Abstract Background In polyhouse cultivation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita) infested soils, several accessions remained free of nematode infection. It was hypothesized that such plants that were free of root-knot infection in the selected polyhouses were possibly harboring potent nematode antagonistic microbes. Therefore, attempts were made to isolate root-associated rhizobacteria from nematode infected and uninfected roots of 7 tomato accessions. Eighty morphologically distinct isolates were multiplied in nutrient broth for 48 h to test the presence of nematotoxic metabolites. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using their cell-free filtrates to observe mortality in M. incognita juveniles (J2s) at 24 h. The most potent ones were identified through molecular characterization (16S rDNA) and assayed for plant growth promotion traits, seed germination and seedling vigor and bioefficacy against M. incognita infecting polyhouse tomato. Results Rhizobacterial densities were estimated from the root samples using 3 media. In all the media, the average numbers of colony forming units (cfu) from uninfected roots were significantly higher than the infected roots. The maximum numbers of colonies were observed in soil plate count agar. The extracellular metabolites caused juvenile mortality in the range of 60.67–100% from isolates associated with nematode uninfected roots of accessions H308, H299 and H266, as compared to isolates from nematode infected roots of accessions H195, BSS99, H178/F4 and H88, which caused mortality in the range of 52.33 to 73.67%. Four isolates (B9, B16, B26 and B31) caused 100% J2 mortality, followed by 13 isolates (B7, B8, B13, B14, B17, B18, B21, B22, B25, B28, B29, B32 and B33) that caused 90–95%, 12 isolates caused 80–85% and 51 isolates caused
Background With its adapted microbial diversity, the phyllosphere contributes microbial metagenome to the plant holobiont and modulates a host of ecological functions. Phyllosphere microbiome (hereafter termed phyllomicrobiome) structure and the consequent ecological functions are vulnerable to a host of biotic (Genotypes) and abiotic factors (Environment) which is further compounded by agronomic transactions. However, the ecological forces driving the phyllomicrobiome assemblage and functions are among the most understudied aspects of plant biology. Despite the reports on the occurrence of diverse prokaryotic phyla such as Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroides, and Actinobacteria in phyllosphere habitat, the functional characterization leading to their utilization for agricultural sustainability is not yet explored. Currently, the metabarcoding by Next-Generation-Sequencing (mNGS) technique is a widely practised strategy for microbiome investigations. However, the validation of mNGS annotations by culturomics methods is not integrated with the microbiome exploration program. In the present study, we combined the mNGS with culturomics to decipher the core functional phyllomicrobiome of rice genotypes varying for blast disease resistance planted in two agroclimatic zones in India. There is a growing consensus among the various stakeholder of rice farming for an ecofriendly method of disease management. Here, we proposed phyllomicrobiome assisted rice blast management as a novel strategy for rice farming in the future. Results The tropical "Island Zone" displayed marginally more bacterial diversity than that of the temperate ‘Mountain Zone’ on the phyllosphere. Principal coordinate analysis indicated converging phyllomicrobiome profiles on rice genotypes sharing the same agroclimatic zone. Interestingly, the rice genotype grown in the contrasting zones displayed divergent phyllomicrobiomes suggestive of the role of environment on phyllomicrobiome assembly. The predominance of phyla such as Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes was observed in the phyllosphere irrespective of the genotypes and climatic zones. The core-microbiome analysis revealed an association of Acidovorax, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Clostridium, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Deinococcus, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Hymenobacter, Kineococcus, Klebsiella, Methylobacterium, Methylocella, Microbacterium, Nocardioides, Pantoea, Pedobacter, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Serratia, Sphingomonas and Streptomyces on phyllosphere. