The spread of fake news on social media has increased dramatically in recent years. Hence, fake news detection systems have received researchers' attention globally. During the COVID‐19 outbreak in 2019 and the worldwide epidemic, the importance of this issue becomes more apparent. Due to the importance of the issue, a large number of researchers have begun to collect English datasets and to study COVID‐19 fake news detection. However, there are a large number of low‐resource languages, including Persian, that cannot develop accurate tools for automatic COVID‐19 fake news detection due to the lack of annotated data for the task. In this article, we aim to develop a corpus for Persian in the domain of COVID‐19 where the fake news is annotated and to provide a model for detecting Persian COVID‐19 fake news. With the impressive advancement of multilingual pre‐trained language models, the idea of cross‐lingual transfer learning can be proposed to improve the generalization of models trained with low‐resource language datasets. Accordingly, we use the state‐of‐the‐art deep cross‐lingual contextualized language model, XLM‐RoBERTa, and the parallel convolutional neural networks to detect Persian COVID‐19 fake news. Moreover, we use the idea of knowledge transferring across‐domains to improve the results by using both the English COVID‐19 dataset and the general domain Persian fake news dataset. The combination of both cross‐lingual and cross‐domain transfer learning has outperformed the models and it has beaten the baseline by 2.39% significantly.
Background and Aim: Cochlear implants (CIs) can lead to the development of verbal communication in areas such as sound repertoire, speech intelligibility (SI), and conversational skills. The SI refers to the ability to make recognizable speech sounds. Children with CIs may experience poorer SI than normalhearing (NH) children. This study aims to compare the SI between children with CIs and NH peers matched for chronological age and hearing age. Methods: The speech samples of 40 monolingual Persian-speaking children, including 20 children with CIs and 20 NH children were used in this study. The children’s SI was analyzed using three measures of the percentage of correct consonants, percentage of correct vowels, and percentage of intelligible words. One speech-language pathologist and two non-professional listeners transcribed each speech sample. Results: The results showed no significant difference in any measures of SI between CI children and NH hearing age-matched peers, but there was a significant difference between CI children and NH chronological age-matched peers (p
Background. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational support and job crafting considering the moderating role of job embeddedness of nurses in this relationship. The three main dimensions considered for job crafting concept were: task crafting, relational crafting and cognitive crafting. Methods. This research is an applied one in terms of purpose, and a descriptive survey research in terms of data gathering method. The statistical population of this study was the nurses of hospitals affiliated to Qom University of Medical Sciences. The sample consisted of 269 nurses and the sampling method was random. The standard questionnaires of Slemp &Vella-Brodrick (2013), Eisenberger et al., (1986) and Felps et al., (2009) were used for data collection on three main variables of the study i.e., job crafting, perceived organizational support and job embeddedness. The data were analyzed by structural equation modeling using Smart PLS3.2.6 software. Results. The findings showed that perceived organizational support had a significant positive effect on the relational (0/651 path coefficient) and cognitive (0/681 path coefficient) dimensions of job crafting. But this relationship for task crafting was not confirmed (0.836 T Value). In addition, job embeddedness had a significant moderating role in the relationship between perceived organizational support and all aspects of job crafting (0/461, 0.472 and 0.642 path coefficients). That is to say, employees with job embeddedness, upon perceiving organizational support, were more likely to do job crafting in all three task, relational and cognitive dimensions. Conclusion. Since the results showed that perceived organizational support affects job crafting in relational and cognitive dimensions, we suggest managers of Qom University of Medical Sciences pay due attention to perceived organizational support in the complexity of today's jobs and the need to consider the role of employees in designing their jobs
Introduction: Due to the development of new technologies, health information sources have become more diverse. Despite these, there is a limited knowledge about the main sources of cancer information, their usefulness and credibility, and the determinants of source credibility. This study aims to identify and evaluate the main information sources of colorectal cancer (CRC), their usefulness, and credibility of the sources. Methods: This was an applied cross-sectional research performed descriptively in Tehran, 2019. A sample of 386 outpatients who visited gastroenterologists were selcted using non-probability homogeneous purposive sampling. Each respondent filled a self-administered questionnaire designed based on study objectives. Data analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software version 21. Results: Out of 10 sources, Internet (45%), physicians (36.5%), and television (8.1%) were introduced as the main sources of information, respectively. Among the first three sources of information, physicians were perceived as the provider of the most useful information (3.8 out of 5), followed by television (3.5) and friends (3.5). In terms of source credibility, among three sources that received the most responses, physicians ranked first, followed by the Internet and television. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that the Internet, physicians, and television are the three main sources of CRC information, respectively. Despite the rapid development of new communication technologies, in healthcare setting, interpersonal communication is still more credible than new and mainstream media. The potential of new media and the credibility of professionals provide a proper path to achive health goals.
