Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal University
Recent publications
Objective. The competency of using video laryngoscopes (VL) for double-lumen tube (DLT) endobronchial intubations can be improved with constant training as assessed by measuring the learning curves. We hypothesized that the time to DLT intubation would be reduced over the intubation attempts. Design. A crossover manikin study. Settings. University-affiliated hospital. Participants. Forty-two novice medical students unfamiliar with DLT intubation. Interventions. Participants were randomly allocated to two sequences, including DLT intubation, using King Vision and McGrath VLs. Each participant completed 100 DLT intubation attempts on both simulated easy and difficult airways on two different mannikins using the study devices (25 attempts for each). Measurements and Main Results. The primary outcome was the time to DLT intubation. The secondary outcomes included the best glottic view, optimizing maneuvers, and intubation first-pass success. The use of King Vision VL was associated with a significantly shorter time to DLT intubation (P < 0.044 and P < 0.05, respectively) and a higher percentage of glottic opening (POGO) compared to the McGrath VL (P < 0.011 and P < 0.002, respectively) in the simulated "easy" and "difficult" over most of the intubation attempts. In the simulated "easy" airway, the first-pass success ratio was higher when using the King Vision VL (median [Minimum-Maximum] 100% [100%-100%] and 100% [88%-100%], P = 0.012). Conclusion. Novice medical students developed skills over intubation attempts, meaning achievement of a faster DLT intubation, better laryngeal exposure, and higher success rate on simulated "easy" and "difficult" airways. A median of 9 DLT intubations was required to achieve a 92% or greater DLT intubation success rate.
The double perovskites (DPs) are outstanding materials for renewable energy and other optoelectronic applications. Here in this paper, the thermoelectric and optical behavior of X2HfI6 (X = Ga, In, Tl) have been explained systematically by DFT. The structural stability has been certified using ionic radii in terms of tolerance factor, and dynamic stability has been confirmed by positive phonon dispersion frequencies in acoustic modes. The band structure findings show the direct band gaps for (Ga, In, Tl) based DPs. The optical properties have been investigated by dispersion, absorption, refection, and related other optical characteristics. The absorption bands are existing in ultraviolet region and shifted to higher energy (blue shift). The reflection and optical loss of light are noted less than 0.3 which increases their potential for optoelectronic devices. The high Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity along with ultralow lattice thermal conductivity confirm the high figure of merit at and below the room temperature.
Background: Trauma is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Due to contraindications or delay in starting pharmacological prophylaxis among trauma patients with a high risk of bleeding, the inferior vena cava (IVC) filter has been utilized as alternative prevention for pulmonary embolism (PE). Albeit, its clinical efficacy has remained uncertain. Therefore, we performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic IVC filters in severely injured patients. Methods: Three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane) were searched from August 1, 2012, to October 27, 2021. Independent reviewers performed data extraction and quality assessment. Relative risk (RR) at 95% confidence interval (CI) pooled in a randomized meta-analysis. A parallel clinical practice guideline committee assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. The outcomes of interest included VTE, PE, deep venous thrombosis, mortality, and IVC filter complications. Results: We included 10 controlled studies (47 140 patients), of which 3 studies (310 patients) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 were observational studies (46 830 patients). IVC filters demonstrated no significant reduction in PE and fatal PE (RR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.06-1.28 and RR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.01-7.84, respectively) by pooling RCTs with low certainty. However, it demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of PE and fatal PE (RR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.12-0.55 and RR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.011-0.81, respectively) by pooling observational studies with very low certainty. IVC filter did not improve mortality in both RCTs and observational studies (RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.86-2.43 and RR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.3-1.31, respectively). Conclusion: In trauma patients, moderate risk reduction of PE and fatal PE was demonstrated among observational data but not RCTs. The desirable effect is not robust to outweigh the undesirable effects associated with IVC filter complications. Current evidence suggests against routinely using prophylactic IVC filters.
