# Institución Universitaria Antonio José Camacho

• Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Recent publications
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a strong influence on people’s quality of life, and the different restrictive measures during the phases of the pandemic have had consequences for physical and mental health. This study determined the changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL), sleep quality, depression symptoms (DS), and physical activity (PA) level of middle-aged Colombian university personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was performed following a longitudinal design on a sample of 354 people at four points before and during the pandemic. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the SF-12v2, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS) were included in an online survey. The measurements showed a decrease in quality of life with respect to PCS from 91.66 ± 10.78 to 83.64 ± 17.22 (p = 0.000) and MCS from 87.57 ± 12.23 to 80.90 ± 17.31, while poor sleep quality increased from 25.99% to 47.46% (p = 0.000), with DS reaching the peak during mandatory confinement (14.69%). Regarding the level of physical activity, the period of mandatory confinement inverted the proportion, highlighting active people as a minority (32.2%). In the multivariate analysis, we adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and socioeconomic level, discarding confounding effects and their interactions with the results obtained. In conclusion, this study showed that the pandemic has had a negative impact on sleep quality, HRQoL, DS, and PA level.
(1) Background: Mild cognitive impairment is becoming one of the most common clinical manifestations affecting older people. For this reason, developing non-pharmacological strategies to help improve or maintain the physical condition of patients with mild dementia has become a priority. Therefore, the objective of this study is to provide evidence about the effects of a cognitive stimulation program on cognitive performance, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and aged > 70. (2) Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. A total of 72 elderly people with MCI participated: 35 in the control group who did not receive any intervention and 36 in the experimental group who received a cognitive stimulation program for 12 weeks. Cognitive performance, depression, anxiety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale, and the SF-12, respectively. (3) Results: In the experimental group, significant results were obtained on cognitive performance, depression, anxiety and general health, emotional role, social functioning, vitality, mental health and mental component summary domains of the SF-12. (4) Conclusions: a cognitive stimulation program of 12 weeks improves cognitive performance, anxiety, depression, and HRQoL in people with MCI aged > 70.
(1) Background: Due to the pandemic caused by COVID-19, mandatory confinement was declared, which generated a decrease in the practice of physical activity (PA). Based on this problem, it was proposed to study the associations between PA in relation to depressive symptoms, quality of sleep, and the quality of life of middle-aged people who work in the university context during compulsory confinement as a result of COVID-19. (2) Methods: A total of 336 middle-aged people (48 ± 6.67) participated in this analytical cross-sectional study. The variable levels of PA, quality of sleep, symptoms of depression, and quality of life were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionary (IPAQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), and the SF-12v2 questionnaire, respectively. (3) Results: A logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationships between the level of PA and depressive symptoms (OR = 2.053), total sleep duration (OR = 0.495), sleep disturbances (OR = 2.414), quality of sleep (OR = 2.471), use of sleep medication (OR = 0.348), daytime dysfunction (OR = 1.809), general health (OR = 0.949), and physical functioning (OR = 0.987). (4) Conclusions: In middle-aged people, during compulsory confinement, being insufficiently active is a risk for depressive symptoms and disturbances in sleep quality.
A Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) approach was designed for the Systems Seminar course of the Systems Engineering program at University Antonio José Camacho (UNIAJC) in Cali (Colombia) [1]. The purpose was to make Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) learning not an individual process but a collective one where students play different roles to solve a software-based problem (from requirements specification to software development). Based on the results of the experts’ review made in the previous study, a case study is now proposed to assess the feasibility of this approach. Eight students took part of this study following each of the stages proposed in the approach and the results show that even though this is still a good starting point, some changes need to be made to achieve better results.