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) method revealed distinct bacterial genera in blast-resistant and susceptible genotypes, as well as mountain and island climate zones. SparCC based network analysis of phyllomicrobiome showed complex intra-microbial cooperative or competitive interactions on the rice genotypes. The culturomic validation of mNGS data confirmed the occurrence of Acinetobacter, Aureimonas, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Exiguobacterium, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas in the phyllosphere. Strikingly, the contrasting agroclimatic zones showed genetically identical bacterial isolates suggestive of vertical microbiome transmission. The core-phyllobacterial communities showed secreted and volatile compound mediated antifungal activity on M. oryzae. Upon phyllobacterization (a term coined for spraying bacterial cells on the phyllosphere), Acinetobacter, Aureimonas , Pantoea , and Pseudomonas conferred immunocompetence against blast disease. Transcriptional analysis revealed activation of defense genes such as OsPR1.1 , OsNPR1, OsPDF2.2 , OsFMO, OsPAD4, OsCEBiP , and OsCERK1 in phyllobacterized rice seedlings. Conclusions PCoA indicated the key role of agro-climatic zones to drive phyllomicrobiome assembly on the rice genotypes. The mNGS and culturomic methods showed Acinetobacter, Aureimonas, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Exiguobacterium, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas as core phyllomicrobiome of rice. Genetically identical Pantoea intercepted on the phyllosphere from the well-separated agroclimatic zones is suggestive of vertical transmission of phyllomicrobiome. The phyllobacterization showed potential for blast disease suppression by direct antibiosis and defense elicitation. Identification of functional core-bacterial communities on the phyllosphere and their co-occurrence dynamics presents an opportunity to devise novel strategies for rice blast management through phyllomicrobiome reengineering in the future. Graphical abstract
Vegetable crops benefit from seed priming technology by their low volume and high value. Early sowing of vegetables under suboptimal environments is practised often to fetch better remuneration in the market, although simultaneously it compels the farmers to use high seed rates to compensate for poor seedling emergence. To tackle this problem, farmers and seed companies world over practice on-farm and wet/dry priming techniques of seeds as it facilitates synchrony in flowering and fruiting, resulting in improved yields. The various priming strategies used for seed treatment are classified into: conventional/invasive (hydro-, osmo-, hormonal, halo-, solid matrix, nutrient, bio- or nano-priming) and physical/non-invasive (magneto, UV-irradiation, γ-radiation, cold plasma, electron and laser priming). The farmers can reap the benefits of seed priming as it minimizes (i) the time for plant emergence, (ii) expense of re-seeding, (iii) additional irrigation and fertilization, (iv) weed management, (v) ineffectiveness of cultural practices used on a stand of non-uniform growth. This review discusses the recent details about various seed priming techniques used for the enhancement of germination rate as well as vigor in vegetable crops. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the priming effects have also been comprehensively reviewed to explain the scientific basis of the technology.
Economical wastewater treatment can be achieved by using locally available and degradable material which has the low cost. Rice straw is a cheap and easily available substrate which has the potential to be converted into bio-adsorbent for heavy metal removal from the wastewater. The proposed experiment was designed to form a novel rice straw-based bio-sorbent to investigate their adsorption potential for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. Three bio sorbents, namely, raw (RRS), alkali (ARS), and biochar (BRS) based adsorbents, were prepared, and their potential for adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was analyzed. The adsorption process was optimized for pH, contact time, metal concentration, and adsorption dose. The adsorbents were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy, and the metal adsorption was quantified using atomic adsorption spectroscopy. In the batch study, all three adsorbents showed higher Cd(II) ion adsorption than the Zn(II) ion, with the highest recorded for RRS i.e. 20.9% and 8.4% respectively. For all adsorbents, the optimum pH for Cd(II) and Zn(II) was found as 5 and 4, respectively. The optimum dose of adsorbent for Cd(II) was 0.1, 0.1, and 0.55 g, while for Zn(II), it was 0.55, 0.1, and 0.1 g for RRS, ARS, and BRS, respectively. The adsorption capacity was best fitted for Freundlich isotherm for all adsorbents, which reflect heterogeneous property and favorable adsorption process. The prepared adsorbent was found excellent in heavy metal removal from wastewater and could be used for its commercial applications.
