# Illinois State University

• United States
Recent publications
The toughness of a noncomplete graph G is the maximum real number t such that the ratio of |S| to the number of components of G−S is at least t for every cutset S of G. Determining the toughness for a given graph is NP-hard. Chvátal's toughness conjecture, stating that there exists a constant t0 such that every graph with toughness at least t0 is hamiltonian, is still open for general graphs. A graph is called (P3∪2P1)-free if it does not contain any induced subgraph isomorphic to P3∪2P1, the disjoint union of P3 and two isolated vertices. In this paper, we confirm Chvátal's toughness conjecture for (P3∪2P1)-free graphs by showing that every 7-tough (P3∪2P1)-free graph on at least three vertices is hamiltonian.
Let t>0 be a real number and let G be a graph. We say G is t-tough if for every cutset S of G, the ratio of |S| to the number of components of G−S is at least t. The Toughness Conjecture of Chvátal, stating that there exists a constant t0 such that every t0-tough graph with at least three vertices is hamiltonian, is still open in general. For any given integer k≥1, a graph G is (P2∪kP1) free if G does not contain the disjoint union of P2 and k isolated vertices as an induced subgraph. In this note, we show that every 4-tough and 2k-connected (P2∪kP1)-free graph with at least three vertices is hamiltonian. This result in some sense is an “extension” of the classical Chvátal-Erdős Theorem that every max⁡{2,k}-connected (k+1)P1-free graph on at least three vertices is hamiltonian.
Let G be a simple graph, and let n, Δ(G) and χ′(G) be the order, the maximum degree and the chromatic index of G, respectively. We call G overfull if |E(G)|/⌊n/2⌋>Δ(G), and critical if χ′(H)<χ′(G) for every proper subgraph H of G. Clearly, if G is overfull then χ′(G)=Δ(G)+1 by Vizing's Theorem. The core of G, denoted by GΔ, is the subgraph of G induced by all its maximum degree vertices. Hilton and Zhao conjectured that for any critical class 2 graph G with Δ(G)≥4, if the maximum degree of GΔ is at most two, then G is overfull, which in turn gives Δ(G)>n/2+1. We show that for any critical class 2 graph G, if the minimum degree of GΔ is at most two and Δ(G)>n/2+1, then G is overfull.
Based upon Computers-Are-Social-Actors and Social Exchange theories, this study investigated causal configurations of Human-Robot Trust (HRT), social intelligence, and retail assistance performance of humanoid robots that may increase consumers’ intention to visit a footwear store. A pretest and main study (n = 455) were conducted with a video-based stimulus. Using Crist-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA), the study took a holistic approach to the emerging topic of humanoid robots, and proposed a QCA-based conceptual framework. The results revealed that consumers will always demonstrate a strong intention to visit a robot-operated store when the configurations of HRT and retail assistance performance or HRT and social intelligence are present (sufficient conditions). Most importantly, consumers will never demonstrate a strong intention to visit the store in the absence of HRT (necessary condition). This study serves as an example of new alternative analytical methods, such as large-N csQCA applications, to traditional multivariate analyses. [[Citation: Song, C.S., Kim, Y-K., Jo, B.W., and Park, S-h., (2022). Trust in humanoid robots in footwear stores: A large-N crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA) model. Journal of Business Research, 152, 251-264.]]
Research illustrating the adverse impact of discrimination and the increasing ethnic and racial diversity in the United States has resulted in a substantial body of work examining risk and protective factors for marginalized and ethnic and racial minority individuals. One factor that has received considerable attention over the past several decades is ethnic–racial socialization (ERS). Extant empirical research on ERS has heavily focused on parents, especially mothers, as socialization agents. What is noticeably missing from this literature is the potentially important roles of siblings as salient ERS agents. After briefly illustrating the focus of past research on parents as ERS agents, we review the theoretical justification for studying siblings in the ERS process and the very limited research on siblings’ role in ERS‐related processes. We close with a discussion of the important considerations for future researchers investigating sibling ERS.
Prolonged manganese exposure causes manganism, a neurodegenerative movement disorder. The identity of adaptive and non-adaptive cellular processes targeted by manganese remains mostly unexplored. Here we study mechanisms engaged by manganese in genetic cellular models known to increase susceptibility to manganese exposure, the plasma membrane manganese efflux transporter SLC30A10 and the mitochondrial Parkinson's gene PARK2. We found that SLC30A10 and PARK2 mutations as well as manganese exposure compromised the mitochondrial RNA granule composition and function resulting in disruption of mitochondrial transcript processing. These RNA granule defects led to impaired assembly and function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Notably, cells that survived a cytotoxic manganese challenge had impaired RNA granule function, thus suggesting that this granule phenotype was adaptive. CRISPR gene editing of subunits of the mitochondrial RNA granule, FASTKD2 or DHX30, as well as pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial transcription-translation, were protective rather than deleterious for survival of cells acutely exposed to manganese. Similarly, adult Drosophila mutants with defects in the mitochondrial RNA granule component scully were safeguarded from manganese-induced mortality. We conclude that impairement of the mitochondrial RNA granule function is a protective mechanism for acute manganese toxicity.
The extent to which individuals prioritize different personal values may be conceptually linked to endorsement of racial colorblindness beliefs as well as orientation toward social justice. The present study examined how personal values predicted racial colorblindness and social justice action orientation in a sample of undergraduates (N = 325; Age, M = 20.38, SD = 2.78). Results supported the hypotheses: Self-transcendence and openness to change values predicted higher social justice action orientation, mediated by lower colorblindness beliefs, whereas self-enhancement and conservation values predicted lower social justice action orientation, mediated by higher colorblindness beliefs. Hence, motives that emphasize others’ well-being and openness to change may be linked to less racial colorblindness and a greater willingness to address social inequalities. To encourage social justice efforts, institutions and social networks may benefit from considering implicit and explicit messages that promote the well-being of others and the value of openness as opposed to values that prioritize individual status and prestige and maintaining the status quo.