A test is a tool for making quantified value judgments and/or comparisons, and a good test is a bias-free gauge that does its value judgments and quantifications with precision. This requires that the test be at least reliable. In applied linguistics in general, and in TESOL in specific, the question of test reliability has always been at the forefront of all test construction activities. As high-stakes gate-keeping tests gained more and more importance in a globalizing post-industrial world, the statistical procedures used to estimate their reliability indices, too, became more and more complex and precise. Classical Test Theory (CTT) is no longer preached, and test developers and testing agencies have resorted to Generalizability Theory (G-Theory) and Item Response Theory (IRT) as their main dishes; more recently, they have decided to spice up their activities with Differential Item Functioning (DIF). This paper seeks to provide the less-versed reader with a short and simple account of these topics. The aim of this paper is to turn the tumid prose describing complex mathematical and statistical topics in psychometrics and measurement into readable English so that students less versed in the field can make sense of them, and university professors can use the paper as a simple and informative source in their teaching activities.
Numerical stability of the Filon–Clenshaw–Curtis rules is considered, when applied to oscillatory integrals with the linear oscillator. The following results are proved: (1) the coefficients of the (N+1)-point rule, for any N>2, never lie in a right sector of the complex plane; (2) the coefficients of the 2-point rule lie in a right sector only when k∈[dπ-3π/4,dπ-π/4), for any integer d>0 large enough; and (3) the coefficients of the 3-point rule lie in a right sector only when k∈(dπ-π/2,dπ-π/4), for any integer d>0 large enough. These results imply that the condition numbers associated with the 2-point and the 3-point rules are bounded by π/2 when k satisfies the aforementioned conditions. Then, we extend the stability intervals for k and show that in the following cases, the FCC rules can be applied in a stable manner: (1) the 2-point rule with k far enough from dπ for any integer d>0; (2) the 3-point rule with k∈[dπ-π/2,dπ) far enough from dπ; and (3) the 4-point rule with k∈[dπ-π/2,dπ) far enough from both dπ-π/2 and dπ.
The goal of the present study was to explain the pattern of familiar and unfamiliar relationships influencing moral judgments. In this qualitative study, relationship-based moral judgments were examined according to the constructivist theory. The studied sample included 27 individuals, including 14 women and 13 men (both young and old), living in Tehran. A purposeful sampling method was used. In order to collect data, participants were faced with moral dilemmas using semi-structured interviews. The results showed that emotional intimacy, lack of tolerance for loss of loved ones and avoiding future regrets, group loyalty and common goals, and real or symbolic threats and a negative relationship were factors involved in relationship-based moral judgments. These factors, alone or together with cognitive biases, lead to unfair moral judgments, and after recognizing moral concerns related to ignoring the principle of equality, people tend to use Moral Disengagement mechanisms to reduce self-blame.
Governments have developed and implemented various policies and interventions to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines are now being produced and distributed globally. This study investigated the role of good governance and government effectiveness indicators in the acquisition and administration of COVID-19 vaccines at the population level. Data on six World Bank good governance indicators for 172 countries for 2019 and machine-learning methods (K-Means Method and Principal Component Analysis) were used to cluster countries based on these indicators and COVID-19 vaccination rates. XGBoost was used to classify countries based on their vaccination status and identify the relative contribution of each governance indicator to the vaccination rollout in each country. Countries with the highest COVID-19 vaccination rates (e.g., Israel, United Arab Emirates, United States) also have higher effective governance indicators. Regulatory Quality is the most important indicator in predicting COVID-19 vaccination status in a country, followed by Voice and Accountability, and Government Effectiveness. Our findings suggest that coordinated global efforts led by the World Health Organization and wealthier nations may be necessary to assist in the supply and distribution of vaccines to those countries that have less effective governance.