Poor farmers are particularly vulnerable to environmental stressors and often rely on traditional knowledge and grassroots creativity to help them to adapt. Such adaptation can be enhanced using other knowledge sources, but this requires greater understanding of the processes of knowledge co-production among scientists, local communities and state actors. In this study we undertook knowledge co-production on an experimental basis with two contrasting communities: smallholder farmers in Jind (Haryana) and Adi women in East Siang district (Arunachal Pradesh). We found that the Jind farmers displayed grassroots creativity in coping with salinity induced stresses to rice-wheat cropping systems, while Adi women applied their traditional knowledge of food based on namdung (Perilla ocymoides, a local plant species) to cope with climate variability that affected fermentation. Jind farmers perceived the process of knowledge co-production as moderately credible and salient, but the legitimacy of the exercise was compromised by the relatively low level of participation by state actors. The farmers rated the practical outcomes of the co-produced zero-till wheat as low to moderate for combating salinity-induce risks but as high for a community rice nursery. The knowledge co-production process was considered more credible and salient among younger Adi women than older women, and the utility of the Adi women's co-produced adaptive practices were rated as moderate to high for reducing the impacts of climate variability on namdung based foods. In both cases, an emergent property of the knowledge co-production exercise was creation of a knowledge network that has the potential to lead to ongoing enhanced adaptation to environmental change. Insights from the study could help improve knowledge co-production in similar social-ecological systems, and can be integrated with environmental change policies.
Microorganisms act as both the source and sink of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, thus making a significant contribution to the environment as an important driver of climate change. The rhizosphere and phyllosphere of plants growing in natural (mangroves) and artificial wetlands (flooded agricultural ecosystems) harbor methane-utilizing bacteria that oxidize methane at the source and reduce its net flux. For several decades, microorganisms have been used as biofertilizers to promote plant growth. However, now their role in reducing net methane flux, especially from flooded agricultural ecosystems is gaining momentum globally. Research in this context has mainly focused on taxonomic aspects related to methanotrophy among diverse bacterial genera, and environmental factors that govern methane utilization in natural and artificial wetland ecosystems. In the last few decades, concerted efforts have been made to develop multifunctional microbial inoculants that can oxidize methane and alleviate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as promote plant growth. In this context, combinations of taxonomic groups commonly found in rice paddies and those used as biofertilizers are being explored. This review deals with methanotrophy among diverse bacterial domains, factors influencing methane-utilizing ability, and explores the potential of novel methane-utilizing microbial consortia with plant growth-promoting traits in flooded ecosystems. Graphical abstract
The Himalayan ecosystem is critical for ecological security and environmental sustainability. However, continuous deforestation is posing a serious threat to Himalayan sustainability. Changing land-use systems exert a tenacious impact on soil carbon (C) dynamics and regulate C emissions from the Himalayan ecosystem. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the changes in different C pools and associated soil properties under diverse land-use systems, viz. natural forest, natural grassland, maize field converted from the forest, plantation, and paddy field of temperate Himalaya in the surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soils. The highest total organic carbon (24.24 g kg − 1) and Walkley-black carbon contents (18.23 g kg − 1), total organic carbon (45.88 Mg ha − 1), and Walkley-black carbon stocks (34.50 Mg ha − 1) were recorded in natural forest in surface soil (0-20 cm depth), while soil under paddy field had least total organic carbon (36.45 Mg ha − 1) and Walkley-black carbon stocks (27.40 Mg ha − 1) in surface soil (0-20 cm depth). The conversion of natural forest into paddy land results in 47.36% C losses. Among the cultivated land-use system, minimum C losses (29.0%) from different pools over natural forest system were reported under maize-filed converted from forest system. Land conversion causes more C losses (21.0%) in surface soil (0-20 cm depth) as compared to subsurface soil. Furthermore, conversion of forest land into paddy fields increased soil pH by 5.9% and reduced total nitrogen contents and microbial population by 28.0% and 7.0%, respectively. However, the intensity of total nitrogen and microbial population reduction was the lowest under maize fields converted from the forest system. The study suggested that the conversion of natural forests to agricultural land must be discouraged in the temperate Himalayan region. However, to feed the growing population, converted forest land can be brought under conservation effective maize-based systems to reduce C loss from intensive land use and contribute to soil quality improvements and climate change mitigation.