(1) Background: High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a new exercise modality that emphasizes multi-joint functional movements adaptable to any fitness level and promotes greater muscle recruitment. Previous studies have evaluated the positive effects of HIFT on mental and cognitive health but have not evaluated it in older people. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of HIFT on general cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment. (2) Methods: Following the PRISMA 2020 guideline, articles that did a high-intensity functional physical exercise intervention on cognitive performance in older adults with mild to moderate cognitive impairment (MMSE > 10) or dementia, aged 55 years or older, published between 2011 and 2021 in five different electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, and Cochrane plus were included. (3) Results: 7 articles were included, all having general cognition as their primary outcome. All assessed general cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the ADAS-Cog, or both. All studies had at least one HIFT experimental group with a frequency of 2 sessions per week and a variable duration between protocols of 12, 13, 16, and 26 weeks. Two articles showed that a progressive HIFT program improves general cognition, four articles showed no significant changes within or between groups and one article concluded that a HIFT intervention does not slow cognitive decline. (4) Conclusions: Evidence exists of the benefits of HIFT on general cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment, assessed using the MMSE, the ADAS-cog, or both. Two articles that showed improvement in cognitive function used progressive HIFT with 80% RM at 6, 12, and 1 weeks; however, in the other articles, due to the heterogeneity of intervention protocols, measurement time points, and control group activities, mixed results were evidenced
In this work, we determined the degree of filamentous fungi contamination in cocoa fermented seeds and the fungal potential to produce enzymes that could contribute to the cocoa quality. Internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing (ITS) showed 11 different species with Byssochlamys spectabilis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus carbonarius, Circinella muscae and Penicillium citrinum as the most abundant species. Our results evidenced intra and inter-species differences in the enzymes production. Cellulases, β-glucosidase, ornithine decarboxylase and phenylalanine decarboxylase were the most diffused enzymes expressed in the 53 strains here studied. Moreover, A. niger (6/12), A. carbonarius (2/3), and P. citrinum (3/3) showed high pectinolytic activity. Remarkable was the amino decarboxylase activity of P. citrinum, and A. flavus strains. For the first time we reported the presence of B. spectabilis in cocoa fermented beans, which could play an important role in the biogenic amines formation. In addition, we explored the capability of the Aspergillus section Nigri strains, to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) in a cacao model system (CPMS) and in malt extract medium (MEL). We observed that CPMS, but not MEL, stimulated the OTA production in 6 out 15 strains of Aspergillus section Nigri, reaching values ranging between 1.70 and 4995 μg OTA kg⁻¹ dry mycelium.
With the recent developments in artificial intelligence, deep learning (convolutional neural networks) has been investigated for the quality management of materials by infrared thermography (IRT). In this work, we present an approach to efficiently process thermal data in order to improve the defect detection performance of IRT. A defect-enhanced algorithm based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) has been designed and implemented qualitatively analysis and improve defects visibility based on data augmentation from a deep learning approach. We implemented a data dimension reduction method based on Partial Least Square Thermography (PLST) merged with GAN Networks (PLS-GANs) to achieve interpretable feature extraction and visualization, and compare result with thermal data of Pulsed Thermography in order to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. By applying PLS-GANs, a small dataset of thermal data can be able to enlarge the diversity of data in order to improve the performance of the detection model. The experimental results were empirically illustrated over the benchmark specimens: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs). Consequently, the experimental detection results on the CFRPs demonstrated its feasibility of the PLST-GANs method.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, psychological disorders have been documented in the population, and their exacerbation in vulnerable populations such as those with Cardiometabolic Diseases (CD) might challenge health systems. This study determined psychological factors associated with CD in Colombian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, 284 persons were evaluated, 142 without CD and 142 with CD. Sociodemographic data were collected, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the SF-12v2, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), which were integrated into an online form, were used. Through a simple and multiple logistic regression model, it was shown that CD was associated with low sleeping quality (LSQ) (OR = 3.51) and with depressive symptoms (DS) (OR = 1.98). In addition, in the group with CD, the presence of DS was related to BMI (OR = 2.45), and LSQ was related to living with persons at risk for COVID-19 (OR = 3.64) and BMI (OR = 5.88). In conclusion, this study showed that people with CD have a higher chance of presenting DS and LSQ. Furthermore, living with people at risk for COVID-19 was related to the presence of LSQ.
