Indiana University School of Medicine
  • Indianapolis, United States
Recent publications
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and a leading cause of irreversible blindness. The disease has conventionally been characterized by an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP); however, recent research has built the consensus that glaucoma is not only dependent on IOP but rather represents a multifactorial optic neuropathy. Although many risk factors have been identified ranging from demographics to co-morbidities to ocular structural predispositions, IOP is currently the only modifiable risk factor, most often treated by topical IOP-lowering medications. However, topical hypotensive regimens are prone to non-adherence and are largely inefficient, leading to disease progression in spite of treatment. As a result, several companies are developing sustained release (SR) drug delivery systems as alternatives to topical delivery to potentially overcome these barriers. Currently, Bimatoprost SR (DurystaTM) from Allergan plc is the only FDA-approved SR therapy for POAG. Other SR therapies under investigation include: bimatoprost ocular ring (Allergan) (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01915940), iDose® (Glaukos Corporation) (NCT03519386), ENV515 (Envisia Therapeutics) (NCT02371746), OTX-TP (Ocular Therapeutix) (NCT02914509), OTX-TIC (Ocular Therapeutix) (NCT04060144), and latanoprost free acid SR (PolyActiva) (NCT04060758). Additionally, a wide variety of technologies for SR therapeutics are under investigation including ocular surface drug delivery systems such as contact lenses and nanotechnology. While challenges remain for SR drug delivery technology in POAG management, this technology may shift treatment paradigms and dramatically improve outcomes. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Background: Enediynes are anti-cancer agents that are highly cytotoxic due to their propensity for low thermal activation of radical generation. The diradical intermediate produced from Bergman cyclization of the enediyne moiety may induce DNA damage and cell lethality. The cytotoxicity of enediynes and difficulties in controlling their thermal cyclization has limited their clinical use. We recently showed that enediyne toxicity at 37 °C can be mitigated by metallation, but cytotoxic effects of 'metalloenediynes' on cultured tumor cells are potentiated by hyperthermia. Reduction of cytotoxicity at normothermia suggests metalloenediynes will have a large therapeutic margin, with cell death occurring primarily in the heated tumor. Based on our previous in vitro findings, FeSO4-PyED, an Fe co-factor complex of (Z)-N,N'-bis[1-pyridin-2-yl-meth-(E)-ylidene]oct-4-ene-2,6-diyne-1,8-diamine, was prioritized for further in vitro and in vivo testing in normal human melanocytes and melanoma cells. Methods: Clonogenic survival, apopotosis and DNA binding assays were used to determine mechanisms of enhancement of FeSO4-PyED cytotoxicity by hyperthermia. A murine human melanoma xenograft model was used to assess in vivo efficacy of FeSO4-PyED at 37 or 42.5 °C. Results: FeSO4-PyED is a DNA-binding compound. Enhancement of FeSO4-PyED cytotoxicity by hyperthermia in melanoma cells was due to Bergman cyclization, diradical formation, and increased apoptosis. Thermal enhancement, however, was not observed in melanocytes. FeSO4-PyED inhibited tumor growth when melanomas were heated during drug treatment, without inducing normal tissue damage. Conclusion: By leveraging the unique thermal activation properties of metalloenediynes, we propose that localized moderate hyperthermia can be used to confine the cytotoxicity of these compounds to tumors, while sparing normal tissue.
Background Although prior reports have evaluated the clinical and cost impacts of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for low-to-intermediate-risk patients with suspected significant coronary artery disease (CAD), the cost-effectiveness of CMR compared to relevant comparators remains poorly understood. We aimed to summarize the cost-effectiveness literature on CMR for CAD and create a cost-effectiveness calculator, useable worldwide, to approximate the cost-per-quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) of CMR and relevant comparators with context-specific patient-level and system-level inputs. Methods We searched the Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and PubMed for cost-per-QALY or cost-per-life-year-saved studies of CMR to detect significant CAD. We also developed a linear regression meta-model (CMR Cost-Effectiveness Calculator) based on a larger CMR cost-effectiveness simulation model that can approximate CMR lifetime discount cost, QALY, and cost effectiveness compared to relevant comparators [such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)] or invasive coronary angiography. Results CMR was cost-effective for evaluation of significant CAD (either health-improving and cost saving or having a cost-per-QALY or cost-per-life-year result lower than the cost-effectiveness threshold) versus its relevant comparator in 10 out of 15 studies, with 3 studies reporting uncertain cost effectiveness, and 2 studies showing CCTA was optimal. Our cost-effectiveness calculator showed that CCTA was not cost-effective in the US compared to CMR when the most recent publications on imaging performance were included in the model. Conclusions Based on current world-wide evidence in the literature, CMR usually represents a cost-effective option compared to relevant comparators to assess for significant CAD.