One of the main factors in promoting the financial and economic efficiency of the firm is corporate governance, which includes a set of relationships between the company's management, board of directors, shareholders, and other stakeholders. Also, the importance of the company's financial management decisions in the optimal allocation of resources and the role of corporate governance in improving it shows the necessity of the subject. Therefore, the amount and direction of the impact of various aspects of corporate governance, including ownership and independence of the board, the share of institutional investors, and duality of CEOs using the financial data of companies on the Tehran Stock Exchange during the period 1393-97. For this purpose, the components of corporate governance are considered as predictor variables, and the variables of leverage, size, and life of the company are considered as control variables. The results show that board share ownership has a significant impact on investment decisions and company performance. Also, the independence of the board of directors as one of the dimensions of corporate governance is significantly related to the three components of financial management decisions.
In studies of early Qurʾānic manuscripts, determining the provenance of these manuscripts is a thorny issue because in most cases they lack endowment notes or colophons. The reports in early Islamic sources regarding textual variants of regional codices ( maṣāḥif al-amṣār ) may contribute to find a solution to this problem. A list of regional variants, mostly based on al-Dānī’s al-Muqniʿ , can be found in Nöldeke et al.’s The History of the Quran . However, as the authors have stated, a comparison of some of the early Qurʾānic manuscripts in the Topkapı Sarayı Museum with this table of maṣāḥif al-amṣār variants indicates that the traditional reports are unreliable for identifying the provenance of Qurʾānic manuscripts because none of these codices can be attributed to any particular region. The present article is an attempt to demonstrate that this problem results from relying solely on the data provided by al-Dānī and ignoring earlier and more significant sources, such as al-Sijistānī’s Kitāb al-Maṣāḥif. It attempts to provide a new and more precise classification of regional variants by reading afresh the reports on the features of maṣāḥif al-amṣār , taking into account the sources which were not used by Nöldeke et al., especially al-Sijistānī’s Kitāb al-Maṣāḥif , thus making the list of maṣāḥif al-amṣār variants more accurate, thereby the variants of each of these early Qurʾānic Codices tally more with the reports preserved for the characteristics of one of the maṣāḥif al-amṣār in literary sources. As the texts of the surviving manuscripts are not of a diverse nature we are able, with some certainty, to draw conclusions that substantiate the reports as to the peculiarities of the muṣḥaf s of different cities.
This essay revisits the question of alterations in Marx’s view of method from the 1857 “Introduction” to Capital. In the wake of the belated upsurge of interest in Marx’s notebooks of 1857–8, posthumously published as the Grundrisse, a dominant interpretation has been developed in Marx scholarship which characterizes the method of the “Introduction” as an ascent from the (transhistorical) abstract to the (historical) concrete and, upon such characterization, stresses the mature Marx’s departure from it. Rereading the 1857 “Introduction” with an emphasis on the theoretical import of its examples, I argue, against this interpretation, that although this text does not provide a fully worked-out account of method, it nevertheless offers invaluable insights into some of the central methodological problems with which Marx was concerned and in response to which his dialectical method was developed. In particular, I highlight what could be called Marx’s critical historicist approach to the categories and argue that this approach, together with his specific understanding of the process of the reproduction of the concrete in thought, constitute the lasting pillars of Marx’s dialectical method, in the 1857 “Introduction” as well as in Capital. Finally, in a concluding section, I re-examine the methodological status of the commodity and argue that the post-1857 emergence of the commodity as Marx’s favourite starting point does not represent a fundamental change, or a reversal, in his view of method.
