Measuring subjective well-being in a multidimensional, valid, reliable, and parsimonious way is important for both social science research and social policy. Here, we present an efficient measure of distinct domains of subjective well-being and overall flourishing. The Flourishing Index (FI) consists of five sub-domains: 1. happiness and life satisfaction, 2. physical and mental health, 3. meaning and purpose, 4. character and virtue, and 5. close social relationships. The Secure Flourishing Index (SFI) adds the sub-domain financial and material stability, which is thought to be necessary to sustain the other domains over time. We developed a German version of these measures in a multi-stage translation and scale testing process. The results of an exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 ( N = 192) suggest a unidimensional structure of the FI and a two-dimensional structure of the SFI. Moreover, both indices (and most sub-domains) revealed acceptable to good reliability. The factor structures were confirmed in Study 2 ( N = 13,268). We provide indications for measurement invariance of both indices with regard to gender and age. We furthermore examined inter-correlations with related constructs such as importance of health, self-efficacy, and social support. Study 3 ( N = 317) finds evidence for high convergent validity of both the FI and the SFI with overall well-being as well as sub-scores of the PERMA-Profiler. These results suggest that the FI and the SFI are efficient measures of distinct domains of subjective well-being and overall flourishing. Our translation of the FI and SFI, along with the empirical relationships that we found among the measures that we reviewed, will help scholars in Germany (and beyond) explore an expanded range of domains of well-being, including the comparatively neglected domains of character and virtue, physical health, and financial and material stability.
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) interacts with replication protein A (RPA), the major ssDNA-binding protein, to promote deamination of cytosine to uracil in transcribed immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) acts in concert with AID during Ig diversification. In addition, UNG preserves genome integrity by base-excision repair (BER) in the overall genome. How UNG is regulated to support both mutagenic processing and error-free repair remains unknown. UNG is expressed as two isoforms, UNG1 and UNG2, which both contain an RPA-binding helix that facilitates uracil excision from RPA-coated ssDNA. However, the impact of this interaction in antibody diversification and genome maintenance has not been investigated. Here, we generated B-cell clones with targeted mutations in the UNG RPA-binding motif, and analysed class switch recombination (CSR), mutation frequency (5′ Ig Sμ), and genomic uracil in clones representing seven Ung genotypes. We show that the UNG:RPA interaction plays a crucial role in both CSR and repair of AID-induced uracil at the Ig loci. By contrast, the interaction had no significant impact on total genomic uracil levels. Thus, RPA coordinates UNG during CSR and pre-replicative repair of mutagenic uracil in ssDNA but is not essential in post-replicative and canonical BER of uracil in dsDNA.
Background Owing to their low prevalence, rare diseases are poorly addressed in the scientific literature and clinical practice guidelines. Thus, health care workers are inadequately equipped to provide timely diagnoses, appropriate treatment, and support for these poorly understood conditions. These clinical tribulations are experienced as moral challenges by patients, jeopardizing their life trajectories, dreams, and aspirations. Objective This paper presents an ethical action plan for rare disease care and the process underlying its development. Methods This action plan was designed through an ethical inquiry conducted by the Ethics and Rare Diseases Working Group, which included 3 patient partners, 2 clinician researchers, and 1 representative from Québec’s rare disease association. Results The plan is structured into 4 components. Component A presents the key moral challenges encountered by patients, which are the lack of knowledge on rare diseases among health care workers, the problematic attitudes that it sometimes elicits, and the distress and powerlessness experienced by patients. Component B emphasizes a vision for patient partnership in rare disease care characterized by open-mindedness, empathy, respect, and support of patient autonomy from health care workers. Component C outlines 2 courses of action prompted by this vision: raising awareness among health care workers and empowering patients to better navigate their care. Component D compares several interventions that could help integrate these 2 courses of action in rare disease care. Conclusions Overall, this action plan represents a toolbox that provides a review of multiple possible interventions for policy makers, hospital managers, practitioners, researchers, and patient associations to critically reflect on key moral challenges experienced by patients with rare diseases and ways to mitigate them. This paper also prompts reflection on the values underlying rare disease care, patient experiences, and health care workers’ beliefs and behaviors. Health care workers and patients were the primary beneficiaries of this action plan.
