IT University of Copenhagen
  • Copenhagen, Denmark
Recent publications
The enigmatic larvae of the Old World genus Passeromyia Rodhain & Villeneuve, 1915 (Diptera: Muscidae) inhabit the nests of birds as saprophages or as haemato-phagous agents of myiasis among nestlings. Using light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we provide the first morphological descriptions of the first, second and third instar of P. longicornis (Macquart, 1851) (Diptera: Muscidae), the first and third instar of P. indecora (Walker, 1858) (Diptera: Muscidae), and we revise the larval morphology of P. heterochaeta (Villenueve, 1915) (Diptera: Muscidae) and P. steini Pont, 1970 (Diptera: Muscidae). We provide a key to the third instar of examined species (excluding P. steini and P. veitchi Bezzi, 1928 (Diptera: Muscidae)). Examination of the cephaloskeleton revealed paired rod-like sclerites, named 'rami', between the lateral arms of the intermediate sclerite in the second and third instar larva. We reveal parastomal bars fused apically with the intermediate sclerite, the absence of which has so far been considered as apomorphic for second and third instar muscid larvae. Examination of additional material suggests that modified parastomal bars are not exclusive features of Passero-myia but occur widespread in the Muscidae, and rami may occur widespread in the Cyclorrhapha.
Northern forest ecosystems make up an important part of the global carbon cycle. Hence, monitoring local-scale gross primary production (GPP) of Northern forest is essential for understanding climatic change impacts on terrestrial carbon sequestration and for assessing and planning management practices. Here we evaluate and compare four methods for estimating GPP using Sentinel-2 data in order to improve current available GPP estimates: four empirical regression models based on either the 2-band Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2) or the plant phenology index (PPI), an asymptotic light response function (LRF) model, and a light-use efficiency (LUE) model using the MOD17 algorithm. These approaches were based on remote sensing vegetation indices, air temperature (Tair), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The models were parametrized and evaluated using in-situ data from eleven forest sites in North Europe, covering two common forest types, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. Most of the models gave good agreement with eddy covariance-derived GPP. The VI-based regression models performed well in evergreen needleleaf forest (R² = 0.69–0.78, RMSE = 1.97–2.28 g C m⁻² d⁻¹, and NRMSE = 9–11.0%, eight sites), whereas the LRF and MOD17 performed slightly worse (R² = 0.65 and 0.57, RMSE = 2.49 and 2.72 g C m⁻² d⁻¹, NRMSE = 12 and 13.0%, respectively). In deciduous broadleaf forest all models, except the LRF, showed close agreements with the observed GPP (R² = 0.75–0.80, RMSE = 2.23–2.46 g C m⁻² d⁻¹, NRMSE = 11–12%, three sites). For the LRF model, R² = 0.57, RMSE = 3.21 g C m⁻² d⁻¹, NRMSE = 16%. The results highlighted the necessity of improved models in evergreen needleleaf forest where the LUE approach gave poorer results., The simplest regression model using only PPI performed well beside more complex models, suggesting PPI to be a process indicator directly linked with GPP. All models were able to capture the seasonal dynamics of GPP well, but underestimation of the growing season peaks were a common issue. The LRF was the only model tending to overestimate GPP. Estimation of interannual variability in cumulative GPP was less accurate than the single-year models and will need further development. In general, all models performed well on local scale and demonstrated their feasibility for upscaling GPP in northern forest ecosystems using Sentinel-2 data.
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, commonly known as lotus, is a genus comprising perennial and rhizomatous aquatic plants, found throughout Asia and Australia. This review aimed to cover the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids, and lipids in plants and their types in different parts of lotus. This review also examined the physiological functions of bioactive compounds in lotus and the extracts from different organs of the lotus plant. The structures and identities of flavonoids, alkaloids, and lipids in different parts of lotus as well as their biosynthesis were illustrated and updated. In the traditional medicine systems and previous scientific studies, bioactive compounds and the extracts of lotus have been applied for treating inflammation, cancer, liver disease, Alzheimer's disease, etc. We suggest future studies to be focused on standardization of the extract of lotus, and their pharmacological mechanisms as drugs or functional foods. This review is important for the lotus-based food processing and application.