Kinesics is a paralinguistic feature that helps convey a message quickly, especially in a TESOL environment. Kinesics is one of the main features of paralinguistics, which comprises various nonverbal fundamental elements. In this study, researchers collected the data regarding the effectiveness of kinesics for ESOL learners using a questionnaire with a sample of 385 instructors and learners from Saudi Arabian universities. Two hypotheses were tested: integrated kinesics significantly impacts learner-oriented proximity, and integrated kinesics features have a substantial effect on instructor-oriented proximity. SPSS was used to scrutinize the collected data. Regression analysis and descriptive statistic methods were used to check the frequency and reliability of the data and the variation of the results. The study’s findings indicate a significant impact of integrated kinesics features on learner-oriented proximity and instructororiented proximity. Using kinesics features in TESOL is very effective. It is concluded that kinesics is an inseparable part of the lecture room’s learning and teaching process. It is an integral part of teaching ESOL that should not be neglected.
Ni‐rich layered cathode materials are progressively considered as the standard configuration of high‐energy electric vehicles by virtues of their high capacity and eliminated “range anxiety.” However, the poor cyclic stability and severe cobalt supply crisis would restrain their wide commercial applicability. Here, a cost‐effective single‐crystal Co‐free Ni‐rich cathode material LiNi0.8Mn0.18Fe0.02O2 (NMF), which outperforms widely commercial polycrystalline LiNi0.83Co0.11Mn0.06O2 (MNCM) and single‐crystal LiNi0.83Co0.11Mn0.06O2 (SNCM) is reported. Surprisingly, NMF can compensate for the reversible capacity loss under the designed conditions of high‐temperature and elevated‐voltage, achieving a competitive energy density compared with conventional MNCM or SNCM. Combining operando characterizations and density functional theory calculation, it is revealed that NMF cathode with improved dynamic structure evolution largely alleviates the mechanical strain issue commonly found in Ni‐rich cathode, which can reduce the formation of intragranular cracks and improve the safety performance. Consequently, this new Co‐free NMF cathode can achieve a perfect equilibrium between material cost and electrochemical performance, which not only reduces the production cost by >15%, but also demonstrates excellent thermal stability and cycling performance..
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate surgical outcomes, compare success rates, and identify potential risk factors for failure of various surgical procedures for consecutive exotropia. Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary eye hospital in Saudi Arabia and included patients with consecutive exotropia treated between 2007 and 2020. Patients with a follow-up of <3 months were excluded. The type of surgery performed was based on surgeon experience and factors, such as the angle of deviation, adduction limitation, and intraoperative findings. Successful outcome was defined as a deviation of ≤10 prism diopters (PD) at the last follow-up visit. Results: A total of 59 patients were included in this study. Preoperatively, the mean near and distance deviations were 33 ± 14 PD and 32 ± 14 PD, respectively. Among the included patients, 27.1% underwent medial rectus advancement with or without resection, 28.8% underwent lateral rectus recession, and 44.1% underwent combined surgery. At 12 months postoperatively or the last follow-up visit, the overall success rate of distance-deviation correction and near-deviation correction were 80.6% and 67.8%, respectively. Success rates of different surgeries were not significantly different. The severity of amblyopia and number of muscles operated on did not influence the success rate. Conclusion: Medial rectus advancement and combined medial rectus advancement with lateral rectus recession were associated with better surgical outcomes than lateral rectus recession alone, although the difference was not statistically significant. The only factor that negatively affected the outcome was a high preoperative near angle of deviation.
Clostridium paraputrificum (C. paraputrificum) is clinically important due to its association with underlying medical conditions. Infection with C. paraputrificum may worsen HIV prognosis, leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, it is not frequently isolated and its susceptibility to antibiotics has not been well studied. Our report examines the case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, who was diagnosed with Clostridium paraputrificum bacteremia. A 59-year-old male was admitted to hospital with a medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and neck pain. Following episodes of high fever, the patient received a full work up to test for sepsis. Blood culture revealed bacterial growth, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed the diagnosis of Clostridium paraputrificum bacteremia. The patient received treatment with meropenem and vancomycin antibiotics, which cleared the infection after 48 hours; however, inflammatory markers remained high. To date, a limited number of reported cases of C. paraputrificum exist; thus, this case report contributes valuable information to the literature to improve our understanding of its action and resistance profiles and aid future bacteremia management.