Background: Transition from paediatric to adult care is challenging for youths with a chronic condition. Most transition programmes place high value in autonomy and independence. We undertook a qualitative study to: (1) identify the needs and aspirations of youths and (2) better understand the well-being and flourishing of youths. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with youths, parents of youths and healthcare professionals recruited from four clinics. Thematic analysis focused on: (1) perceptions of transition; (2) key aspects of human flourishing during transition; and (3) salient concerns with respect to the transition and dimensions of human flourishing. Results: 54 interviews were conducted. Perceptions of transition clustered around: (1) apprehension about adult care; (2) lack of clarity about the transition process; (3) emotional attachment to paediatric healthcare professionals; (4) the significance of the coinciding transition into adulthood. Fourteen salient concerns (e.g., Knowledge and information about the transition, Parental involvement in healthcare) were identified with corresponding recommendations. Salient concerns related to important dimensions of human flourishing (e.g., environmental mastery, autonomy). Discussion and conclusion: The flourishing of youths is affected by suboptimal transition practices. We discuss the implications of our findings for environmental mastery, contextual autonomy, and the holistic and humanistic aspects of transition.
Cancer cells often overexpress CD47, which triggers the inhibitory receptor SIRPα expressed on macrophages, to elude phagocytosis and antitumor immunity. Pharmacological blockade of CD47 or SIRPα is showing promise as anticancer therapy, although CD47 blockade has been associated with hematological toxicities that may reflect its broad expression pattern on normal cells. Here we found that, in addition to triggering SIRPα, CD47 suppressed phagocytosis by a SIRPα-independent mechanism. This mechanism prevented phagocytosis initiated by the pro-phagocytic ligand, SLAMF7, on tumor cells, due to a cis interaction between CD47 and SLAMF7. The CD47–SLAMF7 interaction was disrupted by CD47 blockade and by a first-in-class agonist SLAMF7 antibody, but not by SIRPα blockade, thereby promoting antitumor immunity. Hence, CD47 suppresses phagocytosis not only by engaging SIRPα, but also by masking cell-intrinsic pro-phagocytic ligands on tumor cells and knowledge of this mechanism may influence the decision between CD47 blockade or SIRPα blockade for therapeutic purposes.
Elevated plasma numbers of atherogenic apoB-lipoproteins (apoB), mostly as low-density lipoproteins (LDL), predict diabetes risk by unclear mechanisms. Upregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome/interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) system in white adipose tissue (WAT) is implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, metabolic signals that stimulate it remain unexplored. We hypothesized that (1) subjects with high-apoB have higher WAT IL-1β-secretion than subjects with low-apoB, (2) WAT IL-1β-secretion is associated with T2D risk factors, and (3) LDL prime and/or activate the WAT NLRP3 inflammasome. Forty non-diabetic subjects were assessed for T2D risk factors related to systemic and WAT glucose and fat metabolism. Regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was explored using LDL without/with the inflammasome’s priming and activation controls (LPS and ATP). LDL induced IL1B-expression and IL-1β-secretion in the presence of ATP in WAT and macrophages. Subjects with high-apoB had higher WAT IL-1β-secretion independently of covariates. The direction of association of LDL-induced WAT IL-1β-secretion to T2D risk factors was consistently pathological in high-apoB subjects only. Adjustment for IL-1β-secretion eliminated the association of plasma apoB with T2D risk factors. In conclusion, subjects with high-apoB have higher WAT IL-1β-secretion that may explain their risk for T2D and may be related to LDL-induced priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04496154): Omega-3 to Reduce Diabetes Risk in Subjects With High Number of Particles That Carry "Bad Cholesterol" in the Blood—Full Text View—ClinicalTrials.gov.
