The concept of social innovation is increasingly being discussed to pursue sustainable development. New terms and keywords are created to cope with new ideas in various contexts. How these terms are developed in the current structure of knowledge and how we can reinterpret the semantic networks with the empirical context are the primary motivation of this paper. The rural social innovation knowledge structure is constructed to understand the phenomena better and cope with future needs. A multi-methods methodology is applied to construct the knowledge structure with the primary method being topic modeling. The results from topic modeling, co-word analysis, and co-citation are combined to co-construct the knowledge structure. The narratives for the built knowledge structure are then developed in the context of rural social innovation to enhance our understanding. This study found three findings. First, the trend of keywords “community”, “governance”, and “rural” have increased significantly in the field of social innovation. Second, an investigation of the intensity of the topics found six dominant groups of topics, namely actor, business model, natural resources, food security, governance, and urban. Third, the co-word analysis shows that the word innovation is closely related to the terms: sustainable development, social entrepreneurship, social enterprise, rural community, electronic commerce, co-design, and social behavior. The mapping of key terms shows that the structure of the global social innovation research landscape is quite complex. However, it can be broken down into five main parts: objectives, inputs, transformations, outputs, and outcomes.
Sugarcane trash (ST) is an abundant but underused biomass left in the field when the sugarcane is harvested. However, there are only a few studies to evaluate pretreatment of the residual bioresources for enzymatic saccharification. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of combined severity factor (CSF), resulted from the use of different acids (phosphoric, maleic, and oxalic acids) on the pretreatment efficiency in microwave (MW)-accelerated process. The effects of acids and CSF on pretreated biomass properties and sugars obtained in the pretreatment soluble fraction and in enzymatic hydrolysate were evaluated. The degree of crystallinity of biomass pretreated at the same CSF is different due to different of acids used, and it did not correlate with the sugars obtained in the hydrolysate after enzymatic saccharification. MW-assisted acid pretreatment of ST at CSF of 2.05 affected functional groups and morphology of the biomass significantly. ST exposed to the same severity (CSF 2.05) using different acids resulted in reducing sugars yield 25.3–30.8% (based on initial biomass) from the pretreatment soluble fraction and 26.1–28.8% (based on initial biomass) from enzymatic hydrolysis, with the highest (30.8% and 28.8%) when used maleic acid. We succeeded in the production of total reducing sugars by 59.6% yield (of initial biomass) from recalcitrant sugarcane trash by applying MW-assisted maleic acid pretreatment at CSF of 2.05. The work provided insights into the use of organic acid as the catalyst in MW-accelerated process and can be further developed for application in pretreatment of ST in industry. Graphical abstract
As a way to develop an alternative wood adhesive to the conventional formaldehyde-based adhesives, this study investigated a formaldehyde-free ambient curable adhesive based on the natural rubber latex (NRL). NRL-based adhesive was prepared by mixing NRL (50% w/v) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH, 15% w/v), which acted as adhesion promoter. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3, 30% w/v) was added as filler. Approximately 15% of polymeric 4,4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) was used as cross-linker based on the adhesive’s solids content. Physical, chemical, thermal, and morphological features of NRL-based adhesive were characterized using several techniques. The adhesion strength was examined in laminated wood using a universal testing machine. Incorporation of PVOH reduced the solids content and increased viscosity of adhesive. Addition of pMDI remarkably increased the viscosity of adhesive to around 1610 mPa.s which alter the phase of NRL-based adhesives form viscous liquid to gel. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy revealed the formation of urethane linkages from the reaction of –NCO groups of pMDI and the –OH groups of NRL-PVOH. Differential scanning calorimetery analysis showed that the NRL-based adhesives cured at ambient temperature of around 23.1 °C with addition of 15% pMDI. Adhesion strength of laminated wood bonded with neat NRL-PVOH/0% pMDI was five times lower than that of samples bonded with NRL-PVOH/15% pMDI. The highest shear strength of around 5.0 MPa was obtained at laminated wood made of Mersawa bonded with NRL-PVOH/15% pMDI. This study showed that NRL-PVOH/15% could be used as alternative adhesive to manufacture laminated wood at ambient temperature of around 23 ± 2 °C.