Ninety-one elastase-producing bacterial isolates were recovered from different localities of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Elastase from the best isolate Priestia megaterium gasm32, from luncheon samples was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sephadex G-100 chromatographic techniques. The recovery was 17.7%, the purification fold was 11.7x, and the molecular mass was 30 kDa. Enzymatic activity was highly repressed by Ba2+ and almost completely lost by EDTA, but it was greatly stimulated by Cu2+ ions, suggesting a metalloprotease type. The enzyme was stable at 45°C and pH 6.0-10.0 for 2 hours. Ca2+ ions considerably enhanced the stability of the heat-treated enzyme. The Vmax and Km against the synthetic substrate elastin-Congo red were 6.03 mg/mL, and 8.82 U/mg, respectively. Interestingly, the enzyme showed potent antibacterial activity against many bacterial pathogens. Under SEM, most bacterial cells showed loss of integrity, damage, and perforation. SEM micrographs also showed a time-dependent gradual breakdown of elastin fibers exposed to elastase. After 3 hours, intact elastin fibers disappeared, leaving irregular pieces. Given these good features, this elastase may be a promising candidate for treating damaged skin fibers with the inhibition of contaminating bacteria.
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family of the genus Orthopoxvirus with two different clades known as West African and Congo Basin. Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonosis that arises from the MPXV and causes a smallpox-like disease. The endemic disease status of MPX was updated to an outbreak worldwide in 2022. Thus, the condition was declared a global health emergency independent of travel issues, accounting for the primary reason for its prevalence outside Africa. In addition to identified transmission mediators through animal-to-human and human-to-human, especially sexual transmission among men who have sex with men came to prominence in the 2022 global outbreak. Although the severity and prevalence of the disease differ depending on age and gender, some symptoms are commonly observed. Clinical signs such as fever, muscle and headache pain, swollen lymph nodes, and skin rashes in defined body regions are standard and an indicator for the first step of diagnosis. By following the clinical signs, laboratory diagnostic tests like conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time PCR (RT-PCR) are the most common and accurate diagnostic methods. Antiviral drugs such as tecovirimat, cidofovir, and brincidofovir are used for symptomatic treatment. There is no MPXV-specific vaccine; however, currently available vaccines against smallpox enhance the immunization rate. This comprehensive review covers the MPX disease history and the current state of knowledge by assessing broad topics and views related to disease origin, transmission, epidemiology, severity, genome organization and evolution, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
A putative virulence exoprotease designated as UcB5 was successfully purified from the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium to the electrophoretic homogeneity with 13.2-fold and 17.1% recovery by hydrophobic, ion-exchange, and gel permeation chromatography using Phenyl-Sepharose 6FF, DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, and Sephadex G-75, respectively. By applying SDS-PAGE, the molecular weight was confirmed at 35 kDa. The optimal temperature, pH, and isoelectric point were 35 °C, 8.0, 5.6 ± 0.2, respectively. UcB5 was found to have a broad substrate specificity against almost all the tested chromogenic substrates with maximal affinity against N-Succ-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA achieving Km of 0.16 mM, Kcat/Km of 3.01 × 10⁵ S⁻¹ M⁻¹, and amidolytic activity of 28.9 µmol min⁻¹ L⁻¹. It was drastically inhibited by TLCK, PMSF, SBTI, and aprotinin while, DTT, β-mercaptoethanol, 2,2′-bipyridine, o-phenanthroline, EDTA, and EGTA had no effect, which suggested a serine protease-type. Also, it has shown a broad substrate specificity against a broad range of natural proteins including serum proteins. A cytotoxicity and electron microscopy study revealed that UcB5 could cause subcellular proteolysis that finally led to liver necrosis. For this, future research should focus on using a combination of external antiproteases and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of microbial diseases instead of using drugs alone.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RdRp, is a possible therapeutic target that could be used to suppress the proliferation of RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. This protein has two major functional sites (a) catalytic and (b) substrate entry, which regulate the natural substrate entry and its corresponding interaction with the protein. In this study, a computational drug design pipeline was applied to investigate potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp from Lauraceae plants, and five top hits were selected based on the docked score (< −7 kcal/mol). The docking study suggested that the Glochidioboside had a minimum binding score of −7.8 kcal/mol. This compound showed total five hydrogen bonds while two of them were with catalytic residues Asp618 and Asp⁷⁶⁰. However, another compound, Sitogluside showed a binding score of −7.3 kcal/mol with four hydrogen bonds targeting three functional residues (Arg⁵⁵⁵, Ser⁷⁵⁹, and Asp⁷⁶⁰). Later, 100 ns explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to evaluate the stability of the protein-ligand docked system. These compounds translocated their positions from the catalytic site to the substrate entry site, as observed in the MD simulation trajectory. However, translocation did not affect the binding strength of these compounds, and they retained the strong binding affinity (ΔG < −11.5 kcal/mol), estimated using the MM/GBSA method. In general, the findings of this study indicated the potential therapeutic compounds that may be used targeting SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. However, these compounds still need to be validated by experimentation in order to determine their inhibitory function. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
