied OM pools. It was accompanied by their ¹³C enrichment in the bare fallow compared to the steppe. Free microaggregates (WSAmi) are fragments of disintegrated macroaggregates (WSAma). We found no evidence of their formation within macroaggregates.
Arctic river deltas and deltaic near-shore zones represent important land–ocean transition zones influencing sediment dynamics and nutrient fluxes from permafrost-affected terrestrial ecosystems into the coastal Arctic Ocean. To accurately model fluvial carbon and freshwater export from rapidly changing river catchments as well as assess impacts of future change on the Arctic shelf and coastal ecosystems, we need to understand the sea floor characteristics and topographic variety of the coastal zones. To date, digital bathymetrical data from the poorly accessible, shallow, and large areas of the eastern Siberian Arctic shelves are sparse. We have digitized bathymetrical information for nearly 75 000 locations from large-scale (1:25 000–1:500 000) current and historical nautical maps of the Lena Delta and the Kolyma Gulf region in northeastern Siberia. We present the first detailed and seamless digital models of coastal zone bathymetry for both delta and gulf regions in 50 and 200 m spatial resolution. We validated the resulting bathymetry layers using a combination of our own water depth measurements and a collection of available depth measurements, which showed a strong correlation (r>0.9). Our bathymetrical models will serve as an input for a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic–ecosystem model to better quantify fluvial and coastal carbon fluxes to the Arctic Ocean, but they may be useful for a range of other studies related to Arctic delta and near-shore dynamics such as modeling of submarine permafrost, near-shore sea ice, or shelf sediment transport. The new digital high-resolution bathymetry products are available on the PANGAEA data set repository for the Lena Delta (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.934045; Fuchs et al., 2021a) and Kolyma Gulf region (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.934049; Fuchs et al., 2021b), respectively. Likewise, the depth validation data are available on PANGAEA as well (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.933187; Fuchs et al., 2021c).
Despite the reduction in S and N emissions, acid deposition continues to be a problem for the inland water in Northeast Asia. However, catchment-scale studies on acid deposition in the Asian part of Russia are limited. Based on the long-term data of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET), we evaluated the effects of acid deposition on the stream water (SW) chemistry in a catchment of the Komarovka River (KMR) located in the Far East of Russia for the period 2005–2019. The SW pH has been decreasing over the last decade, with an increase in acidifying agents, such as SO42– and NO3–. The N/S ratio increased in SW due to a rise in NO3–, which plays a key role in acidification. In contrast, the rainwater pH has been rising at the nearby EANET site. There were transition periods from a decreasing trend to an increasing trend of S and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in 2011 and 2014, respectively. Moreover, because of changing precipitation patterns, the contribution of warm season deposition to acidification has increased, which may accelerate the leaching of S and DIN from the forested catchment. The recent increase in S and DIN deposition and increased warm-season precipitation appeared to cause acidification of SW at KMR. The N leaching at KMR was largely influenced by the precipitation patterns, while DIN deposition and forest conditions should be taken into consideration. An interlinkage between air pollution and climate change should be carefully assessed to understand the forested catchment.
Within the glacier-free scenario of the MIS 2 (Sartanian cryochron) environment in the north of West Siberia, it is important to search for the new regional paleoecological records and stratigraphic markers for this period. We studied large ice-wedge pseudomorphs filled with gleyic pedosediments developed on the high river terraces in the Nadym and Taz rivers basins as a tracer of the surface cryogenic and pedogenic processes during MIS 2. Field morphological observations and measurements, palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating of organic matter from soils and pedosediments were performed. Two sets of paleoecological indicators were discriminated: pseudomorph geometry evidence of the processes and conditions of ice wedge formation during the Last Glacial Maximum whereas the paleopedological and paleobotanic results from the fills recorded the environments of ice wedge melting at the end of MIS 2. Paleotemperatures 7–10 °C lower than at present are inferred during the major part of Sartanian, even at its end continuous permafrost persisted providing development of swampy tundra vegetation and cryohydromorphic palaeosols. We propose to define Taz-Nadym cryopedogenic horizon as a representative regional unit for MIS 2 and to correlate it with synchronous cryogenic and palaeosol units in Central and Eastern Europe.
