INSTITUTOS SUPERIORES DE ENSINO DO CENSA
Recent publications
This study aims to evaluate the acute effects of the responses to prone positioning (PP) in awake patients with COVID-19. A prospective, single-centered study, using supplemental oxygen, was conducted with 32 awake patients with COVID-19. The response to PP was performed for 30 minutes. According to their tolerance, the patients were instructed to daily remain in PP. The variables for oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate, respiratory rate, ROX index and intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate were registered. In total, 25 patients (78.1%) responded to PP, with 13 (40.6%) showing persistent response and 12 (37.5%) showing transient response. Seven patients (21.9%) did not respond. Patients with persistent and transient responses increased SpO2 (p<0.001) and ROX index (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), and reduced heart rate (p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively), and respiratory rate (p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively). The variables were similar in patients who did not respond to PP. The ICU admission rate of patients who had persistent or transient response, or did not respond was 30.8% (4/13), 41.7% (5/12), and 57.1% (4/7), respectively. The patients who responded to PP showed reduced heart and respiratory rates and increased ROX index, without interfering in the hospitalization rate.
RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos agudos dos tipos de resposta à posição prona (PP) em pacientes acordados com COVID-19. Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo, unicêntrico, com 32 pacientes acordados com COVID-19, e com uso de oxigênio suplementar. A resposta à posição prona foi feita durante 30 minutos. Após o teste, os pacientes foram orientados a permanecer na PP diariamente, de acordo com a tolerância de cada um. As variáveis saturação de oxigênio (SpO2), frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, índice ROX e taxa de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) foram registradas. Um total de 25 pacientes (78,1%) responderam à PP, sendo que 13 (40,6%) apresentaram resposta persistente e 12 (37,5%) transitória. Sete pacientes (21,9%) não responderam. Os pacientes com respostas persistente e transitória tiveram aumento da SpO2 (p<0,001) e do índice ROX (p=0,001 e p<0,001, respectivamente), e redução das frequências cardíaca (p=0,01 e p=0,02, respectivamente) e respiratória (p=0,003 e p=0,001, respectivamente). Não houve diferença em nenhuma das variáveis nos pacientes que não responderam à PP. A taxa de internação na UTI dos pacientes que apresentaram resposta persistente, transitória ou que não responderam foi de 30,8% (4/13), 41,7% (5/12) e 57,1% (4/7), respectivamente. Conclui-se que os pacientes que responderam à PP apresentaram redução das frequências cardíaca e respiratória e aumento do índice ROX, sem interferir na taxa de internação.
In recent years, the interest with niobium alloys has been increasingly focusing on high-stress applications. This work shows the study of Cu-25wt.%Fe-25 wt.%Nb composite sintered by spark plasma at 700, 750, and 800 °C, under constant uniaxial pressure of 35 MPa for 3 min, evaluated for use as bushings. The scanning electron microscopy results showed regions rich in Nb and α-Fe embedded in a γ-Cu matrix, forming a solid solution of Fe-Nb suggesting the occurrence of a sintering process by Cu liquid phase and precipitation of an ε-phase Fe2Nb Laves. The relative density, mechanical and thermophysical properties were also evaluated. The alloy sintered at 800 °C showed hardness around 81 HB, low porosity, low porosity, yield strength 168 ± 4 MPa, modulus of elasticity 47 ± 4 GPa, and relative density 7.9% higher than the alloy prepared at 700 °C. The values of thermal conductivity obtained were above 70 Wm−1K−1, superior to SAE 65, indicating a possible material for application on bushings.
To achieve optimal rationality and efficient freshwater use, the latest Brazilian methods for charging payments based on water withdrawal generates a criteria of good practices in water use. The São Francisco River Basin (SFRB), mainly located in the Brazilian semi-arid area, included such parameters in 2019 modifying 2010 procedures. This study comparatively evaluates these procedural changes, taking the water distribution user sector as the subject of the investigation. Results indicate that the measurement parameters, which adjusted priced water volume, stimulated an overestimated water license to receive a 24% payment bonus. Furthermore, the inclusion of a water loss index is based on weak parameters, which allow up to 50% of water loss without penalty. In the three water systems observed, the cumulative effect of the measurement and water loss criteria imply a reduction of almost 40% water charges since 2019. Thus, the procedures adopted in the SFRB, a region with structural water scarcity, are not consistent with their initial objective of rational and efficient water use.