This paper aimed to evaluate the impact of an oral health programme targeting prisoners in eastern Saudi Arabia. The reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) strategy was used as the evaluation framework to assess both process and outcome. This annual programme included four stations: an interview, an educational session, dental examination and treatment. Programme indicators included the number of prisoners reached, percent improvement in oral health practices, teeth present in the mouth and percent reduction in dental treatment needs. A non-experimental pre- and post-programme evaluation design was implemented. Prisons in eastern Saudi Arabia were visited once a year from 2016 to 2019. The evaluation used primary data collected during the visits in the form of clinical examination and surveys. The number of beneficiaries increased from 270 to 634, and three cities within the Eastern province were covered. The percent of inmates who smoke and consume sugary drinks decreased by 24 and 30%, respectively; however, there was a 25% reduction in regular toothbrushing using a fluoridated toothpaste. The long-term outcomes showed an improvement in the overall oral health condition and treatment needs: periodontal treatment needs and surgical procedures were reduced by 91 and 79%, respectively. The programme was successful based on the RE-AIM framework. This is the first sustainable oral health programme targeting prison inmates in the Middle East. The findings indicate that the oral health programme had positive effects on prisoners’ oral health and achieved its objectives. Such programmes can help address health disparities among populations.
Study Purpose Multiple assessment tools are used to assess future doctors’ knowledge, clinical skills, and professional attitudes. In the present research, the difficulty level and discriminating ability of different types of written and performance-based assessments designed to measure the knowledge and competency of medical students were compared. Methods The assessment data of 2nd & 3rd-year medical students (the academic year 2020-2021) in the College of Medicine at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU) were retrospectively reviewed. Based on end-of-the-year overall grades, students were divided into high and low scorers. Both groups were compared by independent sample t-test for their mean scores achieved in each type of assessment. Difficulty level and discriminating ability of the assessments were also explored. MS Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 27) were used for analysis. Area under the curve was calculated through ROC analysis. A p-value <0.05 was believed significant. Results In each type of written assessment, the high scorer group achieved significantly higher scores compared to the low scorers. Among performance-based assignments (except the PBLs), scores did not differ significantly between high and low scorers. The difficulty level of performance-based assessments was “easy” whereas it was “moderate” for written assessments (except the OSCE). The discriminating ability of performance-based assessments was “poor” whereas it was “moderate/excellent” for written assessments (except the OSCE). Conclusion Our study results indicate that written assessments have excellent discriminatory ability. However, performance-based assessments are not as difficult and discriminatory as written assessments. The PBLs are relatively discriminatory among all performance-based assessments.
Grover’s unstructured quantum search algorithm gives a quadratic speedup over classical linear search, provided that multiple accesses to the oracle are possible. In this paper, we show that in dealing with NP-complete decision-version problems, the quantum computing paradigm still outperforms classical computation, even if only one invocation of the oracle is allowed. The superiority of the quantum approach under such a restrictive condition can often be maintained even if a simple measurement strategy is chosen. A quantum decider utilizing only Hadamard gates and measurements in the computational basis has a better chance of discriminating between a problem with solution(s) and one without, when compared to the best separation achieved by a classical decider. In addition, the simple quantum measurement strategy is remarkably close to the optimal discriminating measurement, which itself is considerably more complex to devise and implement. If we further require the decider to be unambiguous (any definitive answer must be error-free), then a general positive operator-valued measurement can be devised to classify a problem as unsolvable, with some probability, after one consultation of the oracle. Such a feature remains impossible for a classical decider, even after any less than exhaustive oracle invocations. The inherent probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics seems to be at the heart of the advantage quantum computing exhibits over classical computation, in the context of deciding NP-complete problems based on a single oracle query.