The importance of natural resource revenues in resource-rich countries is one of the main issues in the last two decades. Meanwhile, the major impact of financial development has been neglected during the process of accessing resource-based sustainable economic growth. Therefore, the novelty of this chapter is related to our special focus on the improving impacts of financial development on natural resource rents–human capital nexus in resource-rich countries. Human capital is a critical precondition for economic development. So, to test the main hypothesis, the ARDL rolling regression technique for the case of Iran over the period of 1970–2014 is applied. The empirical results show that through accelerating financial depth and the more relative importance of deposit money banks than the central bank, the impact of resource rents on human capital accumulation is improved in the long run. However, such a finding is not approved by the multilateral financial development index.
There are different approaches to teach a foreign or second language to non-native speakers in the world of education. Learning vocabulary is the most important one within the language learning process; as a result, improving students’ knowledge about vocabulary in a language has a priority in language teaching. Fillmore’s Frame Semantics Theory (Fillmore CJ, Speech, place and action. John Wiley, London, 1982) is one of the newest methods in the field of Cognitive Semantics that utilizes frame semantics to teach vocabulary. It is believed that the meanings of words are perceived within a system of knowledge arisen from the human cultural experience and semantic frames which display sections of an event used for connecting a group of words to a set of meanings. On the other hand, verbs are the most important elements in events and play a significant role in the interpretation of the meaning, too. This chapter addresses the extent of appropriateness of frame semantics to teach Persian vocabulary to non-native speakers. To this end, we selected the verb /∫odæn/ (to become) as a complex and controversial Persian verb and discuss its semantic properties within frame semantics to determine its senses and create a frame semantic model to be used for teaching.
Background given the lack of sufficient information and research about phonological acquisition in the Kurdish language, the aim of this study was to examine phonological acquisition in typically developing Kurdish-speaking children. Three analyses were performed: (1) the age of customary, acquisition and mastery production of Kurdish consonants; (2) phonological accuracy and the age of phonological pattern suppression; and (3) effect of age and sex on speech sound acquisition. Methods this research assessed 120 monolingual Kurdish-speaking children aged 3;0 to 5;0 years. The participants were selected randomly from the health center of Bukan city, Iran. Acquisition of 29 Kurdish consonants was assessed using the Kurdish Speech Test. Findings results found that Kurdish-speaking children had acquired all the vowels before 3;0 and all the consonants in the three positions of initial, medial and final up to 4;6 years old, with the exception of /ʤ/ in initial position, /ɣ/ in medial position and /ʒ/, /z/, /ɡ/, /ɣ/ in final position. Consonant production in initial position was more accurate than in medial and final positions. The accuracy of Kurdish vowels and consonants improves with increasing age as phonological patterns decrease. There was no significant sex difference within the age groups; however, overall, a statistically significant difference was noted for fricative production and for production of word final consonants in the older groups with females outperforming males. Conclusions the present study is the first investigation of speech sound acquisition in Kurdish-speaking children. Knowledge of typical speech sound acquisition provides a basis for speech-language pathologists working with Kurdish-speaking children to differentiate children with typical development from those with speech delays and speech sound disorders.
Background: People are still not prepared for earthquakes in vulnerable areas although preparedness considered an effective way of reducing the disastrous consequences. A proper tool was needed to assess the predicting factors of mitigation behaviors in a large vulnerable community who speak Persian. This study aimed to introduce the valid and reliable Persian version of public intention to prepare against earthquakes. Methods: Translation, validation and reliability checking articulated according to the standard methodology for Forward-Backward translation and psychometric evaluation. Totally, 369 Tehran households were selected through stratified random sampling from Oct 2016 to Jun 2017. Exploratory Factor Analysis used to check the construct validity of all scales. Results: Face, content and construct validity of all scales confirmed (S-CVR: .65) and (S-CVI/Universal: .98). The finalized Persian version (69 items in 8 scales) showed good reliability over time in test-retest (ICC: .92) and high internal consistency both in the pilot (α: .94) and main studies (α: .94). No significant floor and ceiling effects were found in any of scales. Conclusion: Persian version of Earthquake Public Intention to Prepare is applicable as a valid and reliable instrument for research regarding disaster preparedness in Persian speaking communities.