It is imperative to find suitable strategies to utilize the native soil phosphorus (P), as natural rock phosphate deposits are at a verge of depletion. We explored two such cost-effective and eco-friendly strategies for native soil P solubilization: silicon (Si)-rich agro-wastes (as Si source) and phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM). An incubation study was conducted in a sub-tropical Alfisol for 90 days at 25 °C under field capacity moisture. A factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors, namely: Si sources (three levels: sugarcane bagasse ash, rice husk ash, and corn cob ash), PSM (two levels: without PSM, and with PSM); and Si doses [three levels: no Si (Si0), 125 (Si125) and 250 (Si250) mg Si kg-1 soil] was followed. The PSM increased solution P and soluble Si level by ∼22.2 and 1.88%, respectively, over no PSM; whereas, Si125 and Si250 increased solution P by ∼60.4 and 77.1%, as well as soluble Si by ∼41.5 and 55.5%, respectively, over Si0. Also, interaction of PSM × Si doses was found significant (P<0.05). Activities of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase) and microbial biomass P also increased significantly both with PSM and Si application. Overall, PSM solubilized ∼4.18 mg kg-1 of inorganic P and mineralized ∼5.92 mg kg-1 of organic P; whereas, Si125 and Si250 solubilized ∼3.85 and 5.72 mg kg-1 of inorganic P, and mineralized ∼4.15 and 5.37 mg kg-1 of organic P, respectively. Path analysis revealed that inorganic P majorly contributed to total P solubilization; whereas, soluble and loosely bound, iron bound and aluminium bound P significantly influenced the inorganic P solubilization. Thus, utilization of such wastes as Si sources will not only complement the costly P fertilizers, but also address the waste disposal issue in a sustainable manner.
The study demonstrates effective utilization of geospatial technology to amalgamate crop statistics, satellite derived crop maps and productivity proxies to generate spatial maps of biomass potential from crop residues over a diverse country like India. District level crop production statistics were used to estimate gross biomass potential (GBP) of the selected crops (rice, wheat, sugarcane and cotton). Multi-temporal satellite data were used to generate crop maps. District level GBP was disaggregated at 1 km grid using satellite derived crop fraction and seasonal Gross Primary Production. The GBP maps were further converted to surplus biomass potential (SBP) followed by bioenergy potential using district specific surplus factors (ground survey) and crop specific calorific values respectively. These maps could capture the spatial variations of the available biomass resources and prospective zones to prioritize its utilization. The study found the presence of rice-wheat based SBP over Punjab and Haryana (>0.30 Ktonnes km⁻²), eastern Uttar Pradesh (0.15–0.30 Ktonnes km⁻²); sugarcane-wheat based SBP over western Uttar Pradesh (>0.25 Ktonnes km⁻²); cotton-wheat based SBP over the southern Haryana and western Punjab (>0.20 Ktonnes km⁻²); and sugarcane-cotton based SBP over central India and Gujarat (>0.20 Ktonnes km⁻²). Geospatial maps of crop residue biomass along with other thematic layers were hosted in a geoportal (BHUVAN-JAIVOORJA) with an online query module to assess the amount and types of biomass, land resources, logistics support based on user defined point of interest and fetch/buffer area towards planning/establishment of tailor-made biofuel/biomass plants.
Aggregate-associated soil organic carbon (SOC) controls organic carbon stabilization. The research question of this paper was: what were the effects of conversion of forest land uses to agriculture at Ranchi, India on SOC pools, soil aggregation and aggregate-associated C? The samples were taken from six different land uses viz. native forest (NF), agri-horticulture (AH), native grass land (NG), rice-wheat (RW), rice- vegetable (RV) and maize-wheat (MW) from three soil depths (0–15, 15–30 and 30–45 cm). Soil aggregation, SOC pools and aggregate-associated C were determined. Results revealed that SOC concentration in NF was 36%, 67% and 127% higher than RW, RV and MW land uses, respectively, at 0–15 cm depth. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC) was higher in NF land uses than rice-based systems in the soil surface (0–15 cm) due to less disturbance. In surface soils (0–15 cm depth) under NF, the large macroaggregates had 21% and 40% higher SOC concentration than RW and RV, respectively. Similarly, NF soil had larger small macroaggregate-associated C than RW, RV and MW systems in the 0–15 and 15–30 cm layers. This result supports that tillage and regular crop removal under arable (MW, RW and RV) systems adversely affect loss of SOC contents in the surface layers and C storage inside aggregates, both in the 0–15 and 15–30 cm soil layers at Ranchi, India.