Despite effective anti-retroviral therapies, 20-30% of persons with treated HIV infection develop a neurodegenerative syndrome termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). HAND is driven by HIV expression coupled with inflammation in the brain but the mechanisms underlying neuronal damage and death are uncertain. The inflammasome-pyroptosis axis (IPA) coordinates an inflammatory type of regulated lytic cell death that is underpinned by the caspase-activated pore-forming gasdermin proteins. The mechanisms driving neuronal pyroptosis were investigated herein in models of HAND, using multi-platform molecular and morphological approaches that included brain tissues from persons with HAND and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primates as well as cultured human neurons. Neurons in the frontal cortices from persons with HAND showed increased cleaved gasdermin E (GSDME), which was associated with βIII-tubulin degradation and increased HIV levels. Exposure of cultured human neurons to the HIV-encoded viral protein R (Vpr) elicited time-dependent cleavage of GSDME and Ninjurin-1 (NINJ1) induction with associated cell lysis that was inhibited by siRNA suppression of both proteins. Upstream of GSDME cleavage, Vpr-exposure resulted in activation of caspases-1 and -3. Pre-treatment of Vpr-exposed neurons with the caspase-1 inhibitor, VX-765, reduced cleavage of both caspase-3 and GSDME, resulting in diminished cell death. To validate these findings, we examined frontal cortical tissues from SIV-infected macaques, disclosing increased expression of GSDME and NINJ1 in cortical neurons, which was co-localized with caspase-3 detection in animals with neurological disease. Thus, HIV infection of the brain triggers the convergent activation of caspases-1 and -3, which results in GSDME-mediated neuronal pyroptosis in persons with HAND. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which a viral infection causes pyroptotic death in neurons while also offering new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for HAND and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Infection is able to promote innate immunity by enhancing a long-term myeloid output even after the inciting infectious agent has been cleared. However, the mechanisms underlying such a regulation are not fully understood. Using a mouse polymicrobial peritonitis (sepsis) model, we show that severe infection leads to increased, sustained myelopoiesis after the infection is resolved. In post-infection mice, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) is constitutively upregulated. TIMP1 antagonizes the function of ADAM10, an essential cleavage enzyme for the activation of the Notch signaling pathway, which suppresses myelopoiesis. While TIMP1 is dispensable for myelopoiesis under the steady state, increased TIMP1 enhances myelopoiesis after infection. Thus, our data establish TIMP1 as a molecular reporter of past infection in the host, sustaining hyper myelopoiesis and serving as a potential therapeutic target for modulating HSPC cell fate.
Introduction: The PAQosome is a 12-subunit complex that acts as a co-factor of the molecular chaperones HSP90 and HSP70. This co-chaperone has been shown to participate in assembly and maturation of several protein complexes, including nuclear RNA polymerases, RNA processing factors, the ribosome, PIKKs, and others. Subunits of the PAQosome, adaptors, and clients have been reported to be involved in various diseases, making them interesting targets for drug discovery. Area covered: In this review, the authors cover the detailed mechanisms of PAQosome and chaperone function. Specifically, the authors summarize the status of the PAQosome and some related chaperones and co-chaperones as candidate targets for drug discovery. Indeed, a number of compounds are currently being tested for the development of treatments against diseases, such as cancers and neurodegenerative conditions. Expert opinion: Searching for new drugs targeting the PAQosome requires a better understanding of PAQosome subunit interactions and the discovery of new interaction partners. Thus, PAQosome subunit crystallization is an important experiment to initiate virtual screening against new target and the development of in silico tools such as AlphaFold-multimer could accelerate the search for new interaction partner and determine more rapidly the interaction pocket needed for virtual drug screening.