Objectives: A frequently suggested approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) caused by food production is to reduce the intake of animal products. This, however, can create nutritional deficiencies. This study aimed at identifying culturally acceptable nutritional solutions for German adults that are both climate-friendly and health-promoting. Methods: Linear programming (LP) was applied to optimize the food supply for omnivores, pescatarians, vegetarians and vegans considering nutritional adequacy, health promotion, GHGE, affordability, and cultural acceptability by approaching German national food consumption. Results: Implementing dietary reference values and omitting meat (products) reduced the GHGE by up to 52%. The vegan diet was alone in staying below the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) threshold of 1.6 kg CO2eq/person/day. The optimized omnivorous diet constrained to meet this goal maintained a minimum of 50% of each baseline food and, on average, deviated from baseline by 36% for females and 64% for males. Butter, milk, meat products, and cheese were reduced by half for both sexes while bread, bakery goods, milk and meat were reduced mainly for males. The intake of vegetables, cereals, pulses, mushrooms, and fish increased by between 63% and 260% for the omnivores, compared to baseline. Besides the vegan dietary pattern, all optimized diets cost less than the baseline diet. Conclusion: A LP approach for optimizing the German habitual diet to be healthy, affordable, and meeting the IPCC’s GHGE-threshold was possible for several dietary patterns and appears to be a feasible way forward towards including climate goals into food-based dietary guidelines. Key words: Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), linear programming, food-based dietary guidelines, planetary health, sustainability
Objectives: Callers with myocardial infarction presenting atypical symptoms in telephone consultations when calling out-of-hours medical services risk misrecognition. We investigated characteristics in callers' interpretation of experienced conditions through communication with call-takers. Methods: Recording of calls resulting in not having an ambulance dispatched for 21 callers who contacted a non-emergency medical helpline, Copenhagen (Denmark), up to one week before they were diagnosed with myocardial infarction. Qualitative content analysis was applied. Results: Awareness of illness, remedial actions and previous experiences contributed to callers' interpretation of the experienced condition. Unclear symptoms resulted in callers reacting to their interpretation by being unsure and worried. Negotiation of the interpretation was seen when callers tested the call-taker's interpretation of the condition and when either caller or call-taker suggested: "wait and see". Conclusion: Callers sought to interpret the experienced conditions but faced challenges when the conditions appeared unclear and did not correspond to the health system's understanding of symptoms associated with myocardial infarction. It affected the communicative interaction with the call-taker and influenced the call-taker's choice of response. Practice implications: Call-takers, as part of the decision-making process, could ask further questions about the caller's insecurity and worry. It might facilitate faster recognition of conditions warranting hospital referral.
Objectives: To investigate the sex-specific associations between maternal paraben concentrations in second trimester urine and birth size of the offspring. Methods: A prospective cohort study of 529 mother-child pairs within the Odense Child Cohort. Pregnant women were recruited to the cohort from 2010 to 2012 and provided fasting spot urine samples in second trimester (median 28.7 weeks). Concentrations of methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), iso-propylparaben (i-PrP), n-propylparaben (n-PrP), n-butylparaben (n-BuP) and benzylparaben (BzP) were analyzed by isotope diluted liquid-chromatography tandem-mass-spectrometry and osmolality adjusted. Exposures were categorized into tertiles or above/below level of detection. Data on maternal and birth characteristics were extracted from hospital records. Sex-stratified multiple linear regression analyses were performed according to relevant birth outcomes (length, weight, head/abdominal circumference) adjusting for a priori defined confounders. Results: Higher paraben levels were detected in pregnant women who were older, more obese, who smoked and were primigravidae. Generally, higher maternal exposure of parabens was consistently associated with lower birth size in female but not in male offspring, but with few substantial or statistically significant. Higher maternal exposure to n-BuP during pregnancy was associated with a statistically significant lower birth size in female offspring only [birth weight: -137 g (95 % CI -256; -19), head circumference: -0.48 cm (95 % CI -0.90; -0.05), abdominal circumference: -0.65 cm (95 % CI -1.21; -0.08)]. No differences in birth size were observed for other parabens. Conclusion: Higher maternal exposure to n-butylparaben was associated with lower birth size in female but not male offspring.