The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) Science Plan, released in 2015, addressed a need for a holistic system understanding and outlined the most urgent research needs for the rapidly changing Arctic-boreal region. Air quality in China, together with the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants, was also indicated as one of the most crucial topics of the research agenda. These two geographical regions, the northern Eurasian Arctic-boreal region and China, especially the megacities in China, were identified as a “PEEX region”. It is also important to recognize that the PEEX geographical region is an area where science-based policy actions would have significant impacts on the global climate. This paper summarizes results obtained during the last 5 years in the northern Eurasian region, together with recent observations of the air quality in the urban environments in China, in the context of the PEEX programme. The main regions of interest are the Russian Arctic, northern Eurasian boreal forests (Siberia) and peatlands, and the megacities in China. We frame our analysis against research themes introduced in the PEEX Science Plan in 2015. We summarize recent progress towards an enhanced holistic understanding of the land–atmosphere–ocean systems feedbacks. We conclude that although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, the new results are in many cases insufficient, and there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate–Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures, especially the lack of coordinated, continuous and comprehensive in situ observations of the study region as well as integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis. The fast-changing environment and ecosystem changes driven by climate change, socio-economic activities like the China Silk Road Initiative, and the global trends like urbanization further complicate such analyses. We recognize new topics with an increasing importance in the near future, especially “the enhancing biological sequestration capacity of greenhouse gases into forests and soils to mitigate climate change” and the “socio-economic development to tackle air quality issues”.
The fragmentation of natural habitats in Krasnodar Krai is analysed by reconstructing the spatial pattern of habitat quality. Habitat fragmentation effects were explored at the fragment level, with 260 fragments as units of study and a computed habitat degradation degree index computed using ArcGIS software and variance analysis. There is a direct connection between the level of habitat degradation and fragment size, so a habitat fragment of more than 50 ha suffered a low level of habitat degradation but those of less than 1.5 ha exhibited severe degradation.
The purposes of this study are to determine the content and origin of anthropogenic fallout radionuclides (FRN) in soils of Mount Khuko, located in the western sector of the Caucasus Mountains and to assess the possibility to use them for evaluation of sediment redistribution for the alpine grasslands,. The field study was carried out in August 2019 near the top of Mount Khuko, located in the western part of the main Caucasus Mountain Ridge. Integral and incremental soil samples were collected from the different morphological units of the studied area. The content of 137Cs and 241Am in soil samples was evaluated using laboratory gamma-spectrometry. A part of samples was selected for Pu isotopes extraction and then alphaspectrometric analysis. It was established that the 137Cs contamination of soils in the studied area has at least two sources of origin. The first source is the 137Cs bomb-derived fallout after the bomb tests in 1950–60th, which is widespread across the globe. The second source is 137Cs Chernobyl-derived fallout High random variability (Cv = 25–42%) was found within reference sites, located at the undisturbed areas on the local flat interfluves due to high variability of soil characteristics (grain size, density, organic matter content etc.). However minimum spatial variability (range 12,2–14,3 kBq/m2 ) was identified for the mean value of 137Cs inventories for all 5 reference sites located in the different parts of the studied area. It is difficult to separate individual peaks of the bomb-derived and Chernobyl-derived 137Cs falloutin sediment sinks with low sedimentation rates. Application 239,240Pu as an additional chronological marker allows to identify the origin of above mention peaks in the soils of alpine grasslands and of dry lake bottom.
