Institución Universitaria Politécnico Grancolombiano
Recent publications
A partir de un reconocimiento del significado de trabajo en la historia del hombre, el presente artículo expone las diferentes maneras como se ha concebido el trabajo desde la profunda transformación de las sociedades campesinas a las ciudades levemente industrializadas con las que culminó la Edad Media, dando así inicio a la denominada Modernidad; el hito histórico del descubrimiento de América con los grandes contrastes de una sociedad avanzada y unos grupos indígenas con sus saberes ancestrales propios de sus culturas nativas, que lentamente se vieron obligados a adaptar sus saberes a los de sus colonizadores y en algunos casos conquistadores, hasta el pensamiento contemporáneo en donde el trabajo intelectual cobra especial fuerza y valor social y, finalmente, es expuesto el concepto de trabajo en Latinoamérica hasta finales del siglo XX.
The goal of this chapter is to present how security and safety in the workplace, humanistic management, and humanistic psychology have become a fundamental pillar for the fulfillment of business objectives and the intervention on social and environmental issues, all the while recognizing human talent as the main axis for organizational development. For this purpose, the authors rely on two main axes: the first, the prevention of occupational hazards abiding by the guidelines established by different international organisms, including the implementation of governmental policies for the management of occupational safety and health in Latin America and mainly in Colombia; the second, the point of view of business administration, starting with their evolutionary process and leading to the new tendencies in administration such as B companies and businesses with purpose, all of which focus on an economy where success is measures by the wellbeing of people, societies, and nature.
This multiple case study of nine entrepreneurial ventures with social emphasis operating in Colombia, Peru, and Chile identifies vital elements that make these firms impactful in three dimensions: economic, environmental, and social. The results found that the founder's proximity to the social/ecological problem is a trigger to start up a business. The “purpose” is a motivational factor to both start up a business and keep the business during hard times, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose is the fuel, but it does not guarantee the success of the company. The value proposition is the critical factor for success. These companies are continually re-inventing and changing their value proposition while keeping the purpose of the organization as a keystone. The authors shed light on a model for social entrepreneurship in South America.
Se evaluaron niveles de satisfacción y lealtad del cliente en las aerolíneas de bajo costo y convencionales en Colombia. El enfoque fue cuantitativo, se aplicó una encuesta a 421 usuarios en el aeropuerto El Dorado, de Bogotá. La brecha que separa a estos tipos de aerolíneas es cada vez más reducida, aunque sigue existiendo un diferencial entre la satisfacción que expresan los clientes; el modelo de bajo costo hace que sus pasajeros estén menos satisfechos y, por lo tanto, sean menos leales. Existe una alta correlación entre satisfacción y lealtad: 0.81 para las tradicionales y 0.85 para las de bajo costo.
El presente artículo tiene como objetivo identificar los factores asociados a la adopción de la banca electrónica en México, utilizando la Encuesta de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación del INEGI 2019; para lo cual, se utilizó el modelo probabilístico Logit y el modelo supervisado de árboles de decisión. Los resultados de esta investigación pretenden dar insumos para formular políticas públicas y estrategias de inclusión financiera. Entre las limitantes se encuentran los datos perdidos de variables de gran importancia, así como la no disponibilidad de características más específicas de la población. La aportación original es el uso de herramientas de aprendizaje profundo en el análisis de la adopción de banca electrónica para una economía en desarrollo. Se concluyó que: los individuos con mayor nivel educativo, usuarios frecuentes de Internet, de estratos socioeconómicos altos y habitantes de los centros urbanos más poblados, son quienes adoptan fácilmente la banca electrónica.
The concept of sustainable consumption has been described in the literature from different perspectives, but few have focused on defining the consumer perspective and strategies to appropriate this knowledge and behaviors in the classroom, which becomes a major challenge in times of Covid 19 and confinement. This article proposes an approach to the concept by university students from the implementation of a pedagogical strategy, which involved the implementation of a virtual learning community and the evaluation of the understanding of this concept through the use of mind maps (pre and post). Through the mind maps, data were collected to evaluate the understanding of the concept, the analysis of semantic richness and systemic complexity. The results show the associations established by the students, proposing a categorization system arising from the data and the previous literature review. The study concludes that the students broadened their vision of sustainable consumption in terms of the actors involved, consumption decisions and the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability.