Purpose of the study: Calreticulin is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein, which is involved in protein folding and in peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules together with its homolog calnexin. Mutated calreticulin is associated with a group of hemopoietic disorders, especially myeloproliferative neoplasms. Currently only the cellular immune response to mutated calreticulin has been described, although preliminary findings have indicated that antibodies to mutated calreticulin are not specific for myeloproliferative disorders. These findings have prompted us to characterize the humoral immune response to mutated calreticulin and its chaperone homologue calnexin. Patients and methods: We analyzed sera from myeloproliferative neoplasm patients, healthy donors and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients for the occurrence of autoantibodies to wild type and mutated calreticulin forms and to calnexin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Antibodies to mutated calreticulin and calnexin were present at similar levels in serum samples of myeloproliferative neoplasm and multiple sclerosis patients as well as healthy donors. Moreover, a high correlation between antibodies to mutated calreticulin and calnexin was seen for all patient and control groups. Epitope binding studies indicated that cross-reactive antibodies bound to a three-dimensional epitope encompassing a short linear sequence in the C-terminal of mutated calreticulin and calnexin. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that calreticulin mutations may be common and not necessarily lead to onset of myeloproliferative neoplasm, possibly due to elimination of cells with mutations. This, in turn, may suggest that additional molecular changes may be required for development of myeloproliferative neoplasm.
Quantum interference effects in conjugated molecules have been well-explored, with benzene frequently invoked as a pedagogical example. These interference effects have been understood through a quantum interference map in which the electronic transmission is separated into interfering and non-interfering terms, with a focus on the π-orbitals for conjugated molecules. Recently, saturated molecules have also been reported to exhibit destructive quantum interference effects; however, the very different σ-orbital character in these molecules means that it is not clear how orbital contributions manifest. Herein, we demonstrate that the quantum interference effects in conjugated molecules are quite different from those observed in saturated molecules, as demonstrated by the quantum interference map. While destructive interference at the Fermi energy in the π-system of benzene arises from interference terms between paired occupied and virtual orbitals, this is not the case at the Fermi energy in saturated systems. Instead, destructive interference is evident when contributions from a larger number of non-paired orbitals cancel, leading to more subtle and varied manifestations of destructive interference in saturated systems.
Performance in short-duration sports is highly dependent on muscle glycogen, but the total degradation is only moderate and considering the water-binding property of glycogen, unnecessary storing of glycogen may cause an unfavorable increase in body mass. To investigate this, we determined the effect of manipulating dietary carbohydrates (CHO) on muscle glycogen content, body mass and short-term exercise performance. In a cross-over design twenty-two men completed two maximal cycle tests of either 1-min (n = 10) or 15-min (n = 12) duration with different pre-exercise muscle glycogen levels. Glycogen manipulation was initiated three days prior to the tests by exercise-induced glycogen-depletion followed by ingestion of a moderate (M-CHO) or high (H-CHO) CHO-diet. Subjects were weighed before each test, and muscle glycogen content was determined in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis before and after each test. Pre-exercise muscle glycogen content was lower following M-CHO than H-CHO (367 mmol · kg-1 DW vs. 525 mmol · kg-1 DW, P < 0.00001), accompanied by a 0.7 kg lower body mass (P < 0.00001). No differences were observed in performance between diets in neither the 1-min (P = 0.33) nor the 15-min (P = 0.99) test. In conclusion, pre-exercise muscle glycogen content and body mass was lower after ingesting moderate compared with high amounts of CHO, while short-term exercise performance was unaffected. This demonstrates that adjusting pre-exercise glycogen levels to the requirements of competition may provide an attractive weight management strategy in weight-bearing sports, particularly in athletes with high resting glycogen levels.