Physico-chemical properties of 16 diverse mango genotypes were estimated at ripe stage, besides phenolic and sugar fractions were quantified in eight contrasting genotypes during different fruit developmental stages (egg, mature and ripe). The maximum fruit weight and length (298.33 g, 11.85 cm) were observed in Mallika compared to St. Alexandrina (100.80 g, 7.73 cm). Genotype Langra (861.44 mg/ 100 g) registered the highest total phenolics content, while lowest was in Dashehari (338.73 mg/ 100 g). The genotype Mallika had the maximum total soluble sugars (9.64%), compared to Totapuri (6.43%), which was minimum. Phenolic profiling using LC-MS/MS identified 14 major phenolic fractions, namely, quinic acid, methyl gallate, gallic acid, mangiferin and other minor fractions, of which gallic acid and catechin were further quantified. The gallic acid content was observed to increase from egg stage (0.864 mg/100 g) to ripe stage (3.065 mg/ 100 g). In contrast, catechin content declined from egg stage (0.820 mg/ 100 g) to ripe stage (0.050 mg /100 g). The major sugar fractions identified through LC-MS/MS were glucose, fructose and sucrose, which were found to increase with the advancement in fruit developmental stages, though the sucrose was found highest at ripening.
Phycobiliproteins (PBPs) of cyanobacteria and algae possess unique light harvesting capacity which expand the photosynthetically active region (PAR) and allow them to thrive in extreme niches where higher plants cannot. PBPs of cyanobacteria/algae vary in abundance, types, amino acid composition and in structure as a function of species and the habitat that they grow in. In the present review, the key aspects of structure, stability, and spectral properties of PBPs, and their correlation with ecological niche of cyanobacteria are discussed. Besides their role in light-harvesting, PBPs possess antioxidant, anti-aging, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, which can be used in therapeutics. Recent developments in therapeutic applications of PBPs are reviewed with special focus on ‘route of PBPs administration’ and ‘therapeutic potential of PBP-derived peptide and chromophores’.
Melatonin is a natural, multifunctional, nontoxic, regulatory, and ubiquitous biomolecule, having low molecular weight and pleiotropic effects in the plant kingdom. It is a recently discovered plant master regulator which has a crucial role under abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, heat, cold, alkalinity, acid rain, ozone, and metals stress). In the solanaceous family, the tomato is highly sensitive to abiotic stresses that affect its growth and development, ultimately hampering production and productivity. Melatonin acts as a strong antioxidant, bio-stimulator, and growth regulator, facilitating photosynthesis, delaying leaf senescence, and increasing the antioxidant enzymes system through direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under abiotic stresses. In addition, melatonin also boosts morphological traits such as vegetative growth, leaf photosynthesis, root architecture system, mineral nutrient elements, and antioxidant activities in tomato plants, confirming their tolerances against salinity, drought, heat, cold, alkalinity, acid rain, chemical, pathogen, and metals stress. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the potential role of melatonin for tomato plant endurance towards abiotic stresses, along with the known relationship between the two.
India is the home of 130 million people, and feeding this ever increasing population is an arduous task for the farming community. To satisfy the hungry stomachs and minimize the yield gap, there must be a continuous flow of inputs especially high-analysis fertilizers. After nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is the most yield-limiting nutrient having use efficiency of <20% in tropical soils. Due to several reasons, India heavily relies on foreign countries for P-fertilizers which put enormous pressure on our foreign reserves. Hence, avenues should look for the use of unconventional raw materials for production of P-fertilizers or can be directly used for supplying P to the crops. India with highest number of livestock population and by-products or wastes from this sectors like (blood, bone and rumen) can be wisely used for production of P-fertilizers which is economical and environment friendly. Therefore, in this article, the possibilities and bottlenecks for utilization of slaughterhouse are discussed especially where the country lacks high-quality rock phosphate ore.
