Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) promote community collaboration to better assist people living with mental illness and/or drug addiction who are in crisis (Mission, n.d.). A core element of the CIT model is the 40 h training focused on increasing law enforcement officers’ knowledge of behavioral health issues and use of de-escalation skills in crisis response (CIT International, n.d.). The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of CIT training in a mid-size, Midwestern county on (1) participants’ knowledge of mental illness and related concepts, (2) situational anxiety in crisis response, and (3) enhancing perceived comfort with people living with mental illness. This one-group pre-test/posttest study was conducted with four CIT training groups (n = 72) between 2017 and 2019. Findings indicate that participant knowledge and perceived comfort interacting with persons living with a mental illness were improved after the trainings, supporting use of CIT trainings in mid-size and rural communities.
Childhood obesity is a complex medical condition associated with biopsychosocial complications that requires a multifaceted treatment approach. Historically weight management treatment has been challenging to access for racially minoritized youth. This study evaluated factors influencing treatment attendance for racially minoritized youth in a pediatric weight management program between 2018 and 2021. Medical information from 228 participants was collected, including demographics, insurance type, use of telehealth visits, measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), distance from the weight management program, and medical history. Although participants entering the weight management program came from across the state, racially minoritized participants from the Indianapolis area were more likely to attend the program. Racially minoritized participants farther from the program were comparatively underrepresented. Relative to families from majority backgrounds, racially minoritized families had the highest public health insurance rates. Specific physical and mental health comorbidities may further increase risk. Results have important implications for pediatric weight management programs to improve access and treatment opportunities for racially minoritized and underserved populations.
Purpose This study is designed to respond to repeated calls for research on sales person retentionby building upon a mature research stream to identify ways to reduce turnover in boundary spanning employees and the resultant effect it has on organizational productivity. Specifically, this research draws on the Job Demands-Resources model to explore the effect of employee perceptions of firm market orientation as a way to reduce role stressors and subsequently turnover intentions. It also looks at employee traits that may serve as a buffer to the role stress to turnover intentions link and can be part of the hiring selection process (in this case grit). In so doing, this research uses a sample of early career salespeople to examine the effects of a firm’s market orientation (MO) and selective hiring for specific traits (level of grit) on a salesperson’s intention to quit using Job Demand-Resources as a framework. Design/Methodology/Approach The authors utilized a questionnaire to collect data from a sample consisting of 260 respondents who were employed full-time and worked in either B2B or B2C sales as boundary-spanning employees. The measures utilized in this study have been used in previous research and have demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity. Analysis of the latent constructs was conducted using PLS-SEM. The model was assessed as specified in the hypotheses and was estimated using the PLS algorithm to obtain path coefficient estimates. Findings Findings suggest that organizations can benefit internally from strong MO by mitigating stressors placed on boundary-spanning employees. Those who perceived strong MO in their employer experienced more clearly defined roles, which led to decreased role ambiguity. These increased levels of job satisfaction, which reduced turnover intention. Additionally, Grit appears to only moderate the link between role conflict and job satisfaction, which suggests that grit can serve as an additional resource salespeople can tap into in response to the demands of role stressors thereby reducing their likelihood of leaving their positions. Research Implications In this research, inclusion of market orientation as an antecedent to role stressors in the Job Demands-Resources model expands the conceptualization of the construct as it relates to salespeople in that market orientation is something the firm can control directly. This opens research opportunities to use this model in the sales literature. In addition, the job-demands-resources model expands the role of grit beyond positive psychology to be viewed as a resource in stressful situations and puts the role of grit into a theoretical framework for use in business contexts. As such, the current work suggests that the grit scale can be used to replace measures used for similar constructs such as tenacity. Practical Implications This research suggests that role ambiguity can be reduced by the presence of a market orientation. This reduction in role ambiguity leads to an increase in job satisfaction which leads to reduced turnover intention. Thus, this study indicates that there may be a cost-saving benefit (e.g. recruiting and retention efforts, lost sales, etc.) that accrues to firms with a market orientation due to reduced salesperson turnover via role perceptions. This supports that the idea that organizations can benefit from market orientation not only externally, but also internally in terms of mitigating stressors placed on boundary-spanning employees. Therefore, companies should push for adoption of market orientation in order to alleviate some key role stressors placed on their salespeople in addition to the already established benefits from external customers. The link between grit, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions is another positive finding. As expected, job satisfaction helps reduce turnover intentions; however, the relationship is moderated by grit in such a way that people with higher grit show a weaker link between job satisfaction and turnover intentions while those with lower levels of grit show a stronger link between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. This raises human resource issues in the hiring process: human resource managers should work to identify salespeople with high levels of grit in order to better minimize turnover intentions given the cost of turnover to organizations. Originality This research expands existing research by examining the effects of a firm’s market orientation (MO) and selective hiring for specific traits (level of grit) on a salesperson’s intention to quit using Job Demand-Resources as a framework Combining these two literature streams – market orientation and salesperson grit – is novel and will inspire new thinking and foster new insights. This study serves as a starting point for future research to examine firm controllable resources (market orientation) along with employee traits that can act as a buffer (grit) when resources are scarce.
