Using activation theory, this study explores the possibility of an inverted U-shaped association between abusive supervision and subordinates’ performance in India, characterized by a hierarchical culture. Our first study examined the role of subordinates' conscientiousness as a moderator in this curvilinear relationship. Hierarchical regression analysis results illustrate that subordinates’ conscientiousness moderates the curvilinear effects such that these effects remained when conscientiousness was high but were rendered insignificant when conscientiousness was low. We conducted a second study to investigate the driver of these curvilinear effects. We found that subordinates’ attentiveness partially mediates the curvilinear effects of abusive supervision on job performance. Across both studies, multi-source data was collected from full-time employees and their immediate supervisors across different time points. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
As an alternative to traditional free-gift promotions where consumers have little say over which gift item they receive, retailers are increasingly offering consumers an option to choose from a menu of free-gift items (e.g., buy a washing machine and pick a steam iron or a vacuum cleaner for free). However, little is known about what drives consumers' perceptions of value associated with a menu of free-gift items. Using data from a unique retail-promotion setting and controlled-lab studies, we show that the perceived attractiveness of free-gifts follows an inverted U-shape (or plateauing-shape) as the ‘menu-size’ increases. We also highlight the interplay of resource (time and money) constraints experienced by consumers and menu-size on the proposed effects. Our findings not only help retailers better design free-gift promotions but also contribute to the academic conversations in the domain of promotional-gifts by exploring the downstream consequences of offering choices in a promotional-gift context.
We consider a large population of firms in a market environment. The firms are divided into a finite set of types, with each type being characterized by a distinct private cost function. Moreover, the firms generate an external cost like pollution in the production process. As a result, the Nash equilibrium outcome is not socially optimal. We propose an evolutionary implementation mechanism to achieve the socially optimal outcome. In contrast to the classical VCG mechanism, evolutionary implementation does not require the planner to know or elicit any private information from firms. By imposing a tax equal to the current external damage being imposed by a firm, the planner can guide the evolution of the society toward the social optimum. The imposition of the tax generates a potential game whose potential function is the social welfare function of the model. Evolutionary dynamics converge to the maximizer of this function thereby evolutionarily implementing the social welfare maximizer.
In this study, I examine the role of health insurance cover in improving access to healthcare services and consequently its role in improving health outcomes for dependent children. I utilize differences in temporal variation of insurance cover for dependent children and their cousins, within the same Indonesian household to estimate the effect. By comparing dependent children of different biological parents, living in the same household, this study avoids potential confounders for healthcare demand, such as health endowment due to nutrition and hygiene. I find that dependent children of government employees have increased access to health insurance. In terms of healthcare use, I find no impact of insurance in providing access to preventive care as an outpatient. Instead, insurance status positively impacted first time and repeat visits to private facilities for curative care only. Insured children were 4.4 per cent more likely, than uninsured cousins, to access first-time curative care and make 63 per cent more repeat visits as an outpatient. In contrast, for inpatient services, insured children sought care at public facilities. Insurance did not have a positive impact on health outcomes for dependents. The results are robust to an instrumental variable estimation, alongside household fixed effects, which addresses concerns on potential endogeneity of insurance cover.
We study the potential role and advantages of a multinational carbon-credit (CC) market allowing a set of countries to procure CCs for their domestic producers. We study the interaction of such a market with renewable portfolio standards, specifically regarding whether a country’s government or its energy producers are responsible for upholding the renewable portfolio standards (RPS), and how this impacts total emissions and energy mix. Implementing uniform carbon tax policies or cross-border emission trading systems hinders individual countries’ autonomy while strictly segregated carbon markets suffer from the tragedy of the commons. We develop a model where countries can have their own policies to allocate the CCs, which may include taxes or subsidies depending upon the country’s choices. We use a special form of equilibrium programs with equilibrium constraints (EPEC) game – Nash Among Stackelberg Players (NASP) – and recent algorithmic advances to identify equilibria for these games to identify the effect of such a common CC market, and the regional governments’ individualized interests on the resulting energy production patterns and emissions. We observe that countries could retain their autonomy and have reasonable freedom to set national policy by acting as intermediaries between the CC market and the producers. We carry out a case study using historical data and projections of energy production for the US and Canada, and observe the varying effects of such a common CC market on government policy and the behavior of energy producers. Establishing a common CC market could significantly reduce global emissions without infringing on national autonomy. Such a market helps governments to motivate producers to uphold renewable standards because if the producers do not voluntarily reduce emissions, then the government could enforce the obligation through its national policies, generally leading to a revenue loss for producers.
Forecasting energy demand has been a critical process in various decision support systems regarding consumption planning, distribution strategies, and energy policies. Traditionally, forecasting energy consumption or demand methods included trend analyses, regression, and auto-regression. With advancements in machine learning methods, algorithms such as support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and random forests became prevalent. In recent times, with an unprecedented improvement in computing capabilities, deep learning algorithms are increasingly used to forecast energy consumption/demand. In this contribution, a relatively novel approach is employed to use long-term memory. Weather data was used to forecast the energy consumption from three datasets, with an additional piece of information in the deep learning architecture. This additional information carries the causal relationships between the weather indicators and energy consumption. This architecture with the causal information is termed as entangled long short term memory. The results show that the entangled long short term memory outperforms the state-of-the-art deep learning architecture (bidirectional long short term memory). The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed in terms of decision-making and energy management systems.