This study evaluates the performance of different agricultural by-products to identify the potential effect of independent variables, using as the dependent variable the biogas production. A Box–Behnken experimental design was carried out in a pilot-scale plant of four stirred stainless-steel digesters under mesophilic semi-continuous digestion. The results obtained support the creation of a technical framework to scale up the process and further evaluation of the potential environmental impacts through life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A stable behaviour was achieved in 12 of the 13 experiments proposed. The highest value of daily biogas production was 2200.15 mL day−1 with a stabilization time of 14 days, an organic loading rate of 4 g VS feed daily, low C/N ratio and a 1:1 relation of nitrogen providers. The concentrations of CH4 remained stable after the production stabilization and an average biogas composition of 60.6% CH4, 40.1% CO2 and 0.3% O2 was obtained for the conditions mentioned above. Therefore, the real scale plant was estimated to manage 2.67 tonnes of residual biomass per day, generating 369.69 kWh day−1 of electricity. The LCA analysis confirms that the co-digestion process evaluated is a feasible and environmentally sustainable option for the diversification of the Colombian energy matrix and the development of the agro-industrial sector.
Los estudiantes exitosos se concentran con frecuencia en las regiones con mayores recursos. Este trabajo indaga la posible incidencia de la ubicación geográfica de la región de los estudiantes sobre su logro, evaluado externamente en programas universitarios de pregrado (presenciales, virtuales y a distancia) de ciencias económicas en instituciones de educación superior en Colombia. Se realizó un análisis mediante modelos georreferenciados y geolocalizados utilizando resultados de evaluación de los estudiantes del sistema FTP-Instituto Colombiano para la Evaluación de la Educación y de la División Político-Administrativa. Se hallaron altos logros en modalidad presencial en regiones centrales como Bogotá y Antioquia, pero también en regiones apartadas en modalidad a distancia tradicional, a pesar de que la ubicación no mostró tendencias estadísticamente significativas en el Modelo de Autocorrelación Espacial I de Moran. Se discuten las tendencias encontradas y los posibles límites de este modelo.
The Electronic Health Record (EHR) has brought numerous challenges since its inception that have prevented a unified implementation from being carried out in Colombia. Within these challenges, we find a lack of security, auditability, and interoperability. Moreover, there is no general vision of the patient’s history throughout its life since different systems store the information separately. This lack of unified history leads to multiple risks for patients’ lives and the leakage of private data because each system has different mechanisms to safeguard and protect the information, and in several cases, these mechanisms do not exist. Many researchers tried to build multiple information systems attempting to solve this problem. However, these systems do not have a formal and rigorous architectural design to analyze and obtain health needs through architectural drivers to construct robust systems to solve these problems. This article describes the process of designing a software architecture that provides security to the information that makes up the Electronic Health Record in Colombia (EHR). Once we obtained the architectural drivers, we proposed Blockchain mainly due to its immutable distributed ledger, consensus algorithms, and smart contracts that securely transport this sensitive information. With this design decision, we carried out the construction of structures and necessary architectural documentation. We also develop a Proof of Concept (POC) using Hyperledger Fabric according to the literature analysis review in order to build a primary health network, in addition to a Smart Contract (Chaincode) using the Go programming language to perform a performance evaluation and do a safety analysis that demonstrates that the proposed design is reliable. The proposed design allows us to conclude that it is possible to build a secure architecture that protects patient health data privacy, facilitating the EHR’s construction in Colombia.
By extracting information from Saber 11 Tests taken by high school students close to finishing that educational period in Colombia, the digital divide evolution over time and its determinants are analyzed using a probabilistic model and the calculation of georeferenced concentration indexes. The topic is relevant as previous studies have shown a positive relationship between access to ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies), educational achievement, and economic growth. It is concluded that the digital divide persists over time and is accentuated in rural areas. Besides, the determinants of access are variable since they are out of the students' control. Therefore, this study deals with the social inequity around the access that students have, depending on their geographical location, into digital scenarios that allow them to increase their intellectual capital on the context of the situated cognition.