DNA barcoding has become a dependable way to assign taxonomic identifications to otherwise unknown DNA samples. Metabarcoding using next-generation sequencing (NGS) maintains this same caliber of taxonomic identification and can occur on a mass scale in pooled, or multiplexed, samples from a wide variety of sources when properly multiplexed. However, this methodology has several pitfalls, including inaccurate source sample assignment, multi-step workflows that leave room for human error, and high costs. To combat these issues, library preparation protocols have been established for the popular Illumina sequencing platform which reduce sequence assignment errors to levels equivalent to background noise, while also greatly reducing cost. An equivalent protocol has yet to be established for the Ion Torrent sequencing ecosystem. Here, we present MetaPlex, a library preparation workflow and post-processing toolkit for efficient and accurate COI metabarcoding on Ion Torrent sequencers. These methods significantly decrease the costs of multiplexed sample sequencing by nearly 9x when compared to commercially available kits through the reduction of reagents needed for library preparation. In addition, our workflow provides increased reliability through elimination of laboratory processes which are known to negatively bias NGS outputs and source-sample tracing, limiting the common pitfall known as index jumps to 0.17%. Finally, our accompanying bioinformatic toolkit increases user accessibility by providing an easy-to-use command line tool for processing and correcting for errors in our, and others’, dual-indexed reads.
The core competency of patient-centered care (PCC) states that for positive patient outcomes, the provider must respect the patient’s views and recognize their experiences. The Athletic Training Strategic Alliance Research Agenda Task Force identified a profession-wide belief that examining the extent to which athletic trainers (ATs) provide PCC in their clinical practice would benefit the profession. To first address this line of inquiry, we must study the subjectivity of how ATs view PCC. This study used Q methodology which is a research design that collects data from participants from a quantitative and qualitative perspective. A total of 115 (males = 62, females = 53, age = 37±10 y, experience = 13±10 y) ATs dispersed between 11 job settings volunteered for this study. Participants were asked to pre-sort (agree, disagree, neutral) 36 validated statements representing the 8 dimensions of PCC, then completed a Q-sort where they dragged-and-dropped the pre-sorted statements based on perceived importance in providing PCC. The Q-sorts were analyzed using QMethod software. A principal component analysis was used to identify statement rankings and factors. Factors were determined by an Eigenvalue > 1 and analyzed using a scree plot. The 6 highest selected statements per factor were assessed to create the distinguishing viewpoints. Two distinguishing viewpoints emerged from the factor analysis of the Q-sorts: 1) the interpersonal connection that valued teamwork, open communication, and respectful care with varied populations; 2) the holistic gatekeeper that valued personal promotion for activities of daily living, self-care, and quality of life. Overall, ATs value patient’s preferences and respect. However, a lack of importance was identified for incorporating the disablement model which is a core competency and adopted framework by the athletic training profession.