An incredible eradication of thermal indulgence is required to enhance the flow and heat transfer enhancement in micro/nanofluidic devices. In addition, the rapid transport and instantaneous mixing of colloidal suspensions of metallic particles at nanoscale are exceptionally crucial at ascendency of inertial and surface forces. To address these challenges, the present work is intended to investigate the role of trimetallic nanofluid comprising of three kinds of nano-sized granules (titanium oxide, Silica and Aluminium dioxide) with pure blood through a heated micropump in the presence of inclined magnetic field and axially implemented electric field. To ensure rapid mixing in unidirectional flow, the pump internal surface is lined-up with mimetic motile cilia with slip boundary. The embedded cilia whip in pattern due to dynein molecular motion controlled by time and produce a set of metachronal waves along the pump wall. The shooting technique is executed to compute the numerical solution. In a comparative glance it is revealed that the trimetallic nanofluid exhibits 10% higher heat transfer efficiency as compared to bi-hybrid and mono nanofluids. Moreover, the involvement of electroosmosis results in almost 17% decrease in the heat transfer rate if it values jumps from 1 to 5. The fluid temperature in case of trimetallic nanofluid is higher and thus keeps the heat transfer entropy and the total entropy lower. Furthermore, involvement of thermal radiated and momentum slip significantly contribute in reducing heat losses.
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for 61 patients with dissecting intramural hematomas (n = 36) or atherosclerotic calcifications (n = 25) in intracranial vertebral arteries were collected to assess intra- and interobserver reproducibility in a 3.0-T MR system between January 2015 and December 2017. Two independent observers each segmented regions of interest for lesions twice. The reproducibility was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and within-subject coefficients of variation (wCV) for means and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and ICC for radiomic features (CCC and ICC > 0.85) were used. Mean QSM values were 0.277 ± 0.092 ppm for dissecting intramural hematomas and − 0.208 ± 0.078 ppm for atherosclerotic calcifications. ICCs and wCVs were 0.885–0.969 and 6.5–13.7% in atherosclerotic calcifications and 0.712–0.865 and 12.4–18.7% in dissecting intramural hematomas, respectively. A total of 9 and 19 reproducible radiomic features were observed in dissecting intramural hematomas and atherosclerotic calcifications, respectively. QSM measurements in dissecting intramural hematomas and atherosclerotic calcifications were feasible and reproducible between intra- and interobserver comparisons, and some reproducible radiomic features were demonstrated.
Crowdsourcing data collection from a network of mobile devices is useful in various applications. Mobile devices store a large amount of visual data that can aid in different application scenarios. Trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can be deployed on mobile devices to be used in searching for objects of interest. Querying for novel objects, for which models have not been trained yet, presents some unique challenges. When novel objects are queried, new models must be trained and distributed to all edge devices. In this paper, we propose an efficient method and a system, called EDIR, which enables answering these queries while taking into account the bandwidth limitations encountered in wireless networks, as well as the limited energy and computational power on mobile devices. Through extensive experimentation, we show that using distance-based classifiers, specifically those relying on the Cosine distance, leads to more efficient utilization of network resources by reducing the number of false positives. We perform analysis that enables the requester to tune the parameters of interest before issuing the query, and validate our theoretical results. EDIR reduces the amount of transferred data by more than 45% compared to other approaches while simultaneously achieving a good F1 score.