The archipelagos of Wallacea extend between the Sunda and Sahul Shelves, serving as a semi‐permeable two‐way filter influencing faunal exchange between Asia and Australo‐Papua. Forest skinks (Genus Sphenomorphus) are widespread throughout southern Wallacea and exhibit complex clinal, ontogenetic, sexual, and seasonal morphological variation rendering species delimitation difficult. We screened a mitochondrial marker for 245 Sphenomorphus specimens from this area to inform the selection of 104 samples from which we used targeted sequence‐capture to generate a dataset of 1154 nuclear genes (∼1.8 Mb) plus complete mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenomic analyses recovered many deeply divergent lineages, three of which are now sympatric, that began to diversify in the late Miocene shortly after the oldest islands are thought to have become emergent. We infer a complex and non‐stepping‐stone pattern of island colonization, with the group having originated in the Sunda Arc islands before using Sumba as a springboard for colonization of the Banda Arcs. Estimates of population structure and gene flow across the region suggest total isolation except between two Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complexes that become episodically land‐bridged during glacial maxima. These historical processes have resulted in at least 11 Sphenomorphus species in the region, nine of which require formal description. This fine‐scale geographic partitioning of undescribed species highlights the importance of utilizing comprehensive genomic studies for defining biodiversity hotspots to be considered for conservation protection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Preliminary research analyzed the Coseismic Ionospheric Disturbances (CIDs) of the strike-slip earthquake that occurred in Palu on September 28, 2018 (Mw = 7.5) and the materialization of a TEC anomaly with an amplitude of 0.4 TECU approximately 10–15 min later. The TEC anomaly amplitude is also affected by the magnitude of the earthquake moment; therefore, 3D analysis is needed to determine the spatial distribution of the ionospheric disturbances. This research aims to analyze the ionospheric disturbance of an earthquake in 3D using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) from the Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) or InaCORS stations spread over Sulawesi, Kalimantan, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, Bali, and Java with a 30 s sampling interval using GLONASS and GPS satellites. The checkerboard accuracy test was also carried out to evaluate the reliability of the 3D tomography model. The result showed that CIDs occur to the north and south of the epicenter around the equator, following the N-S Asymmetry theory. Furthermore, the tomography results indicate the presence of dominant and positive anomaly values at an altitude of 300–500 km. This follows the characteristics of variations in the ionosphere layer, where an altitude of 300–500 km is included in the F layer. The dominant anomaly at an altitude of 300 km is in accordance with the theory of the ionosphere’s height, which experiences maximum ionization at an altitude of ∼300 km (F layer) by Chapman’s profile. We also conducted preseismic studies of ionospheric anomalies before the earthquake as an additional analysis.
Rivers are known to act as biogeographic barriers in several strictly terrestrial taxa, while possibly serving as conduits of dispersal for freshwater-tolerant or -dependent species. However, the influence of river systems on genetic diversity depends on taxa-specific life history traits as well as other geographic factors. In amphibians, several studies have demonstrated that river systems have only minor influence on their divergence. Here, we assess the role of the paleodrainage systems of the Sunda region (with a focus on the island of Sumatra) in shaping the evolutionary history of two genera of frogs ( Sumaterana and Wijayarana ) whose tadpoles are highly dependent on cascading stream habitats. Our phylogenetic results show no clear association between the genetic diversification patterns of both anurans genera and the existence of paleodrainage systems. Time-calibrated phylogenies and biogeographical models suggest that these frogs colonized Sumatra and diversified on the island before the occurrence of the Pleistocene drainage systems. Both genera demonstrate phylogenetic structuring along a north–south geographic axis, the temporal dynamics of which coincide with the geological chronology of proto Sumatran and -Javan volcanic islands. Our results also highlight the chronic underestimation of Sumatran biodiversity and call for more intense sampling efforts on the island.