Genome sequences can reveal the extent of inbreeding in small populations. Here, we present the first genomic characterization of type D killer whales, a distinctive eco/morphotype with a circumpolar, subantarctic distribution. Effective population size is the lowest estimated from any killer whale genome and indicates a severe population bottleneck. Consequently, type D genomes show among the highest level of inbreeding reported for any mammalian species (FROH ≥ 0.65). Detected recombination cross-over events of different haplotypes are up to an order of magnitude rarer than in other killer whale genomes studied to date. Comparison of genomic data from a museum specimen of a type D killer whale that stranded in New Zealand in 1955, with 3 modern genomes from the Cape Horn area, reveals high covariance and identity-by-state of alleles, suggesting these genomic characteristics and demographic history are shared among geographically dispersed social groups within this morphotype. Limitations to the insights gained in this study stem from the nonindependence of the 3 closely related modern genomes, the recent coalescence time of most variation within the genomes, and the nonequilibrium population history which violates the assumptions of many model-based methods. Long-range linkage disequilibrium and extensive runs of homozygosity found in type D genomes provide the potential basis for both the distinctive morphology, and the coupling of genetic barriers to gene flow with other killer whale populations.
The deubiquitinating enzyme Ataxin-3 (ATXN3) contains a polyglutamine (PolyQ) region, the expansion of which causes spinocerebellar ataxia type-3 (SCA3). ATXN3 has multiple functions, such as regulating transcription or controlling genomic stability after DNA damage. Here we report the role of ATXN3 in chromatin organization during unperturbed conditions, in a catalytic-independent manner. The lack of ATXN3 leads to abnormalities in nuclear and nucleolar morphology, alters DNA replication timing and increases transcription. Additionally, indicators of more open chromatin, such as increased mobility of histone H1, changes in epigenetic marks and higher sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease digestion were detected in the absence of ATXN3. Interestingly, the effects observed in cells lacking ATXN3 are epistatic to the inhibition or lack of the histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), an interaction partner of ATXN3. The absence of ATXN3 decreases the recruitment of endogenous HDAC3 to the chromatin, as well as the HDAC3 nuclear/cytoplasm ratio after HDAC3 overexpression, suggesting that ATXN3 controls the subcellular localization of HDAC3. Importantly, the overexpression of a PolyQ-expanded version of ATXN3 behaves as a null mutant, altering DNA replication parameters, epigenetic marks and the subcellular distribution of HDAC3, giving new insights into the molecular basis of the disease.
Background Long-term exposure to air pollution and noise is detrimental to health; but studies that evaluated both remain limited. This study explores associations with natural and cause-specific mortality for a range of air pollutants and transportation noise. Methods Over 4 million adults in Switzerland were followed from 2000 to 2014. Exposure to PM 2.5 , PM 2.5 components (Cu, Fe, S and Zn), NO 2 , black carbon (BC) and ozone (O 3 ) from European models, and transportation noise from source-specific Swiss models, were assigned at baseline home addresses. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for individual and area-level covariates, were used to evaluate associations with each exposure and death from natural, cardiovascular (CVD) or non-malignant respiratory disease. Analyses included single and two exposure models, and subset analysis to study lower exposure ranges. Results During follow-up, 661,534 individuals died of natural causes (36.6% CVD, 6.6% respiratory). All exposures including the PM 2.5 components were associated with natural mortality, with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 1.026 (1.015, 1.038) per 5 µg/m ³ PM 2.5 , 1.050 (1.041, 1.059) per 10 µg/m ³ NO 2 , 1.057 (1.048, 1.067) per 0.5 × 10 –5 /m BC and 1.045 (1.040, 1.049) per 10 dB Lden total transportation noise. NO 2 , BC, Cu, Fe and noise were consistently associated with CVD and respiratory mortality, whereas PM 2.5 was only associated with CVD mortality. Natural mortality associations persisted < 20 µg/m ³ for PM 2.5 and NO 2 , < 1.5 10 –5 /m BC and < 53 dB Lden total transportation noise. The O 3 association was inverse for all outcomes. Including noise attenuated all outcome associations, though many remained significant. Across outcomes, noise was robust to adjustment to air pollutants (e.g. natural mortality 1.037 (1.033, 1.042) per 10 dB Lden total transportation noise, after including BC). Conclusion Long-term exposure to air pollution and transportation noise in Switzerland contribute to premature mortality. Considering co-exposures revealed the importance of local traffic-related pollutants such as NO 2 , BC and transportation noise.
Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk alleles for early childhood asthma, particularly in the 17q21 locus and in the cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) gene. Contribution of these alleles to the risk of acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in the early childhood is unclear. Methods: We analyzed data from the STEPS birth-cohort study of unselected children and the VINKU and VINKU2 studies on children with severe wheezing illness. Genome-wide genotyping was performed on 1011 children. We analyzed the association between 11 pre-selected asthma risk alleles and the risk of ARIs and wheezing illnesses of various viral etiologies. Results: The asthma risk alleles in CDHR3, GSDMA, and GSDMB were associated with an increased rate of ARIs (for CDHR3, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12; P=0.02), and risk allele in CDHR3 gene with rhinovirus infections (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20, P=0.03). Asthma risk alleles in GSDMA, GSDMB, IKZF3, ZPBP2, and ORMDL3 genes were associated with wheezing illnesses in early childhood, especially rhinovirus-positive wheezing illnesses. Conclusions: Asthma risk alleles were associated with an increased rate of ARIs and an increased risk of viral wheezing illnesses. Non-wheezing and wheezing ARIs and asthma may have shared genetic risk factors.
Rising temperatures amplify biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from arctic vegetation, causing feedbacks to the climate system. Changes in climate also alter plant physiology and vegetation composition, all of which can influence VOC emissions. Moreover, leaf development and biotic stresses cause highly variable emissions during the growing season. Therefore, linking VOC emissions with plant traits and tracking responses to climate change might provide better understanding of VOC emission regulation under future conditions. We measured VOC emissions and other plant traits in dwarf birch ( Betula glandulosa ) at two elevations in Narsarsuaq, South Greenland. The measurements were performed in warming experiments that have run since 2016. We collected VOCs using the branch enclosure method from early June until late July 2019 (n = 200). Emissions of green leaf volatiles (GLVs), oxygenated monoterpenes (oMTs), and homoterpenes followed a seasonal trend. VOC emission rates and the diversity of the VOC blend decreased at the end of the measurement period. Differences in VOC emission rates between elevations were most pronounced early in the season. Most traits did not explain the variation in VOC emissions. We show strong seasonal variability in VOC emissions within the growing season, which are likely driven by leaf phenology. While the diversity of VOCs was greater at the milder low-elevation site, VOC emission rates were higher or similar at the harsher high-elevation site, showing stronger VOC emission potentials than previously assumed. Seasonal variations in the VOCs are crucial for accurate predictions of current and future VOC emissions from arctic ecosystems.
Bodily engagement with the material and sociocultural world is ubiquitous in doing and learning science. However, science education researchers have often tended to emphasize the disembodied and nonmaterial aspects of science learning, thereby overlooking the crucial role of the body in meaning-making processes. While in recent years we have seen a turn towards embracing embodied perspectives, there persist considerable theoretical and methodological differences within research on embodiment in science education that hamper productive discourse. What is needed is a careful examination of how different traditions and disciplines, among them philosophy, social semiotics, and cognitive science, bear on embodiment in science education research. This paper aims to explore and articulate the differences and convergences of embodied perspectives in science education research in the form of a dialogue between three fictitious personas that stand for the cognitive, social-interactionist, and phenomenological research traditions. By bringing these traditions into dialogue, we aim to better position the role of the body in the science education research landscape. In doing so, we take essential steps towards unifying terminology across different research traditions and further exploring the implications of embodiment for science education research.