We performed microsatellite polymorphism analysis for wild populations of Saccharina japonica, a kelp species that is, among wild production areas, mainly produced in Hokkaido, is indispensable as an ingredient of Japanese food that differs in application and value depending on the origin (variety), growing in southern Sakhalin, Primorsky Krai, and Hokkaido to investigate the genetic relations among the populations. A total of 230 alleles (Polymorphic Information Content: 0.08–0.69) were detected from 18 loci. In the analysis by region, the differentiation index (Fst) and genetic distance (DS) were lower between the Sakhalin southwestern-end populations or the Sakhalin southern coast populations and the Hokkaido populations. However, gene structure analysis showed that the clusters dominant in the kelp in the Sakhalin or Hokkaido population group also existed in the other population group, suggesting that genes are exchanged between these regions. When analyses were performed by origin, one of the Sakhalin southwestern-end populations formed a clade with the Hokkaido populations in the phylogenetic tree, both having similar genetic structure, and the Fst and DS values were particularly low with the Hokkaido East populations (S. japonica var. diabolica. The Fst and DS values were also low between the five Sakhalin southern populations – a sister group with the Hokkaido East populations in the phylogenetic tree – and the North Hokkaido populations (S. japonica var. ochotensis), indicating that these Sakhalin southwestern-end and southern populations may be used as alternatives to Hokkaido populations for culinary purposes.
In this study, the CeO2-Fe2O3 mixed oxide catalysts have been prepared by combustion method using gel-created tartaric acid. The ability of effective carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation to carbon dioxide (CO2) by CeO2-Fe2O3 catalyst under low-temperature conditions was also demonstrated. The calcined CeO2-Fe2O3 material has a porous honeycomb structure and good gaseous absorption-desorption ability. The solid solution of CeO2-Fe2O3 mixed oxides was formed by the substitution of Fe+3 ions at some Ce4+ ion sites within the CeO2 crystal lattice. The results also showed that the calcination temperature and the molar ratio of Ce3+ ions to Fe3+ ions (CF) affected the formation of the structural phase and the catalytic efficiency. The catalytic properties of the CeO2-Fe2O3 mixed oxide were good at the CF ratio of 1 : 1, the average crystal size was near 70 nm, and the specific surface area was about 20.22 m2.g-1. The full conversion of CO into CO2 has been accomplished at a relatively low temperature of 270 °C under insufficient O2 conditions.
Although previous authors attempted to elucidate 137Cs wash-off processes in different river catchments during high-flow events, investigations on large-scale river catchments are still rare. This chapter presents observations of riverine 137Cs dynamics during two high-flow events in 2018 on the Abukuma River. River waters were collected at Kuroiwa site, locating at midstream of Abukuma River, during two high-flow events on 5th to 8th July 2018 (JUL18) and 30th Sep to 3rd Oct 2018 (OCT 18). River water samples of 20–40 L in JUL18 and OCT18 were collected for five times and seven times, respectively. The samples water was subjected to measurements of 137Cs activity concentration in suspended sediment (Bq kg−1) and dissolved 137Cs activity concentration (mBq L−1). Mean 137Cs activity concentration in suspended sediment during JUL18 and OCT18 were 1570 and 1200 Bq kg−1, respectively. Mean dissolved 137Cs activity concentrations during JUL18 and OCT18 were 5.5 and 2.2 mBq L−1, respectively. Total 137Cs wash-off during JUL18 and OCT18 were estimated as 8.6 × 109 and 5.5 × 1010 Bq, respectively. Dissolved 137Cs activity concentrations decreased with time during both JUL18 and OCT18 and the temporal trends were similar to those of concentrations of major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+). Maximum 137Cs activity concentration in suspended sediment was observed in peak discharge phases during both of JUL18 and OCT18. Total carbon contents, specific surface area, and speciation of suspended sediments appeared not to explain variations in 137Cs activity concentration in suspended sediments during the events. In future, comparative studies in various catchments should improve our understandings of riverine 137Cs dynamics and predictability.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is an iconic carnivoran species of the Northern Hemisphere. Its population history has been studied extensively using mitochondrial markers, which demonstrated signatures of multiple waves of migration, arguably connected with glaciation periods. Among Eurasian brown bears, Siberian populations remain understudied. We have sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes of four ancient (~4.5–40 kya) bears from South Siberia and 19 modern bears from South Siberia and the Russian Far East. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships between haplotypes and evaluation of modern population structure have demonstrated that all the studied samples belong to the most widespread Eurasian clade 3. One of the ancient haplotypes takes a basal position relative to the whole of clade 3; the second is basal to the haplogroup 3a (the most common subclade), and two others belong to clades 3a1 and 3b. Modern Siberian bears retain at least some of this diversity; apart from the most common haplogroup 3a, we demonstrate the presence of clade 3b, which was previously found mainly in mainland Eurasia and Northern Japan. Our findings highlight the importance of South Siberia as a refugium for northern Eurasian brown bears and further corroborate the hypothesis of several waves of migration in the Pleistocene.