A marker-assisted backcrossing program initiated to transfer leaf rust resistance gene LrTrk from Triticum turgidum cv. Trinakria to hexaploid wheat variety HD2932 cotransferred a stripe rust resistance gene, YrTrk , along with LrTrk. The cross of hexaploid recurrent parent HD2932 with tetraploid donor parent Trinakria produced pentaploid F 1 plants. F 1 s were backcrossed with recurrent parent HD2932 to produce BC 1 F 1 generation. Foreground and background selection was conducted in each backcross generation to identify plants for backcrossing or selfing. While foreground selection for LrTrk was carried out with linked and validated molecular marker Xgwm234 , for background selection, 86 polymorphic SSR markers from the A and B genomes were used. Single selected plants from BC 1 F 1 and BC 2 F 1 generations backcrossed and selfed to produce BC 2 F 1 and BC 2 F 2 generations, respectively. Background selection resulted in 83.72%, 91.86%, and 98.25% of RPG recovery in BC 1 F 1 , BC 2 F 1 , and BC 2 F 2 generations, respectively. A total of 27 plants with LrTrk in homozygous state were identified in BC 2 F 2 generation and selfed to produce 27 BC 2 F 3 NILs. All the NILs were tested for leaf and stripe rust resistance at the seedling stage using seven Puccinia triticina and one Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici rust pathotypes. All the 27 NILs were found to be resistant to both leaf and stripe rust pathotypes. So, these NILs are designated to carry leaf and stripe rust resistance genes LrTrk/YrTrk .
An experiment was laid out in split-plot design with 3-Sesbania alley-based rainfed food-ufodder systems [Sesbania+(fodder sorghum-chick-pea), Sesbania+(fodder sorghum-barley) and Sesbania+(fodder sorghum-mustard)] in main-plots and 6-reduced tillage and Sesbania mulching combinations in sub-plots to assess their impact on soil health. Minimum tillage (MT) during rainy season followed by zero tillage (ZT) during winter season along with mulch (MT-ZT+mulch) resulted in higher proportion of soil macro-aggregate, increased infiltration rate by 27.4%, hydraulic conductivity by 14.9% and water holding capacity by 5.9% (v/v) over conventional tillage (CT) during rainy season followed by conventional tillage during winter season without mulch (CT-CT without mulch). The MT-ZT+mulch had the highest soil organic carbon (7.3 g kg-1), microbial biomass carbon (226 mg kg-1 soil), SOC stock (14.9 Mg ha −1), carbon sequestration rate (1.72 Mg ha −1 year −1), soil quality index (SQI, 1.09) and enhanced the available soil N, P and K by 45.1, 47.2 and 22.2%, respectively , over CT-CT without mulching. The Sesbania alley + (fodder sor-ghum-mustard) cropping system had adverse effect on soil health while inclusion of chickpea in the system improved soil health and recorded the highest SQI (0.97). ARTICLE HISTORY
Market class, cooking time, quality, and milled grain yield are largely influenced by the seed size and shape of the lentil ( Lens culinaris Medik.); thus, they are considered to be important quality traits. To unfold the pathways regulating seed size in lentils, a transcriptomic approach was performed using large-seeded (L4602) and small-seeded (L830) genotypes. The study has generated nearly 375 million high-quality reads, of which 98.70% were properly aligned to the reference genome. Among biological replicates, very high similarity in fragments per kilobase of exon per million mapped fragments values (R > 0.9) showed the consistency of RNA-seq results. Various differentially expressed genes associated mainly with the hormone signaling and cell division pathways, transcription factors, kinases, etc. were identified as having a role in cell expansion and seed growth. A total of 106,996 unigenes were used for differential expression (DE) analysis. String analysis identified various modules having certain key proteins like Ser/Thr protein kinase, seed storage protein, DNA-binding protein, microtubule-associated protein, etc. In addition, some growth and cell division–related micro-RNAs like miR3457 (cell wall formation), miR1440 (cell proliferation and cell cycles), and miR1533 (biosynthesis of plant hormones) were identified as having a role in seed size determination. Using RNA-seq data, 5254 EST-SSR primers were generated as a source for future studies aiming for the identification of linked markers. In silico validation using Genevestigator ® was done for the Ser/Thr protein kinase, ethylene response factor, and Myb transcription factor genes. It is of interest that the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase gene was found differentially regulated, suggesting their role during seed development; however, at maturity, no significant differences were recorded for various cell wall parameters including cellulose, lignin, and xylose content. This is the first report on lentils that has unfolded the key seed size regulating pathways and unveiled a theoretical way for the development of lentil genotypes having customized seed sizes.