RNA polymerase III-related leukodystrophy (POLR3-related leukodystrophy) is a rare, genetically determined hypomyelinating disease arising from biallelic pathogenic variants in genes encoding subunits of RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Here, we describe the first reported case of POLR3-related leukodystrophy caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in POLR3D , encoding the RPC4 subunit of Pol III. The individual, a female, demonstrated delays in walking and expressive and receptive language as a child and later cognitively plateaued. Additional neurological features included cerebellar signs (e.g., dysarthria, ataxia, and intention tremor) and dysphagia, while non-neurological features included hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and dysmorphic facial features. Her MRI was notable for diffuse hypomyelination with myelin preservation of early myelinating structures, characteristic of POLR3-related leukodystrophy. Exome sequencing revealed the biallelic variants in POLR3D , a missense variant (c.541C > T, p.P181S) and an intronic splice site variant (c.656-6G > A, p.?). Functional studies of the patient’s fibroblasts demonstrated significantly decreased RNA-level expression of POLR3D , along with reduced expression of other Pol III subunit genes. Notably, Pol III transcription was also shown to be aberrant, with a significant decrease in 7SK RNA and several distinct tRNA genes analyzed. Affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry of the POLR3D p.P181S variant showed normal assembly of Pol III subunits yet altered interaction of Pol III with the PAQosome chaperone complex, indicating the missense variant is likely to alter complex maturation. This work identifies biallelic pathogenic variants in POLR3D as a novel genetic cause of POLR3-related leukodystrophy, expanding the molecular spectrum associated with this disease, and proposes altered tRNA homeostasis as a factor in the underlying biology of this hypomyelinating disorder.
NTPDase1/CD39, the major vascular ectonucleotidase, exerts thrombo-immunoregulatory function by controlling endothelial P2 receptor activation. Despite the well-described release of ATP from endothelial cells, few data are available regarding the potential role of CD39 as a regulator of arterial diameter. We thus investigated the contribution of CD39 in short-term diameter adaptation and long-term arterial remodeling in response to flow using Entpd1−/− male mice. Compared to wild-type littermates, endothelial-dependent relaxation was modified in Entpd1−/− mice. Specifically, the vasorelaxation in response to ATP was potentiated in both conductance (aorta) and small resistance (mesenteric and coronary) arteries. By contrast, the relaxing responses to acetylcholine were supra-normalized in thoracic aortas while decreased in resistance arteries from Entpd1−/− mice. Acute flow-mediated dilation, measured via pressure myography, was dramatically diminished and outward remodeling induced by in vivo chronic increased shear stress was altered in the mesenteric resistance arteries isolated from Entpd1−/− mice compared to wild-types. Finally, changes in vascular reactivity in Entpd1−/− mice were also evidenced by a decrease in the coronary output measured in isolated perfused hearts compared to the wild-type mice. Our results highlight a key regulatory role for purinergic signaling and CD39 in endothelium-dependent short- and long-term arterial diameter adaptation to increased flow.
The type 1 interferon-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 reduces surface expression of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) and their packaging into nascent virions, a condition that restricts viral infectivity. However, how HIV-1 counters this restriction, notably during infection of macrophages, remains unclear. Here, we show that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu increases the levels of microRNAs-25 and -93 to target MARCH1 mRNA. By recruiting β-TRCP, a component of the SCF β-TRCP E3 ligase complex that targets phosphorylated β-catenin for degradation, Vpu increases β-catenin levels, which, in concert with TCF4/LEF, drives transcription of the MARCH1 -targeting microRNAs. This potentiates HIV-1 infectivity as a result of increased Env incorporation into nascent virions. Pharmacological targeting of the β-catenin pathway inhibits Vpu-mediated upregulation of microRNAs-25 and -93 and restores MARCH1 restriction on HIV-1 infectivity. Overall, our findings highlight a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 counteracts MARCH1 by downregulating its expression via Vpu-mediated induction of microRNAs-25 and -93. IMPORTANCE In order to efficiently produce infectious viral particles, HIV must counter several restrictions exerted by host cell antiviral proteins. MARCH1 is a member of the MARCH protein family that restricts HIV infection by limiting the incorporation of viral envelope glycoproteins into nascent virions. Here, we identified two regulatory RNAs, microRNAs-25 and -93, induced by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, that downregulate MARCH1 mRNA. We also show that Vpu induces these cellular microRNAs in macrophages by hijacking the cellular β-catenin pathway. The notion that HIV-1 has evolved a mechanism to counteract MARCH1 restriction on viral infectivity underlines the importance of MARCH1 in the host antiviral response.