Antibiotics are chemical or biological substances that have the ability to kill pathogens selectively. Currently, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used routinely in the detection of antibiotics. However, the cost of analysis and running time are bottlenecks for HPLC to be used for routine tests to detect antibiotics. Alternative methods need to be developed to overcome this issue. In this study, the development of a penicillin G specific biosensor by using a DNA aptamer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was done. Optimal aptasensor conditions were achieved with the concentrations of NaCl and aptamer at 0.25 M and 2 μM, respectively. An aptasensor of this type showed LOD for penicillin G at 3 mg/L and was able to detect penicillin G in the range of 3 to 27 mg/L. The established aptasensor showed specific sensitivity toward penicillin G after testing with several antibiotics, i.e., ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. The aptasensor could detect the presence of penicillin G from culture medium of wild-type, ultraviolet irradiation mutant, gamma irradiation mutant, and ultraviolet irradiation and gamma irradiation mutant strains of P. chrysogenum, at detection concentrations of 9.75 ± 0.004; 25.25 ± 0.005; 37.5 ± 0.005; and 45 ± 0.004 mg/L, respectively.
The Lembang Fault is located about eight km north of Bandung City, the capital city of the West Java province of Indonesia, with about 8.79 million people (dated 2020). Several studies state that the Lembang fault is an active fault with a maximum magnitude of 6.5 to 7. In terms of earthquake disaster mitigation, distinguishing characteristics of seismic velocity structures around active faults is critical. This manuscript presents our new research on ambient seismic noise tomography around the Lembang Fault by deploying 73 local temporary seismometer networks to develop a 3D high-resolution shear wave velocity model. We conducted a design acquisition analysis to obtain optimal results using a ray density analysis approach to image the geometry of the Lembang fault with good illumination and resolution, which is essential for identifying shallow geological features. Our result showed that variations in velocity values, both laterally and vertically, were related to variations in the volcanic rock on the near-surface. The geometry of the Lembang Fault and the existence of a low-velocity zone are well-identified from the seismic velocity structure, which low-velocity zone area has the potential for amplifying earthquake waves during an earthquake.
The xylariaceous genus Dematophora has recently been resurrected and segregated from Rosellinia based on a molecular phylogeny and morphological characters. This was an important taxonomic change because Dematophora in the current sense contains several important pathogens, while Rosellinia is limited to mainly saprotrophic species that have an endophytic stage in their life cycle and may even have beneficial effects on the host plants. During our ongoing work on the functional biodiversity of the Xylariales, we have encountered new strains of rosellinoid Xylariaceae from Iran and have studied their mycelial cultures for secondary metabolites in an attempt to establish further chemotaxonomic affinities. In the process, we isolated and identified 13 compounds, of which rosellisteroid (1), the cichorine derivative 2, and the alkaloid 3 are new. Out of these, nine were tested for their antimicrobial affinities with cytochalasin E (6) exhibiting weak activity against Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The cytotox-icity of three cytochalasin derivatives was examined and their effects on the F-actin cytoskeletal organization studied by fluorescence microscopy using fluorescent phalloidin. Cytochalasin E (6) and Δ 6,12-cytochalasin E (7) showed strong and irreversible action on actin, while cytochalasin K (8) exhibited weaker, reversible effects.
The crude β-xylosidase from Aureobasidium pullulans CBS 135684 was immobilized on the surface of the modified spent expanded perlite via (3-aminopropyl) triethoxy-silane and glutaraldehyde cross-linking reaction. Over 80% of the initial free enzyme activity was detected on the bound enzyme. The immobilized β-xylosidase (204.7 ± 6.5 U g-1 of perlite) exhibited transxylosylation activity when sugars from black liquor xylan hydrolysate and a variety of alcohols (C1-6) were used as donor and acceptor molecules, respectively, yielding a number of alkyl xylosides. The synthesized hexyl xyloside exhibited some interesting properties comparable with those of a commercial hexyl glucoside, including an antioxidant activity (IC50 = 8.9 ± 2.0 mg mL-1), wetting time (43 s), and critical micelle concentration value (252 mmol L-1). Optimization for hexyl xyloside synthesis was performed via statistical analysis using a Box and Behnken design. The maximum predicted yield of hexyl xyloside (499.0 ± 1.1 mg g-1 xylan hydrolysate) was obtained with 10% (w/v) xylan hydrolysate, 10 U g-1 immobilized β-xylosidase, and 13% (v/v) hexanol at 70 °C, pH 6.0 for 4 h, and it was validated by the following experimental yield (498.9 ± 4.8 mg g-1 xylan hydrolysate). The maximum production yield remained relatively stable after the immobilized enzyme was reused for 12 cycles with a 471.5 ± 15.1 mg g-1 hexyl xyloside yield (94.4% of the first cycle). Thus, the immobilized β-xylosidase has a high potential as a robust catalyst for application in alkyl xyloside production.