Prey animals must attempt to optimize foraging success while reducing the probability of being captured. Within social prey groups, intrinsic differences in bold-shy personality among individuals influence their respective risk-taking tendencies. We examined the foraging and refuge use behaviour of mixed groups of goldfish ( Carassius auratus ) containing half bold individuals and half shy individuals under variable levels of predation risk from a live avian predator ( Egretta garzetta ). At the group level, the fish groups significantly decreased their foraging time by spending more time under the refuge when the predator spent more time at the focal pool. As expected, the bold fish tended to be the first to leave the refuge, and foraged outside the refuge more often than shy fish under control conditions and at lower risk levels. However, the behavioural differences between bold and shy fish disappeared under higher risk conditions. In terms of mortality, the predator captured significantly more bold fish than shy fish. Our study illustrates how bold individuals in social groups often take greater risks to achieve foraging success, but demonstrates that innate differences in boldness can be diminished in times of elevated predation risk.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore primary care sports medicine physicians' comfort, competence, education, and scope of training in caring for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) patients/athletes. Design: Mixed-methods, cross-sectional survey. Setting: Online. Patients or participants: In total, 4300 e-mails were successfully sent with 252 eligible responses received from the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine members. Independent variables: Previous relationships with TGNC persons; previous relationships with TGNC patients/athletes; frequency of care for TGNC patients/athletes. Main outcome measures: The participants completed a 38-item tool used to assess perceived comfort and competence treating TGNC patients/athletes. Physicians defined "transgender" and described their thoughts on unfair competitive advantage of transgender athletes. Results: Most participants had worked with a TGNC patient (70.2%, n = 177), but far fewer worked with a TGNC athlete (n = 26.6%, n = 67). Among the participants who provided a definition of transgender (n = 183), only 28.4% (n = 52) of participants were able to correctly define the term, whereas most were able to partially (57.9%, n = 106) characterize the term. The most common mechanisms identified for learning about TGNC patients were reading peer-reviewed journal articles (44.8%, n = 113) and CME (41.3%, n = 104). Those with previous TGNC friend/family, patient, and athlete relationships had a significantly different level of comfort and competence treating TGNC patients/athletes. Conclusions: Previous care relationships with TGNC strongly influences comfort and perceived competence of primary care sports medicine physicians. Training, from unbiased peer-reviewed sources of data, is critical to improve care for TGNC patients/athletes.
We sought to identify concepts that may facilitate National Collegiate Athletic Association efforts to assist member institutions in addressing the mental health needs of student-athletes of colour. A two-step process was followed to generate and refine concepts, guided by Delphi methodology. First, a scoping review was conducted, including original peer-reviewed research articles that quantified or qualitatively described determinant(s) of racial or ethnic differences in athlete mental health or mental healthcare. Next, a multiday virtual meeting was facilitated to review the results of the scoping review, discuss lived experiences and generate potential concepts. Participants included a racially and ethnically diverse group of student-athletes, medical and mental health professionals, athletics administrators, diversity, equity and inclusion experts, health educators and representatives from leading organisations involved in athlete mental health. Through the consensus process, participants identified 42 concepts that member institutions might consider implementing on their campuses. Concepts were largely focused on organisational policies and practices such as staffing diversity and inclusion, expanded options for clinical support (ie, identity-relevant support groups) and within-organisation accountability. Concepts related to specific areas for stakeholder education were also identified. Institutions have the potential to play an important role in supporting the mental well being of student-athletes of colour, and the present concepts can help inform institutional action. While concepts proposed are believed to be broadly relevant across athletics settings, they would need to be further considered and tailored to reflect setting-specific organisational structures, resources and needs.
In this study, we focus on glass ceiling perceptions, characterized by women’s subjective feelings about their ability to move upward in their organization. Drawing on social information processing and hope theory, we propose that glass ceiling perceptions decrease women’s citizenship behaviors and increase their turnover intentions by draining their hope in the workplace. Moreover, we suggest that the strength of the association between glass ceiling perceptions, drained hope in the workplace, and these two outcomes is conditional upon women’s perceptions of their work–family conflict. Using a two-study design, we tested our hypothesized relationships. We found a mediating effect of drained hope in the workplace between glass ceiling perceptions and (a) turnover intention and (b) organizational citizenship behaviors. This effect is significant when work–family conflict is high. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings regarding the tensions that women experience with simultaneously managing their careers and conflict in the family.