Background Cancer cells have an imbalance in oxidation-reduction (redox) homeostasis. Understanding the precise mechanisms and the impact of the altered redox microenvironment on the immunologic reaction to tumors is limited. Methods We isolated exosomes from ovarian cancer cells through ultracentrifuge and characterized by Western-blots and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. 2D, 3D-coculture tumor model, and 3D live cell imaging were used to study the interactions between tumor cells, macrophages and CD3 T cells in vitro. The role of exosomal miR-155-5p in tumor growth was evaluated in xenograft nude mice models and immune-competent mice models. Flow cytometry and flow sorting were used to determine the expression levels of miR-155-5p and PD-L1 in ascites and splenic macrophages, and the percentages of CD3 T cells subpopulations. Results The elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) greatly downregulated exosomal miR-155-5p expression in tumor cells. Neutralization of ROS with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) increased the levels of miR-155-5p in tumor exosomes that were taken up by macrophages, leading to reduction of macrophage migration and tumor spheroid infiltration. We further found that programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a functional target of miR-155-5p. Co-culture of macrophages pre-treated with NAC-derived tumor exosomes or exosomal miR-155-5p with T-lymphocytes leading to an increased percentage of CD8 ⁺ T-lymphocyte and a decreased CD3 ⁺ T cell apoptosis through PD-L1 downregulation. Tumor growth in nude mice was delayed by treatment with NAC-derived tumor exosomes. Delivery of tumor exo-miR-155-5p in immune-intact mice suppressed ovarian cancer progression and macrophage infiltration, and activated CD8 ⁺ T cell function. It is of note that exo-miR-155-5p inhibited tumor growth more potently than the PD-L1 antibody, suggesting that in addition to PD-L1, other pathways may also be targeted by this approach. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism, ROS-induced down-regulation of miR-155-5p, by which tumors modulate the microenvironment that favors tumor growth. Understanding of the negative impact of ROS on the tumor immune response will improve current therapeutic strategies. Targeting miR-155-5p can be an alternative approach to prevent formation of an immunosuppressive TME through downregulation of PD-L1 and other immunosuppressive factors. Graphical Abstract
Background Genome-wide association studies have identified several breast cancer susceptibility loci. However, biomarkers for risk assessment are still missing. Here, we investigated cancer-related molecular changes detected in tissues from women at high risk for breast cancer prior to disease manifestation. Disease-free breast tissue cores donated by healthy women ( N = 146, median age = 39 years) were processed for both methylome (MethylCap) and transcriptome (Illumina’s HiSeq4000) sequencing. Analysis of tissue microarray and primary breast epithelial cells was used to confirm gene expression dysregulation. Results Transcriptomic analysis identified 69 differentially expressed genes between women at high and those at average risk of breast cancer (Tyrer-Cuzick model) at FDR < 0.05 and fold change ≥ 2. Majority of the identified genes were involved in DNA damage checkpoint, cell cycle, and cell adhesion. Two genes, FAM83A and NEK2, were overexpressed in tissue sections (FDR < 0.01) and primary epithelial cells ( p < 0.05) from high-risk breasts. Moreover, 1698 DNA methylation changes were identified in high-risk breast tissues (FDR < 0.05), partially overlapped with cancer-related signatures, and correlated with transcriptional changes ( p < 0.05, r ≤ 0.5). Finally, among the participants, 35 women donated breast biopsies at two time points, and age-related molecular alterations enhanced in high-risk subjects were identified. Conclusions Normal breast tissue from women at high risk of breast cancer bears molecular aberrations that may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. This study is the first molecular characterization of the true normal breast tissues, and provides an opportunity to investigate molecular markers of breast cancer risk, which may lead to new preventive approaches.
Signaling pathways allow cells to detect and respond to a wide variety of chemical (e.g. Ca ²⁺ or chemokine proteins) and physical stimuli (e.g., sheer stress, light). Together, these pathways form an extensive communication network that regulates basic cell activities and coordinates the function of multiple cells or tissues. The process of cell signaling imposes many demands on the proteins that comprise these pathways, including the abilities to form active and inactive states, and to engage in multiple protein interactions. Furthermore, successful signaling often requires amplifying the signal, regulating or tuning the response to the signal, combining information sourced from multiple pathways, all while ensuring fidelity of the process. This sensitivity, adaptability, and tunability are possible, in part, due to the inclusion of intrinsically disordered regions in many proteins involved in cell signaling. The goal of this collection is to highlight the many roles of intrinsic disorder in cell signaling. Following an overview of resources that can be used to study intrinsically disordered proteins, this review highlights the critical role of intrinsically disordered proteins for signaling in widely diverse organisms (animals, plants, bacteria, fungi), in every category of cell signaling pathway (autocrine, juxtacrine, intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine) and at each stage (ligand, receptor, transducer, effector, terminator) in the cell signaling process. Thus, a cell signaling pathway cannot be fully described without understanding how intrinsically disordered protein regions contribute to its function. The ubiquitous presence of intrinsic disorder in different stages of diverse cell signaling pathways suggest that more mechanisms by which disorder modulates intra- and inter-cell signals remain to be discovered. Graphical abstract
Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) use in the emergency department is associated with improved patient outcomes and increased patient satisfaction. When used for procedural guidance, it has been shown to increase first pass success and decrease complications. As of 2012, ultrasound has been identified as a core skill required for graduating emergency medicine (EM) residents. Despite this, only a minority of EM faculty who trained prior to 2008 are credentialed in POCUS. Half of all EM training programs in the United States have less than 50% of their faculty credentialed to perform and teach POCUS to learners. As the use of POCUS continues to grow in medicine, it is especially important to have a pathway for faculty to attain competence and become credentialed in POCUS. The goal of this paper was to outline an implementation process of a curriculum designed to credential EM faculty in POCUS.