Aims: Ease of use and acceptability of nasal vs injectable glucagon among pediatric responders has been little investigated. This study compared the performance of administering nasal and injectable glucagon in parents of youth with type 1 diabetes and in school workers. Enablers and barriers associated with each glucagon and preferred glucagon administration learning modality were also evaluated. Methods: Three months after watching short pedagogical videos, 30 parents and 30 school workers performed simulated scenarios where they administered both glucagon. Completion time and successful execution of critical steps were collected. Interviews assessed preferred learning modalities, barriers, and enablers associated with each glucagon. Results: Both groups administered nasal glucagon faster than injectable glucagon [median (interquartile range): parents 19(12-29) vs 97(71-117) seconds, p<0.001; school workers 24(16-33) vs 129(105-165) seconds, p<0.001]. A lower proportion of participants successfully executed all critical steps for injectable vs nasal glucagon [significant difference for school workers (53% vs 90%; p=0.007) but not for parents (68% vs 83%; p=0.227)]. Nasal glucagon was preferred for ease of use and acceptability. Preferred learning modalities were a combination of videos and workshops, but videos alone could suffice for nasal glucagon. Conclusions: Nasal glucagon is faster to use, more likely to be successfully administered, and more acceptable than injectable glucagon for parents of children with type 1 diabetes and school workers. Nasal glucagon training with videos could improve school workers' involvement in severe hypoglycemia management.
Growth Factor Independence 1 (GFI1) is a DNA-binding transcription factor and a key regulator of haematopoiesis. GFI1-36N is a germline variant causing a change of serine (S) to asparagine (N) at position 36. We previously reported that the GFI1-36N allele has a prevalence of 10-15% among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 5-7% among healthy Caucasians and promotes the development of this disease. Using a multi-omics approach, we show here that GFI1-36N expression is associated with increased frequencies of chromosomal aberrations, mutational burden and mutational signatures in both murine and human AML and impedes homologous recombination-directed (HR) DNA repair in leukemic cells. GFI1-36N exhibits impaired binding to N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (Ndrg1) regulatory elements, causing decreased NDRG1 levels, which leads to a reduction of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) expression levels illustrated by both transcriptome and proteome analyses. Targeting MGMT via temozolomide, a DNA alkylating drug, and HR via olaparib, a PARP1 inhibitor, caused synthetic lethality in human and murine AML samples expressing GFI1-36N, whereas the effects were insignificant in non-malignant GFI1-36S or GFI1-36N cells. In addition, mice transplanted with GFI1-36N leukemic cells treated with a combination of temozolomide and olaparib had significantly longer AML-free survival than mice transplanted with GFI1-36S leukemic cells. This suggests that reduced MGMT expression leaves GFI1-36N leukemic cells particularly vulnerable to DNA damage initiating chemotherapeutics. Our data provide critical insights into novel options to treat AML patients carrying the GFI1-36N variant.
Background While numerous studies have described the transcriptomes of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in different cellular contexts, these efforts have typically relied on sequencing methods requiring RNA fragmentation, which limits interpretations on the integrity and isoform diversity of EV-targeted RNA populations. It has been assumed that mRNA signatures in EVs are likely to be fragmentation products of the cellular mRNA material, and the extent to which full-length mRNAs are present within EVs remains to be clarified. Results Using long-read nanopore RNA sequencing, we sought to characterize the full-length polyadenylated (poly-A) transcriptome of EVs released by human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. We detected 443 and 280 RNAs that were respectively enriched or depleted in EVs. EV-enriched poly-A transcripts consist of a variety of biotypes, including mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and pseudogenes. Our analysis revealed that 10.58% of all EV reads, and 18.67% of all cellular (WC) reads, corresponded to known full-length transcripts, with mRNAs representing the largest biotype for each group (EV = 58.13%, WC = 43.93%). We also observed that for many well-represented coding and non-coding genes, diverse full-length transcript isoforms were present in EV specimens, and these isoforms were reflective-of but often in different ratio compared to cellular samples. Conclusion This work provides novel insights into the compositional diversity of poly-A transcript isoforms enriched within EVs, while also underscoring the potential usefulness of nanopore sequencing to interrogate secreted RNA transcriptomes.