En este artículo construyo el concepto de “comunicación menor”, confrontando el pensamiento de Gilles Deleuze (sobre todo en relación a la comunicación y a lo minoritario) con el arte conceptualista latinoamericano, apoyándome principalmente en el trabajo del artista y teórico Luis Camnitzer, que muestra, en particular, la relación entre el conceptualismo latinoamericano y la pedagogía de Paulo Freire. Observo entonces cómo opera dicha comunicación menor en tres propuestas artísticas, lo que me permite identificar tres estrategias posibles, para construir finalmente algunas reflexiones que desarrollan una comunicación menor hoy.
Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is a suitable, inexpensive, and versatile synthesis technique to fabricate different semiconductors under soft conditions. In this study, we deposited Zn(O;OH)S thin films by the CBD method to analyze the effect of the number of thin film layers on structural and optical properties of buffer layers. Thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis transmittance measurements. Furthermore, we simulated a species distribution diagram for Zn(O;OH)S film generation during the deposition process. The optical results showed that the number of layers determined the optical transmittance of buffer layers, and that the transmittance reduced from 90% (with one layer) to 50% (with four layers) at the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The structural characterization indicated that the coatings were polycrystalline (α-ZnS and β-Zn(OH)2 to four layers). Our results suggest that Zn(O;OH)S thin films could be used as buffer layers to replace CdS thin films as an optical window in thin-film solar cells.
This research presents a statistics analysis of the morbidity and mortality of occupational risks as a result of companies and workers affiliated to the General System of Occupational Risks in Colombia during the 2019 and 2020 period, also framed in the events generated due to the pandemic caused by the COVID-19 disease. For this purpose, a quantitative study with descriptive scope was carried out, based on statistical data from the Federation of Colombian Insurers - FASECOLDA, obtained from the different Occupational Risks Administrators. According to the above, a decrease in the number of companies affiliated to the General System of Occupational Risks was observed in November 2019, where a total of 882.283 affiliated companies were registered, while for this same month in 2020, only 826.950 were evidenced. In the same way, this brought with it a decrease in the number of affiliated workers, from 11.032.433 to 10.408.531 workers in the same period, representing a decrease of 6%. On the other hand, it was established that qualified as work-related illnesses increased exponentially from 8.202 illnesses in the year 2019 to a total of 49.788 in 2020, where the most representative increase was evidenced in the Health and Social Services Sector, which increased from 481 cases per year to 34.750, a value corresponding to 70% of the total diseases classified as work-related in 2020. In second place, the Real Estate Sector stands out, which presented an increase from 979 to 5.288 diseases, followed by the Transport, Storage and Communications sector with an increase from 381 to 1.489 cases. Regarding qualified as work related accidents in 2019 and 2020, a decrease of 172.139 cases was established, representing a variation of 28% less. In the same way, the mortality generated by work accidents ranged from 488 to 375, consolidating a 23% of decrease in deaths compared to the previous year, a situation that differs from deaths caused by occupational diseases, which increased from 4 to 76 cases.
Industry 4.0 (I4.0) and Digital Twin (DT) bring together new disruptive technologies, increasing manufacturing productivity. Indeed, the control of production processes is fast becoming a key driver for smart manufacturing operations based on I4.0 and DT. In this connection, intelligent control such as the Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) generates distributed or semi-heterarchical architectures to improve both global efficiency and manufacturing operations’ reactiveness. Still, previous studies and HMS applications often have not dealt with continuous production processes, such as water treatment applications, because of the complexity of continuous production (a single fault can degrade extensively and can even cause a breakdown of production). This work describes a HMS architecture applied to continuous systems, based on Holonic Production Units (HPU). This unit’s cognitive model allows building a DT of the unit employing a hybrid dynamic system. This HMS detects events within the environment through a DT, evaluating various courses of action, and changing the parameters aligned to a mission. The DT was created by a simulated model of a water supply system, considering three scenarios: normal condition and two disrupted scenarios (the unexpected increase of demand and water quality degradation). The experiments apply agent-based modelling software to simulate the communication and decision-making features of the HPU. The results suggest that the construction of a holarchy with heterogeneous holons is potentially able to fulfil I4.0 requirements by DT of a WSS.
OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el efecto de las medidas gubernamentales de aislamiento social para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19, sobre la realización del derecho a la educación en educación formal básica y media en Colombia y en Bogotá. MÉTODOS Y MATERIALES: Se realizó una revisión narrativa de literatura de quince estudios que examinaron diferentes aspectos del derecho a la educación durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en 2020 y 2021, y un análisis descriptivo de datos de fuentes secundarias en aspectos relacionados con el derecho a la educación en la Encuesta Pulso Social del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, DANE (para varias ciudades colombianas capitales de departamentos), y en el estudio “Educación en Bogotá y Covid-19”, de la Fundación para el Progreso de la Región Capital, PROBOGOTÁ, y la Escuela de Gobierno de la Universidad de Los Andes. RESULTADOS Y DISCUSIÓN: en los hogares vulnerables fue constante la interrupción de la continuidad de la educación por falta de acceso a recursos tecnológicos. En ocasiones hubo desajustes de expectativas entre actores en las escuelas y padres de familia, que demandan mayor apoyo de las autoridades educativas. Se logró continuar la educación formal, pero se demanda mayor preparación tecnológica, pedagógica y de soporte emocional para los profesores, y un nuevo rol y responsabilidad en el soporte del hogar a niños y adolescentes en sus estudios. CONCLUSIONES: la mayor afectación de falta de recursos tecnológicos y de apoyo familiar apropiado a estudiantes de contextos vulnerables o de bajos recursos, y el esfuerzo de sus profesores por mantener la actividad educativa, muestran la necesidad de apoyar administrativamente más su preparación y desarrollo de actividades en educación remota y en futuros escenarios de alternancia. Esto debe ser asesorado por centros de formación de educadores y de equipos de investigación interdisciplinarios sobre el hogar, la infancia y la adolescencia.
Lovemarks es un concepto relevante en el ámbito del mercadeo, y por ello es importante estudiarlo en diversos contextos. En el presente tiene por objetivo la evaluación de los atributos de las Lovemarks en el contexto universitario en Bogotá. Para, ello se utilizó un enfoque deductivo, bajo una modalidad de investigación cuantitativa. La población estuvo representada por 198 estudiantes, 9 administrativos, 9 docentes y 25 graduados de diferentes universidades de Bogotá, y como instrumento de recolección de datos se empleó una encuesta de preguntas abiertas y cerradas. Dicha encuesta, demostró que el atributo “respeto”, obtuvo un Path coefficient más favorable, con respecto al “amor”; seguido de “intimidad”, “misterio” y, finalmente, “sensualidad”. Concluyendo que, las Lovemarks se encuentra relacionado con la confianza que los usuarios sienten hacia la marca representada, en este caso por las universidades bogotanas. Dicha confianza es influenciada por el lazo que han creado los estudiantes, administrativos y graduados hacia las mismas. Para futuras investigaciones relacionadas, se sugiere abordar los atributos de la marca en una población mucho más amplia, para tener un mayor ámbito de validez, tomando como referente los hallazgos obtenidos en el presente estudio, de manera que pueda construirse un estudio longitudinal.
En la actualidad la Inteligencia Artificial (IA) es un elemento que hace parte activa dentro de los sistemas jurídicos en diversos países del mundo, y en Colombia se han realizado algunas aproximaciones desde hace algunos años; lo anterior, debido a que el ser humano siempre ha pretendido crear herramientas que le faciliten la vida y que realice por él aquellas funciones operativas y procedimentales que le permitan dedicar su tiempo de trabajo a las actividades propias de la esencia de las ciencias o disciplinas en las que se desempeñan, y es precisamente allí, donde la tecnología ha jugado un papel trascendental en la creación de tipos de inteligencia que satisfaga esa necesidad procurando además generar un servicio a terceros. En razón a esto, el objetivo central de esta investigación fue describir el panorama legal de la IA, respecto de los actos jurídicos propios de los asuntos civiles, laborales, comerciales y administrativos en los que es parte y puede generar daños, en el contexto colombiano, para lo cual se utilizó una investigación documental, y como estrategia el análisis de contenido, generando como principal hallazgo la necesidad de generar un marco normativo alrededor de la responsabilidad de los actos u omisiones de los productos de la IA, la condición jurídica y el control de los mismos, teniendo como base fundamental los principios bioéticos.