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an important fruit crop which significantly contributed to fulfill the national fruit requirement of India. Papaya plant is affected by many diseases that greatly effect on the growth and fruit yield. Flower malformation symptoms (PFM) were reported in papaya plantations in university campus at Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh during 2019. Flower samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic papaya trees were collected and analysed with nested and semi-nested PCR assays for the 16S rRNA, secA, tuf, and imp genes, in order to identify the relevant phytoplasma strain associated with the disease. Amplicons of ~ 1.2 kb DNA products were consistently amplified in five symptomatic flower samples of papaya using universal phytoplasma specific nested primer pairs P1/P7 and R16F2n/R2, but not from flowers collected from any asymptomatic plants. Pair wise sequence comparison, phylogeny and virtual RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the identification and taxonomic assignment of papaya flower malformation strain into ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’ strain subgroup D (16SrII-D). Phytoplasma association was further established and validated by amplifying phytoplasma specific multilocus candidate genes in all the symptomatic flower malformed samples by utilizing multilocus gene specific primers of secA, secY and tuf genes. The BLAST sequence comparison of secA (600 bp), tuf (1067 bp), and imp (727 bp) genes revealed that the PFM phytoplasma strain associated with symptomatic papaya tress belonged to Ca. P. australasia related strain. In phylogeny analysis, the 16Sr RNA, secA, secY and tuf genes sequences showed clustering of PFM isolate with the strains of peanut witches’ broom group. Our results confirmed association of Ca. P. australasia strain (16SrII-D subgroup) with papapa showing flower malformation symptoms in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.
Pusa 391, a mega desi chickpea variety with medium maturity duration is extensively cultivated in the Central Zone of India. Of late, this variety has become susceptible to Fusarium wilt (FW), which has drastic impact on its yield. Presence of variability in the wilt causing pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (foc) across geographical locations necessitates the role of pyramiding for FW resistance for different races (foc 1,2,3,4 and 5). Subsequently, the introgression lines developed in Pusa 391 genetic background were subjected to foreground selection using three SSR markers (GA16, TA 27 and TA 96) while 48 SSR markers uniformly distributed on all chromosomes, were used for background selection to observe the recovery of recurrent parent genome (RPG). BC 1 F 1 lines with 75-85% RPG recovery were used to generate BC 2 F 1. The plants that showed more than 90% RPG recovery in BC 2 F 1 were used for generating BC 3 F 1. The plants that showed more than 96% RPG recovery were selected and selfed to generate BC 3 F 3. Multi-location evaluation of advanced introgression lines (BC 2 F 3) in six locations for grain yield (kg/ha), days to fifty percent flowering, days to maturity, 100 seed weight and disease incidence was done. In case of disease incidence, the genotype IL1 (BGM 20211) was highly resistant to FW in Junagarh, Indore, New Delhi, Badnapur and moderately resistant at Sehore and Nandyal. GGE biplot analysis revealed that IL1(BGM20211) was the most stable genotype at Junagadh, Sehore and Nandyal. GGE biplot analysis revealed that IL1(BGM 20211) and IL4(BGM 20212) were the top performers in yield and highly stable across six environments and were nominated for Advanced Varietal Trials (AVT) of AICRP
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