Addiction is a common condition affecting millions of people worldwide of which only a small proportion receives treatment. The development and use of healthcare services is influenced by how addiction is understood (e.g., a condition to treat, a shameful condition to stigmatize), notably with respect to how volition is impacted (e.g., addiction as a choice or a disease beyond one’s control). Through semi-structured qualitative interviews, we explore the implicit views and understandings of addiction and volition across three stakeholder groups: people with lived experience of addiction, clinicians with experience treating addiction, and members of the public without lived experience of addiction. We notably examine whether three paradigms, i.e., three philosophical sets of understandings about the nature of reality and knowledge (realism, relativism, pragmatism) reflect how stakeholders envision addiction and volition in the context of addiction. The use of these paradigms allows for the characterization of different stances on addiction and volition and an assessment of the coherence of beliefs about these matters. Our findings demonstrate that few participants relied on a single epistemic paradigm when describing their views. Furthermore, there were notable differences in understandings of volition between the clinician group, who were more oriented toward pragmatism, and people with lived experience of addiction, who were less oriented toward realism. Despite its limitations, our study suggests that a greater appreciation for the complexity of views held by different stakeholders about addiction and volition could help critically assess the search for coherence expressed in academic and policy debates.
TFIIH is an essential transcription initiation factor for RNA polymerase II (RNApII). This multi-subunit complex comprises two modules that are physically linked by the subunit Tfb3 (MAT1 in metazoans). The TFIIH Core Module, with two DNA-dependent ATPases and several additional subunits, promotes DNA unwinding. The TFIIH Kinase Module phosphorylates Serine 5 of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNApII subunit Rpb1, a modification that coordinates exchange of initiation and early elongation factors. While it is not obvious why these two disparate activities are bundled into one factor, the connection may provide temporal coordination during early initiation. Here we show that Tfb3 can be split into two parts to uncouple the TFIIH modules. The resulting cells grow slower than normal, but are viable. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of the split TFIIH shows that the Core Module, but not the Kinase, is properly recruited to promoters. Instead of the normal promoter-proximal peak, high CTD Serine 5 phosphorylation is seen throughout transcribed regions. Therefore, coupling the TFIIH modules is necessary to localize and limit CTD kinase activity to early stages of transcription. These results are consistent with the idea that the two TFIIH modules began as independent functional entities that became connected by Tfb3 during early eukaryotic evolution.
Background It is still unelucidated how hormonal alterations affect developing organisms and their descendants. Particularly, the effects of androgen levels are of clinical relevance as they are usually high in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Moreover, it is still unknown how androgens may affect males’ health and their descendants. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the multigenerational effect of prenatal androgen excess until a second generation at early developmental stages considering both maternal and paternal effects. Design And Methods This is an animal model study. Female rats (F0) were exposed to androgens during pregnancy by injections of 1 mg of testosterone to obtain prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) animals (F1), leading to a well—known animal model that resembles PCOS features. A control (C) group was obtained by vehicle injections. The PH-F1 animals were crossed with C males (m) or females (f) and C animals were also mated, thus obtaining 3 different mating groups: Cf × Cm, PHf × Cm, Cf × PHm and their offspring (F2). Results F1-PHf presented altered glucose metabolism and lipid profile compared to F1-C females. In addition, F1-PHf showed an increased time to mating with control males compared to the C group. At gestational day 14, we found alterations in glucose and total cholesterol serum levels and in the placental size of the pregnant F1-PHf and Cf mated to F1-PHm. The F2 offspring resulting from F1-PH mothers or fathers showed alterations in their growth, size, and glucose metabolism up to early post-natal development in a sex-dependent manner, being the females born to F1-PHf the most affected ones. Conclusion androgen exposure during intrauterine life leads to programing effects in females and males that affect offspring health in a sex-dependent manner, at least up-to a second generation. In addition, this study suggests paternally mediated effects on the F2 offspring development.
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