En esta investigación se buscó identificar algunos de los determinantes que explican la propensión de los individuos a comportamientos corruptos, con base en la toma de decisiones que involucran beneficios económicos. Para ello, se aplicó un experimento económico en una muestra de la población de una universidad de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia. El diseño experimental responde a los elementos propios de un mecanismo de subasta a sobre cerrado que involucra una oferta de soborno. A partir de análisis descriptivos y un modelo logístico de promedio poblacional para datos de panel no lineales, se evidenció que el nivel educativo y socioeconómico se asocian fuertemente con el comportamiento corrupto. Así mismo, se encuentra que la amenaza de penalización reduce de manera drástica la corrupción a un costo social insignificante.
Los relatos y los juegos como herramientas didácticas se están utilizando cada vez más para apoyar procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Desde hace algunos años, los juegos de realidad alternativa, una clase especial de juegos que integran relatos y tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC), se están incorporando en ámbitos universitarios. En este artículo se explica el proceso que se utilizó para el diseño y desarrollo de un juego de realidad alternativa educativo para los cursos de matemáticas básicas en una institución universitaria.
En el presente trabajo se tiene como objetivo diseñar e implementar una herramienta tecnológica para el control y seguimiento de las buenas prácticas agrícolas en los pequeños agricultores de frutas y hortalizas en el Valle del Cauca. Se presenta el desarrollo de una investigación del tipo aplicada, que se apoyó en la revisión de la literatura sobre buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA), el estudio de las entidades y estándares que existían para la certificación de BPA, y encuestas los agricultores sobre el conocimiento y apropiación de herramientas tecnológicas para facilitar las BPA. Se siguieron los pasos de metodología de desarrollo de software ICONIX, que involucra las etapas de análisis de requerimientos, análisis y diseño preliminar, análisis detallado, codificación y pruebas al sistema. Finalmente se desarrolló una aplicación web facilitadora de las BPA que permite el seguimiento a las prácticas agrícolas, incluyendo un registro constante de las tareas que los agricultores realizan sobre sus cultivos, condición indispensable en estos procesos de certificación. La herramienta permite a los pequeños agricultores llevar un mejor manejo de la información de los procesos sobre los cultivos, tener disponibles consultas sobre la trazabilidad de los productos y el histórico de los lotes de la finca.
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between severity of sarcopenia and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 304 older-adult participants was used to assess the severity of sarcopenia by measuring muscle strength (handgrip dynamometer), muscle mass (bioelectrical impedance analysis), and physical performance (Timed Up-and-Go test). The generic 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to evaluate HRQoL. Anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) as well as age were considered as possible confounders. Probable sarcopenia was determined by low muscle strength; confirmed sarcopenia was defined by the presence of both low muscle strength and muscle mass; and severe sarcopenia was defined by low muscle strength and mass along with poor physical performance. (3) Results: The linear regression analysis showed that the presence of probable sarcopenia was associated with the SF-36 domains physical role (adjusted R2 = 0.183), general health (adjusted R2 = 0.290), and social functioning (adjusted R2 = 0.299). As for the SF-36 mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summary scores, probable sarcopenia, as well as depression and anxiety, remained associated with MCS (adjusted R2 = 0.518), and these three variables, together with age, were linked to PCS (adjusted R2 = 0.340). (4) Conclusion: Probable sarcopenia, but not confirmed or severe sarcopenia, was independently associated with poor HRQoL. More precisely, it was related to PCS and MCS, as well as to the physical role, general health, and social functioning of SF-36 domains.