This paper aims to identify details of interaction and mutual influence of tourism and transport infrastructure development using a combination of sociological and statistical methods. For the analysis, five key sites were selected in several parts of Siberia, differing in natural, socioeconomic , and ethnocultural quality, but possessing the presence of compact indigenous communities that reproduce traditional forms of both cultural life and economic activity. While each community has its own unique culture and resources for development, several similar characteristics were revealed. It has been revealed that tourists themselves and workers of the tourism sector, including local residents, are unequivocal supporters of transportation system development. A significant part of the population, recognizing the need and advantages of having a well-functioning transport infrastructure, expresses a negative attitude towards easy accessibility of the territory for outsiders who violate the rules and regime for usage of natural resources and augment economic and cultural competition for the local population. Understanding key processes of interrelations, both explicit and hidden, concomitant to socioeconomic development of remote indigenous communities , with the simultaneous development of tourism and transport, allows the authors to propose a model outline of attitudes of local communities towards tourist and transport perspectives in the territory of their residence.
Cetacean species are highly mobile, most of them regularly travelling over long distances, thereby presenting complex obstacles to their conservation. Identification of their critical habitats, specifically those parts of a cetacean’s range that are essential for day‐to‐day survival and for maintaining a healthy population growth rate, is necessary for their effective protection. This study presents a summary of the data on cetacean sightings during surveys that covered substantial parts of the Russian Far East coastal waters from the Okhotsk Sea to Chukotka in order to determine important areas for particular cetacean species. Sixteen cetacean species were registered during the surveys, and for 12 of them with sufficient numbers of sightings, zones with maximum sighting rates were identified. Only 13% of all cetacean sightings and 22% of sightings of protected species occurred within marine protected areas (MPAs). The highest sighting rates for protected species were concentrated off north‐eastern Sakhalin Island, in the Shantar Area, in Anadyr Gulf, in Kresta Bay and in the waters off eastern Chukotka. The analysis of the distribution patterns of various cetacean species in Russian Far East seas provides a solid base for future conservation planning. Lack of specific MPAs for protection of cetaceans and associated biodiversity hinders marine conservation in Russian Far East seas. The study highlights the specific zones important for various cetacean species and suggests the extension of some existing MPAs and the creation of new MPAs for future spatial habitat protection measures.
This work aims to verify and correct the boundary between two landscapes—moraine and outwash plain—delineated earlier by the classical landscape approach. The initial interpretation of the boundary caused controversy due to the appearance of the thermokarst depression in the outwash landscape. The lithological structure is one of the main factors of landscape differentiation. The classical approach includes drilling to obtain the lithological and sedimentary data. However, the boreholes are usually shallow, while geophysical methods allow to look deeper into the subsurface and improve our knowledge about lithological structure and stratigraphy. In this study, we use ground-penetrating radar with a peak frequency of 250 and 50 MHz and detailed electrical resistivity tomography (with 1 m electrode spacing) in addition to the landscape mapping and drilling to correct the landscape boundary position. We conclude that it is primarily defined by the subsurface boundary between lithological complexes of clayish moraine deposits and sandy outwash deposits located at 7 m depth. Moving the boundary to the northeast by 70–100 m from the current position removes inconsistencies and clarifies the history of the area's formation in the Quaternary.
The calibration of the light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system is critical to ensure the accuracy of point data. In this paper, the lever-arm measurement of airborne LiDAR system (ALS) was realized by photogrammetry. An automatic iterative boresight calibration method based on approximate corresponding points (CPs) matching was proposed to correct the boresight misalignment. It was based on iterative closest point (ICP) registration algorithm with a normal space sampling strategy, and approximate CPs were obtained by establishing filter rules. The experimental results showed that the absolute accuracy of the calibrated ALS reached 7.13 cm when the flight altitude was 100 m, meeting the accuracy requirements.
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