Iran's policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic illustrates how countries with pre-existing challenges manage acute crises. Already economically weakened by international sanctions, Iran's government was forced to consider short-term tradeoffs between public health and social stability in pandemic response, with imminent unemployment and food insecurity used to justify a policy pivot from mitigation to economic continuity. This article investigates the policy responses of Iran's government during the crucial first months of the pandemic, using data obtained through interviews structured around SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) and interpreted to elicit insights for policy capacity theory and practice. Explanations for Iran's initially ineffective pandemic response are found to include weakness in economic policy, failure to coordinate public health initiatives, priority of treatment over prevention, insufficient public engagement, and inadequate healthcare facilities. Policy recommendations emerging from the study are comprehensive and coordinated pandemic management efforts, community-based and proactive approaches, targeted economic stimulus, and a clear policy vision for crisis resolution. The discussion integrates policy capacity into explanations and recommendations to illustrate the applied value of the concept in crisis settings characterized by uncertainty and rapid onset.
The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the status and design of the scenario space of social factors affecting rural depopulation in Nazar Kahrizi, Hashtroud County. The present study is a descriptive–analytic study. The required data were prepared in order to explain the studied problem, and the study was conducted using survey techniques and field operations, as well as MicMac software. The results of the first step of the research also indicated the current significance of this factor in rural depopulation of the studied area. The first step in planning for migration control in the region is attention to and emphasis on the social factor of management. The two indices of “communicational services” and “public education” were identified as intermediate indices that affect the “relative deprivation” index. In contrast, they are affected by the “management” index, where the realization of the superstructure index of research.
Governments have developed and implemented various policies and interventions to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines are now being produced and distributed globally. This study investigates the role of good governance and government effectiveness indicators in the acquisition and administration of COVID-19 vaccines at the population level. Data on six World Bank good governance indicators for 172 countries for 2019 and machine-learning methods (K-Means Method and Principal Component Analysis) were used to cluster countries based on these indicators and COVID-19 vaccination rates. XGBoost was used to classify countries based on their vaccination status and identify the relative contribution of each governance indicator to the vaccination rollout in each country. Countries with the highest COVID-19 vaccination rates (e.g., Israel, United Arab Emirates, United States) also have higher effective governance indicators. Regulatory Quality is the most important indicator in predicting COVID-19 vaccination status in a country, followed by Voice and Accountability, and Government Effectiveness. Our findings suggest that coordinated global efforts led by the World Health Organization and wealthier nations may be necessary to assist in the supply and distribution of vaccines to those countries that have less effective governance.
Saffron stigmas are widely used as food additives and as traditional medicine in Iran and many other countries. The unique taste, flavor and pharmaceutical properties of saffron stigmas are due to the presence of three apocarotenoids secondary metabolites crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. There is limited knowledge about the effect of environmental stresses on the metabolism of apocarotenoids in saffron. We analyzed the content of crocin and picrocrocin and the expression of key genes of apocarotenoid biosynthesis pathways (CsCCD2, CsCCD4, CsUGT2, CsCHY-β and CsLCYB) in saffron plants exposed to moderate (90 mM) and high (150 mM) salt (NaCl) concentrations. Measuring ion concentrations in leaves showed an increased accumulation of Na⁺ and decreased uptake of K⁺ in salt treated compared to control plants indicating an effective salt stress. HPLC analysis of apocarotenoids revealed that crocin production was significantly halted (P < 0.05) with increasing salt concentration while picrocrocin level did not change with moderate salt but significantly dropped by high salt concentration. Real-time PCR analysis revealed a progressive decrease in transcript levels of CsUGT2 and CsLCYB genes with increasing salt concentration (P < 0.05). The expression of CsCCD2 and CsCHY-β tolerated moderate salt concentration but significantly downregulated with high salt concentration. CsCCD4 however responded differently to salt concentration being decreased with moderate salt but increased at higher salt concentration. Our result suggested that salt stress had an adverse effect on the production of saffron apocarotenoids and it is likely influencing the quality of saffron stigma produced.
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