The purpose of this single case study was to investigate if a functional relation existed between online training and coaching, and early interventionists’ use of an approach to practice meant to facilitate family-centered practices. Four professional/family dyads participated in the study. Three of the four professionals demonstrated an immediate increase in fidelity to the approach following online training. Fidelity levels were significantly higher in intervention when supported by coaching than in baseline, although variability was observed. While maintenance data were lower than during intervention, fidelity levels were higher in maintenance than in baseline. Three issues emerged from this study that are worthy of discussion. Change in practice was observed as a result of online training. In addition, online coaching through the use of video recordings was found to be an effective method for impacting practice. Finally, the results revealed that coaching could be effective even between unfamiliar professionals. The study has implications for preservice and in-service training programs in regard to the effectiveness of online technologies for training and coaching.
This paper examines the incentives of firms to bypass the innovation process by not pursuing innovation, focusing specifically on whether FDI enables innovation participation or retards it. This consideration of innovation participation is broader than the impact of FDI on innovation because it captures whether FDI leads to greater concentration in research markets. Using data on more than 50 countries and accounting for possible two-way causality between FDI and non-innovation, our results consistently show that FDI increases the ranks of non-innovators. These spillovers or crowding-out effects of FDI do not seem to have been widely recognized. Another interesting finding is that the main result is sensitive to the size of firms—large firms are less impacted by FDI relative to small and medium firms. Implications for technology policy are discussed.
For a simple graph G, denote by n, Δ(G), and χ′(G) its order, maximum degree, and chromatic index, respectively. A graph G is edge-chromatic critical if χ′(G)=Δ(G)+1 and χ′(H)<χ′(G) for every proper subgraph H of G. Let G be an n-vertex connected regular class 1 graph, and let G⁎ be obtained from G by splitting one vertex of G into two vertices. Hilton and Zhao in 1997 conjectured that G⁎ must be edge-chromatic critical if Δ(G)>n/3, and they verified this when Δ(G)≥n2(7−1)≈0.82n. In this paper, we prove it for Δ(G)≥0.75n.
Pyramidal cell spike block is a common occurrence in migraine with aura and epileptic seizures. In both cases, pyramidal cells experience hyperexcitation with rapidly increasing firing rates, major changes in electrochemistry, and ultimately spike block that temporarily terminates neuronal activity. In cortical spreading depression (CSD), spike block propagates as a slowly traveling wave of inactivity through cortical pyramidal cells, which is thought to precede migraine attacks with aura. In seizures, highly synchronized cortical activity can be interspersed with, or terminated by, spike block. While the identifying characteristic of CSD and seizures is the pyramidal cell hyperexcitation, it is currently unknown how the dynamics of the cortical microcircuits and inhibitory interneurons affect the initiation of hyperexcitation and subsequent spike block. We tested the contribution of cortical inhibitory interneurons to the initiation of spike block using a cortical microcircuit model that takes into account changes in ion concentrations that result from neuronal firing. Our results show that interneuronal inhibition provides a wider dynamic range to the circuit and generally improves stability against spike block. Despite these beneficial effects, strong interneuronal firing contributed to rapidly changing extracellular ion concentrations, which facilitated hyperexcitation and led to spike block first in the interneuron and then in the pyramidal cell. In all cases, a loss of interneuronal firing triggered pyramidal cell spike block. However, preventing interneuronal spike block was insufficient to rescue the pyramidal cell from spike block. Our data thus demonstrate that while the role of interneurons in cortical microcircuits is complex, they are critical to the initiation of pyramidal cell spike block. We discuss the implications that localized effects on cortical interneurons have beyond the isolated microcircuit and their contribution to CSD and epileptic seizures.
Construction schedules are written instructions of construction execution shared between stakeholders for essential project information exchange. However, construction schedules are semi-structured data that lack semantic details and coherence within and across projects. This study proposes an ontology-based Recurrent Neural Network approach to bi-directionally translate between human written language and machinery ontological language. The proposed approach is assessed in three areas: text generation accuracy, machine readability, and human understandability. This study collected 30 project schedules with 19,589 activities (sample size = 19,589) from a Tier-1 contractor in the UK. The experimental results indicate that: (1) precision and recall of text generation LSTM-RNN model is 0.991 and 0.874, respectively; (2) schedule readability improved by increasing the semantic distinctiveness, measured using the cosine similarity which was reduced from 0.995 to 0.990 (p < 0.01); (3) schedule understandability improved from 75.90% to 85.55%. The proposed approach formalises text descriptions in construction schedules and other construction documents with less labour investment. It supports contractors to establish knowledge management systems to learn from historic data and make more informed decisions in future similar scenarios.
Over the last several decades, sociologists and criminologists have documented the presence of a subculture in prison and street settings. Recent scholarship has shed light on how failed safety measures and key institutional deprivations also contribute to the manifestation of a subculture in urban and suburban public schools. Within each setting, researchers have illuminated how a set of informal social norms, formally known as a “code,” govern interpersonal communication and regulate violence. Considering the prevalence of violence in prison, street, and school settings, it is important to understand how the code operates, the social conditions that influence individual and group adherence, and whether the code in prison, street, and school settings reinforce one another. This review seeks to explore the inner workings of the inmate, street, and school codes, shed light on their utility in each respective setting, and reveal how the carceral state extends throughout each of the respective codes.
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3,687 members
• School of Biological Sciences
• School of Biological Sciences
• Department of Psychology
• Department of Psychology
• Department of Mathematics
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