Mobile acoustic surveys allow estimates of overall bat activity, relative abundance, and species richness across large areas. Protocols for estimating relative abundance recommend using non‐sinuous routes to ensure individual bats are only recorded once. We conducted mobile acoustic surveys along 12 sinuous routes in the mountainous terrain of northeastern Tennessee. Our objectives were to 1) determine if more calls were recorded in sinuous segments of mobile survey routes, thus violating assumptions of mobile surveys, and 2) analyze mobile transect data to assess bat habitat use. To test for effects of road sinuosity, we divided transects into ~1.6‐km segments, calculated a sinuosity value, and summed the number of identified call files recorded for each segment. Using generalized linear models, we determined sinuosity did not affect the number of identified acoustic files. We assessed habitat use for 3 bat phonic groups (Low, Mid, Myotis), comparing 10 models with temporal detection and spatial occupancy covariates. Date were informative for all phonic groups. Low and mid‐frequency bats were more likely to be detected on later survey dates within the summer, whereas Myotis bats had a higher probability of detection earlier within the season. As proportion of agriculture around the transect segment increased, probability of use by low‐frequency bats decreased. The proportion of forest surrounding the transect segment had a positive effect on use by Myotis bats. No environmental covariates were informative regarding mid‐frequency bats. We conclude that mobile acoustic surveys are an efficient method for gathering data on habitat use by bats. We recommend following guidelines set forth by the North American Bat Monitoring Program for mobile acoustic surveys but note that sinuosity of the route did not affect the number of calls recorded in our study; thus, we suggest that sinuous roads in mountainous terrain are appropriate for mobile acoustic transects. Mobile acoustic transects allow us to measure bat occupancy and habitat relationships but have not been fully tested in all types of landscapes. For transects in mountainous terrain, sinuosity did not affect the number of acoustic recordings and bat habitat use was affected by the amount of agriculture and forest surrounding transect segments.
In temperate forests, insectivorous bats need to use variable hunting strategies as prey availability fluctuates during the growing season. At sites with variable amounts of forested habitat, sympatric bat species may exhibit high dietary overlap, but mechanisms of coexistence are unknown. We analyzed the diets of sympatric Myotis septentrionalis and Myotis sodalis in two different landscapes in central Indiana, USA: a riparian agricultural site and a managed forest site, aiming to assess interspecific dietary overlap. We collected fecal samples from 166 Myotis over four maternity seasons and used DNA metabarcoding to assess niche overlap by operational taxonomic units (OTUs, n = 708) and prey‐size taxa (n = 79). Analyzing diets by prey‐size classes, as opposed to only species, provided an alternative interpretation of dietary richness and overlap that may more accurately represent predator perceptions of prey. With overall prey sizes ranging from 2–36 mm, M. septentrionalis (n = 88) consumed larger prey (10.0 ± 5.5 mm, μ ± σ) than M. sodalis (n = 78; 8.9 ± 5.0 mm). Myotis sodalis had a more diverse diet (547 OTUs) compared to M. septentrionalis (453 OTUs) despite the smaller sample size. Of the 708 OTUs detected, 41% (292) were common across bat species. We found greater dietary overlap between species within each site than within either species across sites, suggesting both species mostly consume whatever insects are available on the landscape. Flexible hunting strategies may allow these species to coexist by consuming different sizes of prey at different rates in the tradeoff between travel cost and profitability. Prey size is an important measure for dietary overlap and resource partitioning in bats that few studies have yet considered, with implications for linking predators, prey, and habitats. Sympatric forest bats appear to coexist with high dietary overlap. Analyzing bat diets by size classes, as opposed to only species, provided an alternative interpretation of dietary richness and overlap that may more accurately represent predator perceptions of prey. Prey size is an important measure for dietary overlap and resource partitioning in bats that few studies have yet considered, with implications for linking predators, prey, and habitats.
The durability of massive concrete structures may be compromised by delayed ettringite formation and thermal cracking. Designers have sought to develop alternative mix designs to control these durability issues, the efficacy of which depends on the adiabatic temperature rise of the mixtures. This contribution introduces a methodology for the prediction of the adiabatic temperature rise of concrete mixtures based on isothermal calorimetry. It is proposed that performing isothermal calorimetry at different temperatures is sufficient to predict heat of hydration under adiabatic conditions with high accuracy. The method is validated through the simulation of the internal temperatures of two mid-scale experiments which involve different cementitious materials. The method is also used to calculate adiabatic temperature rise curves for nine different concrete mixtures with varying characteristics. Utilizing the robust isothermal calorimetry to find accurate adiabatic temperature rises is of technological value since it facilitates the optimization of mass concrete mixture selection.
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