We study price discrimination strategy of an Incumbent platform that faces competition from an Entrant. We introduce heterogeneous agents on the consumer side, where buyers assign different values to the interaction benefits generated on a platform. We analyse a dominant firm equilibrium, where the incumbent platform offers two versions of its service to the consumers. The results are compared across two scenarios. The first is when sellers are allowed to multi-home and the second is when they can only join a single platform. We find that in case of multi-homing, the platform cannot charge any consumer group more than the marginal cost of the service provided to them. In the singe-homing case, the strength of indirect network effects determines the side from which platform extracts a positive surplus.
Investment in commodity markets in India accelerated after 2007; this was accompanied by large price variability, hence, it becomes imperative to measure commodity price risk precisely. It becomes equally important to study the relationship between commodity price variability and the stock market. Hence, this study aims to calculate the tail risk of highly traded Indian commodity futures returns using the conditional EVT-VaR method for risk measurement. Secondly, the linkage between commodity markets and the stock market is also studied using the Delta CoVaR method. Results highlight the following points. There is risk transfer from the extreme increase/decrease in crude oil futures returns to the Nifty Index returns. Both extreme price increase or decrease of crude oil futures driven either by financial or a combination of financial and economic shocks affect the stock market. Zinc and Natural gas futures are not linked to the stock market, which means they can be useful in portfolio diversification. The findings suggest that, in Indian commodity markets, EVT-VaR is a useful tool for measuring risk. Only Crude oil futures shocks affect the stock market, and extreme integration between them becomes more prominent when oil shocks are driven by financial factors. Commodities other than Crude oil are not integrated with stock markets in India.
Purpose: We intend to identify the links between Covid-19 and domestic violence, expose the potential reasons behind an increase in domestic violence cases due to Covid-19, and argue that rising incidence of domestic violence may lead to economic and social crisis. Method: This is a brief note in which authors rely on various statistics and insights regarding domestic violence since the detection of Covid-19. Based on the available statistics regarding domestic violence prevalence during previous times of uncertainty, the number and nature of domestic violence incidents around the globe, and existing literature, the authors argue that clear links exist between Covid-19 and domestic violence, which also impacts on the economic and social crisis. Results: Countries across the world are battling Covid-19 by enacting measures to reduce the speed of transmission. Multiple reports, however, suggest that such measures are increasing the incidence of domestic violence and not only in number but also in severity. We find that layoffs, loss of income, extended domestic stays, and exposure to habits due to stay-at-home orders are driving up the incidence of domestic violence. Moreover, these domestic violence increases are driving economic and social crises due to the form and severity of the violence, the burden placed on government, a crisis of resources, and decreases in the productivity of workforces. Conclusion: Domestic violence increase resulting from Covid-19 is an indirect driver of economic and social crisis. This brief note proposes certain policy changes and strategies required to reduce domestic violence incidence during this turbulent time.
The food and land use sector is a major contributor to India's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. On one hand, India is committed to sustainability targets in the AFOLU sectors, on the other, there is little clarity whether these objectives can align with national developmental priorities of food security and environmental protection. This study fills the gap by reviewing multiple corridors to sustain the AFOLU systems through an integrated assessment framework using partial equilibrium modelling. We create three pathways that combine the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) with alternative assumptions on diets and mitigation strategies. We analyze our results of the pathways on key indicators of land-use change, GHG emissions, food security, water withdrawals in agriculture, agricultural trade and production diversity. Our findings indicate that dietary shift, improved efficiency in livestock production systems, lower fertilizer use, and higher yield through sustainable intensification can reduce GHG emissions from the AFOLU sectors up to 80% by 2050. Dietary shifts could help meet EAT-Lancet recommended minimum calorie requirements alongside meeting mitigation ambitions. Further, water withdrawals in agriculture would reduce by half by 2050 in the presence of environmental flow protection and mitigation strategies. We conclude by pointing towards specific country level policies on food security, water use and bioenergy and recommend strategic policy design changes that would be needed to embark on such a sustainable pathway.
The book is a tribute to the revered Indian management scholar and philosopher Professor S. K. Chakraborty, the pioneer of Human Values and Indian Ethos in Management and the Founder Convener of Management Centre for Human Values (MCHV), Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Calcutta. The volume brings together a collection of papers from eminent scholars and practitioners from India, Europe, the USA, Australia, and New Zeeland on the topic of Indian Spirituality and Management.
This paper empirically explores the impact of COVID‐19 pandemic and its accompanying lockdown on adolescent girls’ and women's access to sanitary pads in India. We have used the National Health Mission's Health Management Information System (NHM‐HMIS) data for the study, which provides data on pads' distribution on a district level. The empirical strategy used in the study exploits the variation of districts into red, orange, and green zones as announced by the Indian Government. To understand how lockdown severity impacts access to sanitary pads, we used a difference‐in‐difference (DID) empirical strategy to study sanitary pads' access in red and orange zones compared to green zones. We find clear evidence of the impact of lockdown intensity on the provision of sanitary pads, with districts with the strictest lockdown restrictions suffering the most. Our study highlights how sanitary pads distribution was overlooked during the pandemic, leaving girls and women vulnerable to managing their menstrual needs. Thus, there is a requirement for strong policy to focus on the need to keep sanitary pads as part of the essential goods to ensure the needs of the girls and women are met even in the midst of a pandemic, central to an inclusive response.
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