El presente artículo contiene los resultados de la Sistematización de la Experiencia del Proyecto de Asesoría Familiar: “Reconocimiento de los derechos humanos del Adulto Mayor en dos familias residentes en Cali y Valledupar”. Se desarrolló durante los meses de febrero a noviembre del año 2017, a través de un proceso participativo con las familias S. P. en Valledupar y C. V. en Cali, para alcanzar el reconocimiento familiar y social de los adultos mayores como sujeto de derechos, fomentando su participación y realzando sus recursos y competencias, desde una perspectiva de derechos humanos y del apoyo intergeneracional. Ahora bien, la construcción del proyecto se realizó por medio de la integración de aportes de la Investigación Acción Participativa y la Metodología del Marco Lógico; la implementación fue ejecutada en escenarios de asesoría familiar desde un Enfoque Sistémico en el que emergieron dos ejes fundamentales: la participación social y la corresponsabilidad. Finalmente, en los resultados fue predominante el importante papel que ejerce la familia para que los adultos mayores sean reconocidos como sujetos de derecho.
In a broad sense, Machine Learning (ML) is the performance optimization in a certain task through computational means, following a certain criterion and using referential data and/or past results from previous iterations. ML is a subset of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and has attracted a substantial amount of research during the last decades. This blooming subject led to the statement of different definitions for classifications, criteria, algorithms and so on. This paper summarizes these different definitions and proposes a homologation between them, providing an unified vision for each definition.
A Collaborative Learning (CL) process from an inclusive point of view allows the integration of educational didactics, as a process of mediation of knowledge with students. When using a didactic resource, it considers that motivation is important in learning, it facilitates the predisposition of students to participate and get involved, considerably increasing the acquisition and mastery of knowledge. It is important to note that students should be encouraged to be active in nature, understanding skills, creativity, curiosity, and an interest in learning. In this sense, it is necessary to use more active environments, which include the adequate use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), where it is articulated as a set of technological and digital means, resources or tools that contribute to the communication and transmission of information, allowing the development of cognitive skills to understand the collaborative learning process in the classroom and identify the use of Information and Communication Resources (RIC), that integrate the communication process synchronously and asynchronously [1]. In this way, digital tools should be considered as part of the learning process in the teacher's methodology. For this study, a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) approach was designed for the Systems Seminar course of the Systems Engineering program at University Antonio José Camacho (UNIAJC) in Cali (Colombia). The purpose is to make Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) learning not an individual process but a collective one where students play different roles to solve a software-based problem (from requirements specification to software development). This proposal was evaluated though an experts’ review and results show that this approach may be good starting point to implement CL activities in other engineering fields of computer science.
Global pandemics are not a new phenomenon. They have occurred at different points in time and can be of different scales. COVID-19 appeared in 2020 and its spread has reached more than 60 countries worldwide. This research aims to analyze voluntary self-isolation behavior used to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of this study, we carried out sampling in Colombia and Spain, which share similar cultural characteristics but which have substantial social and economic differences. A multi-group model was used to test the application of the theory of planned behavior and the theory of reasoned action in order to analyze self-isolation behavior. The results show that there are differences in self-isolation behavior between both countries, especially with regard to attitudes towards self-isolation and volitional behavior.
In this article, we present the design of a high-performance simplified elliptic curve integrated encryption scheme (S-ECIES) cryptoprocessor. The cryptoprocessor was designed using a Montgomery ladder scalar multiplier, which was implemented with three finite field multipliers to improve the computational time of the scalar multiplication ${kP}$ , and using random curves and Gaussian normal bases over GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">163</sup> ) and GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">233</sup> ). Also, considering the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recommendations, a true random number generator is implemented to generate a secret key $k$ , which is used during the encryption process. The S-ECIES cryptoprocessor was synthesized on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) Stratix IV EP4SGX230KF40C2, simulated in ModelSim, and verified in hardware using the DE4 board and SignalTap tool. According to the synthesis results, the scalar multiplication operation is performed in 5.31 and $8.77~\mu \text{s}$ for GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">163</sup> ) and GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">233</sup> ), respectively. Also, the encryption process is performed in 20.70 and $30.90~\mu \text{s}$ for GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">163</sup> ) and GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">233</sup> ), respectively, and the decryption process is calculated in 8.10 and $11.9~\mu \text{s}$ for GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">163</sup> ) and GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">233</sup> ), respectively. The consumption power for the S-ECIES is 921 and 935 mW for GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">163</sup> ) and GF(2 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">233</sup> ), respectively.