Background This study assessed the mobility levels among critically ill patients and the association of early mobility with incident proximal lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis and 90-day mortality. Methods This was a post hoc analysis of the multicenter PREVENT trial, which evaluated adjunctive intermittent pneumatic compression in critically ill patients receiving pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis with an expected ICU stay ≥ 72 h and found no effect on the primary outcome of incident proximal lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis. Mobility levels were documented daily up to day 28 in the ICU using a tool with an 8-point ordinal scale. We categorized patients according to mobility levels within the first 3 ICU days into three groups: early mobility level 4–7 (at least active standing), 1–3 (passive transfer from bed to chair or active sitting), and 0 (passive range of motion). We evaluated the association of early mobility and incident lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis and 90-day mortality by Cox proportional models adjusting for randomization and other co-variables. Results Of 1708 patients, only 85 (5.0%) had early mobility level 4–7 and 356 (20.8%) level 1–3, while 1267 (74.2%) had early mobility level 0. Patients with early mobility levels 4–7 and 1–3 had less illness severity, femoral central venous catheters, and organ support compared to patients with mobility level 0. Incident proximal lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis occurred in 1/85 (1.3%) patients in the early mobility 4–7 group, 7/348 (2.0%) patients in mobility 1–3 group, and 50/1230 (4.1%) patients in mobility 0 group. Compared with early mobility group 0, mobility groups 4–7 and 1–3 were not associated with differences in incident proximal lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16, 8.90; p = 0.87 and 0.91, 95% CI 0.39, 2.12; p = 0.83, respectively). However, early mobility groups 4–7 and 1–3 had lower 90-day mortality (aHR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22, 1.01; p = 0.052, and 0.43, 95% CI 0.30, 0.62; p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Only a small proportion of critically ill patients with an expected ICU stay ≥ 72 h were mobilized early. Early mobility was associated with reduced mortality, but not with different incidence of deep-vein thrombosis. This association does not establish causality, and randomized controlled trials are required to assess whether and to what extent this association is modifiable. Trial registration The PREVENT trial is registered at, ID: NCT02040103 (registered on 3 November 2013) and Current controlled trials, ID: ISRCTN44653506 (registered on 30 October 2013).
Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by a wide range of metabolic problems. The current study sought to assess nutritional habits of Saudi subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), in order to propose recommendation to improve these patients' dietary habits and delay possible disease complications. Methods Over a period of three years, (2017–2019) 577 patients with T2D attending the outpatient’s diabetic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia were invited to participate in this study. Dietary intake data were collected by trained nurses using a pretested structured validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The dietary data were collected using 7-day dietary recall questionnaire. A modified score system that associates dietary habits with glycemic control and lipid profile was used. Results Overall, a high healthful plant-based diet score was associated with a significant (P = 0.018) reduction in TG level (difference, -3.78%; 95% CI, -0.65% to -6.81%) and a near statistically significant (P = 0.06) increase in HDL levels (difference 1.87%; 95% CI -0.06–3.84%) in T2D patients from the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Additionally, in our patient cohort, the prevalence of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, and chronic kidney disease in T2D patients was 11.3%, 6.2%, 3.3%, and 8.4%, respectively. Conclusion The present study showed that adherence to a healthful plant-based diet is associated with a favorable outcome in glycemic control and lipid profile in T2D patients in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Prior assessment of total diet quality may be beneficial when giving nutritional advice to patients with T2D with the objective of improving glycemic control and lipid profile.
Performance of text classification models tends to drop over time due to changes in data, which limits the lifetime of a pretrained model. Therefore an ability to predict a model’s ability to persist over time can help design models that can be effectively used over a longer period of time. In this paper, we provide a thorough discussion into the problem, establish an evaluation setup for the task. We look at this problem from a practical perspective by assessing the ability of a wide range of language models and classification algorithms to persist over time, as well as how dataset characteristics can help predict the temporal stability of different models. We perform longitudinal classification experiments on three datasets spanning between 6 and 19 years, and involving diverse tasks and types of data. By splitting the longitudinal datasets into years, we perform a comprehensive set of experiments by training and testing across data that are different numbers of years apart from each other, both in the past and in the future. This enables a gradual investigation into the impact of the temporal gap between training and test sets on the classification performance, as well as measuring the extent of the persistence over time. Through experimenting with a range of language models and algorithms, we observe a consistent trend of performance drop over time, which however differs significantly across datasets; indeed, datasets whose domain is more closed and language is more stable, such as with book reviews, exhibit a less pronounced performance drop than open-domain social media datasets where language varies significantly more. We find that one can estimate how a model will retain its performance over time based on (i) how well the model performs over a restricted time period and its extrapolation to a longer time period, and (ii) the linguistic characteristics of the dataset, such as the familiarity score between subsets from different years. Findings from these experiments have important implications for the design of text classification models with the aim of preserving performance over time.
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6,695 members
Iqbal Bukhari
  • Department of Dermatology
Ashutosh Kumar Rai
  • Department of Biochemistry
Ayman A. El-Badry
  • Clinical Microbiology
Hiba Omer
  • Deanship of preparatory year
Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Head of institution
Dr. Abdullah Mohammed Alrubaish