Bio-telemetry from small tags attached to animals is one of the principal methods for studying the ecology and behaviour of wildlife. The field has constantly evolved over the last 80 years as technological improvement enabled a diversity of sensors to be integrated into the tags (e.g., GPS, accelerometers, etc.). However, retrieving data from tags on free-ranging animals remains a challenge since satellite and GSM networks are relatively expensive and or power hungry. Recently a new class of low-power communication networks have been developed and deployed worldwide to connect the internet of things (IoT). Here, we evaluated one of these, the Sigfox IoT network, for the potential as a real-time multi-sensor data retrieval and tag commanding system for studying fauna across a diversity of species and ecosystems. We tracked 312 individuals across 30 species (from 25 g bats to 3 t elephants) with seven different device concepts, resulting in more than 177,742 successful transmissions. We found a maximum line of sight communication distance of 280 km (on a flying cape vulture [Gyps coprotheres]), which sets a new documented record for animal-borne digital data transmission using terrestrial infrastructure. The average transmission success rate amounted to 68.3% (SD 22.1) on flying species and 54.1% (SD 27.4) on terrestrial species. In addition to GPS data, we also collected and transmitted data products from accelerometers, barometers, and thermometers. Further, we assessed the performance of Sigfox Atlas Native, a low-power method for positional estimates based on radio signal strengths and found a median accuracy of 12.89 km (MAD 5.17) on animals. We found that robust real-time communication (median message delay of 1.49 s), the extremely small size of the tags (starting at 1.28 g without GPS), and the low power demands (as low as 5.8 µAh per transmitted byte) unlock new possibilities for ecological data collection and global animal observation.
Background Due to their Arctic habitat and elusive nature, little is known about the narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and its foraging behaviour. Understanding its ability to catch prey is essential for understanding its ecological role, but also to assess its ability to withstand climate changes and anthropogenic activities. Narwhals produce echolocation clicks and buzzing sounds as part of their foraging behaviour and these can be used as indicators of prey capture attempts. However, acoustic data are expensive to store on the tagging devices and require complicated post-processing. The main goal of this paper is to predict prey capture attempts directly from acceleration and depth data. The aim is to apply broadly used statistical models with interpretable parameters. The ultimate goal is to be able to estimate prey consumption without the more demanding acoustic data. Results We predict narwhal buzzing activity using mixed-effects logistic regression models with 83 features extracted from acceleration and depth data as explanatory variables. The features encompass both instantaneous values as well as delayed values to capture behavioural patterns lasting several seconds. The data correlations were not strong enough to predict the exact timing of the buzzes, but were reliably able to detect buzzes within a few seconds. Most of the of the buzz predictions were within 2 s of an observed buzz (68%), increasing to 94% within 30 s. Conversely, 46% of the observed buzzes were within 2 s of a predicted buzz, increasing to 82% within 30 s. Additionally, the model performed well, although with a tendency towards underestimation of the number of buzzes per dive. In total, we predicted 17, 557 buzzes versus 25, 543 observed across data from 10 narwhals. Classifying foraging and non-foraging dives yielded a precision of 86% and a recall of 91%. Conclusion We conclude that narwhal foraging estimation through acceleration and depth data is a valid alternative or supplement to buzz recordings, even when using somewhat simple statistical methods, such as logistic regression. The methods in this paper can be extended to foraging detection in similar marine species and can aid instrument development.
Culture-independent metagenomic studies have revolutionized our understanding of the gut microbiota. However, the lack of full genomes from cultured species is still a limitation for in-depth studies of the gut microbiota. Here we present a substantially expanded version of our Cultivated Genome Reference (CGR), termed CGR2, providing 3324 high-quality draft genomes from isolates selected from a large-scale cultivation of bacterial isolates from fecal samples of healthy Chinese individuals. The CGR2 classifies 527 species (179 previously unidentified species) from 8 phyla, and uncovers a genomic and functional diversity of Collinsella aerofaciens. The CGR2 genomes match 126 metagenome-assembled genomes without cultured representatives in the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) collection and harbor 3767 unidentified secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, providing a source of natural compounds with pharmaceutical potentials. We uncover accurate phage–bacterium linkages providing information on the evolutionary characteristics of interaction between bacteriophages and bacteria at the strain level.
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1,976 members
Stefan Heinrich
  • Computer Science
Lene Nielsen
  • Business IT
Sven-Eric Stangerup
  • ENT, Rigshospital
Rued Laanggards Vej 7, 2300, Copenhagen, Denmark
Head of institution
Mads Tofte