Resumen La memoria colectiva afirmativa se compone de significados y emociones positivas que por efecto del recuerdo enlazan a una comunidad. El propósito de este estudio fue conocer la memoria afirmativa de la comunidad afrocolombiana de La Balsa, Cauca, que vivió el conflicto armado durante diez años. Es un estudio cualitativo descriptivo que utilizó la técnica de entrevistas individuales con 6 personas y grupos focales con 99 personas. Se realizó un análisis de contenido. Como hallazgos encontramos que los balseños otorgan un papel decisivo a su memoria afirmativa, que exalta sus orígenes ancestrales, familiares, sus prácticas culturales, la etno educación y procesos vigorosos de organización social, que les otorgó un nuevo lugar como agentes sociales. Se concluye que la memoria afirmativa proporciona recursos simbólicos y emocionales para que las comunidades inventen formas de resistencia ciudadana y se reparen de situaciones de violencia, como el caso de la comunidad balseña.
In Colombia, road deterioration is assessed by means of road inventories and visual inspections. For this assessment, the Instituto Nacional de Vías(Colombia's National Road Institute) (abbreviated INVIAS in Spanish) uses the Vision Inspection de Zones etItinéraires Á Risque(VIZIR) and Pavement Index Condition (PCI) methods. These two methods serve to determine the severity of damages in flexible and rigid pavements. However, they can be tedious and subjective and require an experienced evaluator, hence the need to develop new methods for road condition assessment. In this paper, we present a methodology to evaluate flexible pavement deterioration using terrestrial photogrammetry techniques and neural networks. The proposed methodology consists of six stages: (i) image capture, (ii) image preprocessing, (iii) segmentation via edge detection techniques, (iv) characteristic extraction, (v) classification using neural networks, and (vi) assessment of deteriorated areas. It is verified using real images of three different pavement distresses: longitudinal cracking, crocodile cracking, and pothole. As classifier, we use a multilayer neural network with a (12123)configuration and trained using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm for backpropagation. The results show a classifier’s accuracy of 96%, a sensitivity of 93.33%, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 93.67%. Thus, our proposed methodology could pave the way for the development of an automated system to assess road deterioration, which may, in turn, reduce time and costs when designing road infrastructure maintenance plans.
Due to population growth and industrialization, airpollution has become one of Colombia’s major issues in recent years. It affects large cities, harming the environment and human health. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology to analyze airpollution in Medellín, Colombia using remote sensing techniques, Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 images, and air quality variables. The proposed methodology consists of four stages: (i) image preprocessing; (ii) image processing and calculation of the Surface Temperature (TS), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and Normalized Difference Soil Index (NSI); (iii) interpolation of air quality variables, Particulate Matter (PM10and PM2.5), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), andOzone (O3); and (iv) principal component analysis. Based on the applied techniques, together with the estimation of the first major component (which contains 90% of information variation), an airquality map is obtained. According to this map, the sourcesof pollution are found in sectors with little vegetation cover, a great number of buildings, and high traffic flow. Conversely, areas with good air quality include sectors with greater vegetation cover, which are usually found in the limits of the city and in socioeconomic strata 4, 5, and 6. This map could be used as input for timely decision-making regarding urban planning because it allows for an early intervention in areas with poor airquality.
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• Faculty of Engineering
• Facultad de Ingeniería
• Facultad de Ingeniería
• Facultad de Educación
• Dean of Research
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