La presente investigación está orientada a analizar la calidad de vida en niños, adolescentes y jóvenes (Aparicio-Gómez, 2020) durante el tiempo de confinamiento obligatorio familiar en Bogotá por COVID-19. En primer lugar, se busca identificar las condiciones de calidad de vida en niños escolarizados durante el tiempo de confinamiento obligatorio familiar en Bogotá por COVID-19; posteriormente se pretende reconocer las condiciones de calidad de vida en adolescentes escolarizados durante el tiempo de confinamiento obligatorio familiar en Bogotá por COVID-19. Por último, se trata de describir las condiciones de calidad de vida en jóvenes universitarios durante el tiempo de confinamiento obligatorio familiar en Bogotá por COVID-19.
Purpose Problematic smartphone use has been associated with negative effects in work and school environments. This study proposes the application of a behavioural economics perspective to establish whether heavy smartphone users show a tendency to devalue the consequences of their behaviour in the long term. To address this proposition, the study sought to establish how an objective measurement of usage time of smartphones and apps might help to predict, firstly, participants’ choice behaviour and, secondly, their perceived dependence levels. Design/methodology/approach An objective measurement of the usage time of smartphones and apps was conducted over four weeks (N = 560 data points), and a computer-based intertemporal choice task and the Spanish version of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) were applied. The participants were twenty undergraduate college students. Findings Although the usage time of devices and apps failed to predict the choice behaviour, a correlation was found between the total usage time of smartphones and WhatsApp and Facebook apps and users’ dependence level. On the other hand, dependence had a positive effect on the average selection of the impulsive choice. Originality/value This paper proposes the application of a behavioural economics perspective to explore the relationship between objectively measured usage time of smartphone and apps, choice behaviours in an intertemporal task and users’ perceived dependence levels. This allows us to consider an alternative to the traditional psychiatric approach in an environment of increasing access to and use of mobile digital platforms.
Litter decomposition and nutrient release are key factors in the nutrient cycling and availability in land uses and sustainable production systems. In three land uses systems (native forest-NF, coffee agroforestry system C-AFS, and pasture monoculture-PM), litter decomposition rate and nutrient release were estimated during 120 days. A total of 216 litterbags were systematically placed with 20 g of litter in dry matter basis each, which were extracted at 8, 23, 35, 50, 91, and 120 days later to estimate remnants dry matter (RDM %). No interaction was detected in litter decomposition rate between land use systems and decomposition time, presenting a different behavior between land uses in time. In contrast, land uses and time statistically affected (p \ 0.01) litter decomposition. The exponential model (RDM = 100.0e (-0.0056t) , SME = 23.5 for NF; RDM = 100.0e (-0.0064t) , SME = 25.5 for C-AFS; and RDM = 100.0e (-0.0457t) , SME = 136.8 for PM) presented the best fit to estimate the relative RDM (%) over time (t in days) in the three land uses. PM presented the greatest turnover rate at 120 days compared to AFS-C and NF (with a RDM of 14, 51 and 52%, respectively). The process of nutrient release was also faster in PM than in the other systems, with potassium as the fastest nutrient. These results suggest that the intervention in land use has an impact on rates of litter decomposition and nutrient, which affects nutrient cycling. The litter decomposition and nutrient release in agroforestry systems with coffee were
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907 members
Marleny Natalia Malaver Rojas
  • Facultad de Ciencias Sociales
Jaime Castro-Martínez
  • School of Education
Nicolás Arias Velandia
  • Escuela de Educación e Innovación
Rafael Díaz Vásquez
  • Departamento de Derecho
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Calle 57# 3-00 este, 110231, Bogotá, Distrito Capital, Colombia
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Institución Universitaria Politécnico Grancolombiano
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https://www.poli.edu.co
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