The performance and kinetic of saprolitic laterite reduction using palm kernel shell charcoal and anthracite were studied. The anthracite coal represents the conventional high-grade carbon content matter, and palm kernel shell charcoal represents biomass-based reductant. The experiment was conducted at a temperature ranging from 800oC and 1000oC. XRD analysis was applied to observe phase transformation. For the kinetic study, two models, namely (1) Jander and (2) Ginstling-Brounhstein diffusion model, were applied. The mineral phase results indicated that both reductants yield Magnetite from Goethite in the laterite. The best fit model is obtained by the Jander model with the energy activation of 33.68 kJ/mol for anthracite reductant and 10.99 – 18.19 kJ/mol for palm kernel shell reductant, indicating that reduction is easier to occur using palm kernel shell.
To reduce microplastic contamination in the environment, we need to better understand its sources and transit, especially from land to sea. This study examines microplastic contamination in Jakarta's nine river outlets. Microplastics were found in all sampling intervals and areas, ranging from 4.29 to 23.49 particles m⁻³. The trend of microplastic contamination tends to increase as the anthropogenic activity towards Jakarta Bay from the eastern side of the bay. Our study found a link between rainfall and the abundance of microplastic particles in all river outlets studied. This investigation found polyethylene, polystyrene, and polypropylene in large proportion due to their widespread use in normal daily life and industrial applications. Our research observed an increase in microplastic fibers made of polypropylene over time. We suspect a relationship between COVID-19 PPE waste and microplastic shift in our study area. More research is needed to establish how and where microplastics enter rivers.
The inhibition of pancreatic lipase and the associated reduction of lipid absorption has become the most appropriate approach for treating obesity. Meanwhile, katuk (Sauropus androgynus) leaves are rich in polyphenols that act as natural bioactive compounds and are also responsible for the potential effect on metabolic diseases, including inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. Naturally occurring polyphenols can inhibit pancreatic lipase and consequently affect fat digestion as well as energy intake. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the inhibitory activity of pancreatic lipase, which plays an essential role in lipid absorption. In fermented katuk (Sauropus androgynus) leaves were brewed following RSM using a Box Behnken design. Data analysis was used to optimize the formulation with a response surface model consisting of three factors namely sucrose concentration ranging from 10-20% b/v, culture 10-20 b/v, as well as fermentation time of 1-5 days. The parameters tested were the percentage inhibition of pancreatic lipase, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, and total acid. Based on the RSM optimization results obtained from the three influencing factors, the optimum conditions were established namely 10.43% w/v sucrose, 10% v/v kombucha culture, and fermentation for 5 days. These conditions yielded the most optimal responses, with the percentage inhibition of pancreatic lipase, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, and total acid being 86.13%, 96.27%, 0.97 mg GAE/mL, and 1.11%, respectively. In general, the results demons-trated that the RSM method of the Box Behnken design and the parameter prediction values obtained using the model equation are in good agreement with the experimental values with at least R2 ≥ 0.8.