Background Despite decades of accruing evidence supporting the clinical utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), adoption of CMR in routine cardiovascular practice remains limited in many regions of the world. Persistent use of long scan times of 60 min or more contributes to limited adoption, though techniques available on most scanners afford routine CMR examination within 30 min. Incorporating such techniques into standardize protocols can answer common clinical questions in daily practice, including those related to heart failure, cardiomyopathy, ventricular arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, and non-ischemic myocardial injury. Body In this white paper, we describe CMR protocols of 30 min or shorter duration with routine techniques with or without stress perfusion, plus specific approaches in patient and scanner room preparation for efficiency. Minimum requirements for the scanner gradient system, coil hardware and pulse sequences are detailed. Recent advances such as quantitative myocardial mapping and other add-on acquisitions can be incorporated into the proposed protocols without significant extension of scan duration for most patients. Conclusion Common questions in clinical cardiovascular practice can be answered in routine CMR protocols under 30 min; their incorporation warrants consideration to facilitate increased access to CMR worldwide.
Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17) antagonism in rats reduces the severity and progression of AKI. IL-17-producing circulating T helper-17 (TH17) cells is increased in critically ill patients with AKI indicating that this pathway is also activated in humans. We aim to compare serum IL-17A levels in critically ill patients with versus without AKI and to examine their relationship with mortality and major adverse kidney events (MAKE). Methods Multicenter, prospective study of ICU patients with AKI stage 2 or 3 and without AKI. Samples were collected at 24–48 h after AKI diagnosis or ICU admission (in those without AKI) [timepoint 1, T1] and 5–7 days later [timepoint 2, T2]. MAKE was defined as the composite of death, dependence on kidney replacement therapy or a reduction in eGFR of ≥ 30% from baseline up to 90 days following hospital discharge. Results A total of 299 patients were evaluated. Patients in the highest IL-17A tertile (versus lower tertiles) at T1 had higher acuity of illness and comorbidity scores. Patients with AKI had higher levels of IL-17A than those without AKI: T1 1918.6 fg/ml (692.0–5860.9) versus 623.1 fg/ml (331.7–1503.4), p < 0.001; T2 2167.7 fg/ml (839.9–4618.9) versus 1193.5 fg/ml (523.8–2198.7), p = 0.006. Every onefold higher serum IL-17A at T1 was independently associated with increased risk of hospital mortality (aOR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.06–1.73) and MAKE (aOR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.02–1.55). The highest tertile of IL-17A (vs. the lowest tertile) was also independently associated with higher risk of MAKE (aOR 3.03, 95% CI: 1.34–6.87). There was no effect modification of these associations by AKI status. IL-17A levels remained significantly elevated at T2 in patients that died or developed MAKE. Conclusions Serum IL-17A levels measured by the time of AKI diagnosis or ICU admission were differentially elevated in critically ill patients with AKI when compared to those without AKI and were independently associated with hospital mortality and MAKE.
The author has been a student of changing education culture over the last 35 years and proposes a multistep schema to systematically build a culture of excellence in surgical education. The schema is a combination of best practices and principles of changing culture from the literature.
Prostate cancer is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, which poses a major challenge to precision therapy and drug development. In this review, we discuss how nongenetic factors contribute to heterogeneity of prostate cancer. We also discuss tumor heterogeneity and phenotypic switching related to anticancer therapies. Lastly, we summarize the challenges targeting the tumor environments, and emphasize that continued exploration of tumor heterogeneity is needed in order to offer a personalized therapy for advanced prostate cancer patients.