Molybdenum isotope is a diagnostic tracer for crustal and mantle components in arc magmatism. However, the mechanism of Mo isotopic variation in arc magmas is still debated, e.g., input of different subduction components into the mantle wedge versus isotopic fractionation during dehydration of subducted slab. Here we present whole-rock Mo-Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data for the Continental Arc Basalt (CAB) and Back Arc Basalt (BAB) from Java, Indonesia, to investigate the role of slab inputs in Mo isotopic variation of the Sunda arc magmatism. The CAB samples have variable K2O contents (0.44–2.49 wt%) and are mainly classified as calc-alkaline series, while the BAB samples are shoshonitic with markedly high K2O contents (2.12–6.90 wt%) relative to the CABs. The Java CABs and BABs have similar Mo isotopic compositions (δ98/95Mo = -0.65 to -0.07‰ and -0.66 to -0.07‰, respectively, relative to NIST SRM3134), suggesting that such a significant Mo isotopic variation should not be caused solely by the isotopic fractionation during the subduction. Instead, δ98/95Mo values of the Java basalts positively correlate with Pb isotopic ratios. This implies that the Mo isotopic variations in the Java arc rocks should result from the metasomatism in the mantle wedge by hybrid agents, including varying proportions of melts from subducted sediments (with heavy Mo isotope) and melts from the subducted altered upper oceanic crust (SAOC) (with light Mo isotope). The light Mo isotope of the Java arc rocks, compared with the Mariana arc basalts, suggests that melts from the SAOC have much lighter Mo isotopic compositions than the components from the lower oceanic crust. Thus, Mo isotope has great potential to distinguish the components from the subducted upper and lower oceanic crust. The Java CABs show along-arc variations in Mo-Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes, which is related closely with the thermal status of the subducted slab. Upwelling of the asthenosphere due to the slab tearing beneath the Java arc might have enhanced the partial melting of subducted sediments nearby the slab window. The complicated subduction system in the Sunda arc has strongly controlled the geochemical composition of arc magmas, which changes with input of different subduction components into the mantle wedge along arc.
Dinoflagellate cysts have an important role for their bloom dynamics, which are commonly deposited along fine sediment grains and become the source of the next bloom. This study aimed to describe the cyst banks species composition, and their relationship with the sediment particles size and plankton composition in the coast of Pangkajene, South Sulawesi. Cysts observed in this study were extracted from seabed sediments collected from 9 sites. A potential cyst bank, with a cyst density of 240 cysts.g-1 sediment wet weight was found at PK-19, located in proximity to a large harbour complex. Although unusual, cyst density was significantly and positively correlated with the percentage of gravel. In contrast, the diversity of cysts seems to be affected by the percentage of fine sediments, such as silt and clay. None of the sediment composition was found strongly and significantly affecting both cyst density and diversity. A southward increase in cyst density was similar to the trend in the cell density of its planktonic form. Cysts of Protoperidinium spp., Scrippsiella spp., and Pheopolykrikos hartmannii were common and abundant in the sediment. Aside from Protoperidinium spp., most dinoflagellate species found in cyst form were absent from the water column. The occurrence of cysts of harmful dinoflagellates with records of devastating blooms in other coastal areas in Indonesia, such as Margalefidinium polykrikoides, Pyrodinium bahamense, and Gymnodinium catenatum, signifies a need to regularly monitor the area around Pangkajene coast to mitigate impacts of future blooms.
Carbon dots are 10‐nm nanomaterial classes as excellent candidates in various applications: physics, biology, chemistry, and food science due to high stable biocompatibility and high surface expansive. Carbon dots (CDs) produced from natural materials have received wide attention due to their unique benefits, easy availabilities, sufficient costs, and harmless to the ecosystem. The various properties of CDs can be obtained from various synthesis methods: hydrothermal, microwave‐assisted, and pyrolysis. The CDs have shown enormous potential in metal particle detection, colorimetric sensors, electrochemical sensors, and pesticide sensor. This review provides systematic information on a synthesis method based on natural resources and the application to the environmental sensors for supporting the clean environment. We hopefully this review, useful as a reference source in providing the guidance or roadmap of new researchers to develop new strategy in increasing luminescence properties CDs for multi detection of heavy metal in the environment.
ABSTRACT Introduction. This study demonstrates the use of bibliometric methods for innovation analysis, using the field of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Indonesia as a case study. The scientific contribution of this paper is to show the advantages and disadvantages of bibliometrics compared to other methods for analyzing innovations in the field of disaster management. Data Collection Methods. This research used journal articles in the field of DRR taken using the keyword of Disaster Risk Reduction and Indonesia from Scopus published in 2008-2020 Data Analysis. This paper applies a co-occurrence analysis of keywords, institutions and authors to show the emerging innovations as well as institutions and authors involved in DRR innovations development in Indonesia Results and Discussion. The result showed that bibliometrics is an approach that can be used to analyze emerging innovations in research related to DRR in Indonesia. In addition, this approach has a number of advantages compared to the discussion and SLR methods, including the ability to display the period of emergence of the innovations and the interaction network between innovations to predict innovations that will become trends in the future.
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