Background Proxy report is essential for patients unable to complete patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures themselves and potentially beneficial when the caregiver perspective can complement patient report. In this study, we examine agreement between self-report by older adults and proxy report by their caregivers when completing PROs for pain, anxiety, depression, and other symptoms/impairments. Methods Four PROs were administered by telephone to older adults and their caregivers followed by re-administration within 24 h in a random subgroup. The PROs included the PHQ-9 depression, GAD-7 anxiety, PEG pain, and SymTrak multi-dimensional symptom and functional status scales. Results The sample consisted of 576 older adult and caregiver participants (188 patient-caregiver dyads, 200 patients without identified caregiver). The four measures had good internal (Cronbach’s alpha, 0.76 to 0.92) and test–retest (ICC, 0.63 to 0.92) reliability whether completed by patients or caregivers. Total score and item-level means were relatively similar for both patient and caregiver reports. Agreement for total score as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was better for SymTrak-23 (0.48) and pain (0.58) than for anxiety (0.28) and depression (0.25). Multinomial modeling showed higher (worse) patient-reported scale scores were associated with caregiver underreporting, whereas higher caregiver task difficulty was associated with overreporting. Conclusion When averaged over individuals at the group level, proxy reports of PRO scores by caregivers tend to approximate patient reports. For individual patients, proxy report should be interpreted more cautiously for psychological symptoms as well as when patient-reported symptoms are more severe, or caregiver task difficulty is high.
We provide a multidimensional sequence of events that describe the electromagnetic field (EMF) stimulation and biological system interaction. We describe this process from the quantum to the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. We hypothesized that the sequence of events of these interactions starts with the oscillatory effect of the repeated electromagnetic stimulation (REMFS). These oscillations affect the interfacial water of an RNA causing changes at the quantum and molecular levels that release protons by quantum tunneling. Then protonation of RNA produces conformational changes that allow it to bind and activate Heat Shock Transcription Factor 1 (HSF1). Activated HSF1 binds to the DNA expressing chaperones that help regulate autophagy and degradation of abnormal proteins. This action helps to prevent and treat diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (PD) by increasing clearance of pathologic proteins. This framework is based on multiple mathematical models, computer simulations, biophysical experiments, and cellular and animal studies. Results of the literature review and our research point towards the capacity of REMFS to manipulate various networks altered in aging (Reale et al. PloS one 9, e104973, 2014), including delay of cellular senescence (Perez et al. 2008, Exp Gerontol 43, 307-316) and reduction in levels of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) (Perez et al. 2021, Sci Rep 11, 621). Results of these experiments using REMFS at low frequencies can be applied to the treatment of patients with age-related diseases. The use of EMF as a non-invasive therapeutic modality for Alzheimer’s disease, specifically, holds promise. It is also necessary to consider the complicated and interconnected genetic and epigenetic effects of the REMFS-biological system’s interaction while avoiding any possible adverse effects.
Suicides are preventable tragedies, if risk factors are tracked and mitigated. We had previously developed a new quantitative suicidality risk assessment instrument (Convergent Functional Information for Suicidality, CFI-S), which is in essence a simple polyphenic risk score, and deployed it in a busy urban hospital Emergency Department, in a naturalistic cohort of consecutive patients. We report a four years follow-up of that population (n = 482). Overall, the single administration of the CFI-S was significantly predictive of suicidality over the ensuing 4 years (occurrence- ROC AUC 80%, severity- Pearson correlation 0.44, imminence-Cox regression Hazard Ratio 1.33). The best predictive single phenes (phenotypic items) were feeling useless (not needed), a past history of suicidality, and social isolation. We next used machine learning approaches to enhance the predictive ability of CFI-S. We divided the population into a discovery cohort (n = 255) and testing cohort (n = 227), and developed a deep neural network algorithm that showed increased accuracy for predicting risk of future suicidality (increasing the ROC AUC from 80 to 90%), as well as a similarity network classifier for visualizing patient's risk. We propose that the widespread use of CFI-S for screening purposes, with or without machine learning enhancements, can boost suicidality prevention efforts. This study also identified as top risk factors for suicidality addressable social determinants. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s44192-022-00016-z.
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been utilized in the management and care of pediatric patients for nearly 40 years. It has evolved to become an invaluable tool in the assessment of the littlest of hearts for diagnosis, pre-interventional management and follow-up care. Although mentioned in a number of consensus and guidelines documents, an up-to-date, large, stand-alone guidance work for the use of CMR in pediatric congenital 36 and acquired 35 heart disease endorsed by numerous Societies involved in the care of these children is lacking. This guidelines document outlines the use of CMR in this patient population for a significant number of heart lesions in this age group and although admittedly, is not an exhaustive treatment, it does deal with an expansive list of many common clinical issues encountered in daily practice.
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Mark Gromski
  • Division of Gastroenterology
David Clark
  • Department of Neurology
Mark H. Kaplan
  • Pediatrics
Howard Edenberg
  • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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