Objective: To compare the effects of voluntary breath stacking (VBS) and involuntary breath stacking (IBS) techniques on respiratory mechanics, lung function patterns, and inspiratory capacity in tracheostomized patients. Methods: This was a randomized crossover clinical trial involving 20 tracheostomized patients admitted to the ICU and submitted to the VBS and IBS techniques, in random order, with an interval of 5 h between each. Ten cycles of each technique were performed with an interval of 30 s between each cycle. In VBS, patients performed successive inspirations for up to 30 s through a one-way valve, whereas in IBS, successive slow insufflations were performed with a resuscitator bag until the pressure reached 40 cmH2O. Respiratory mechanics, inspiratory capacity, and the lung function pattern were evaluated before and after the interventions. Results: After IBS, there was an increase in static compliance (p = 0.007), which was also higher after IBS than after VBS (p = 0.03). There was no significant difference between the pre-VBS and post-VBS evaluations in terms of static compliance (p = 0.42). Inspiratory capacity was also greater after IBS than after VBS (2,420.7 ± 480.9 mL vs. 1,211.3 ± 562.8 mL; p < 0.001), as was airway pressure (38.3 ± 2.6 cmH2O vs. 25.8 ± 5.5 cmH2O; p < 0.001). There were no changes in resistance or lung function pattern after the application of either technique. Conclusions: In comparison with VBS, IBS promoted greater inspiratory capacity and higher airway pressure, resulting in an increase in static compliance.
O sistema de avaliação estabelecido no Brasil é baseado na atribuição de notas (conceitos). O presente trabalho é um estudo evolutivo dos programas stricto sensu da área de Engenharias III. Com a aplicação da metodologia, demonstrou-se que 12 programas de pós-graduação obtiveram eficiência máxima em todo ciclo avaliativo, sendo a maior parte decorrente de instituições públicas. A pesquisa também aponta que as regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil são as que apresentam programas com melhores eficiências. Resultados mostraram um aumento considerável do número de programas autorizados e uma baixa correlação do conceito do programa e eficiência, corroborando o pressuposto que nem todos os programas com conceitos elevados terão um alto índice de produção científica.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of ventilator hyperinflation on respiratory mechanics. Methods: A randomized crossover clinical trial was conducted with 38 mechanically ventilated patients with pulmonary infection. The order of the hyperinflation and control (without changes in the parameters) conditions was randomized. Hyperinflation was performed for 5 minutes in pressure-controlled ventilation mode, with progressive increases of 5cmH2O until a maximum pressure of 35cmH2O was reached, maintaining positive end expiratory pressure. After 35cmH2O was reached, the inspiratory time and respiratory rate were adjusted so that the inspiratory and expiratory flows reached baseline levels. Measurements of static compliance, total resistance and airway resistance, and peak expiratory flow were evaluated before the technique, immediately after the technique and after aspiration. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was used with Tukey's post hoc test, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Ventilator hyperinflation increased static compliance, which remained at the same level after aspiration (46.2 ± 14.8 versus 52.0 ± 14.9 versus 52.3 ± 16.0mL/cmH2O; p < 0.001). There was a transient increase in airway resistance (6.6 ± 3.6 versus 8.0 ± 5.5 versus 6.6 ± 3.5cmH2O/Ls-1; p < 0.001) and a transient reduction in peak expiratory flow (32.0 ± 16.0 versus 29.8 ± 14.8 versus 32.1 ± 15.3Lpm; p <0.05) immediately after the technique; these values returned to pretechnique levels after tracheal aspiration. There were no changes in the control condition, nor were hemodynamic alterations observed. Conclusion: Ventilator hyperinflation promoted increased compliance associated with a transient increase in airway resistance and peak expiratory flow, with reduction after aspiration.
Upstate Rio de Janeiro restingas remain an open field for research on both richness and conservation of species. However, once vegetation there lies in privileged coastal areas, it is constantly threatened by real estate and industrial speculation. The beauty of its flora calls attention and arises the desire to take some local species to urban areas. Thus, the objective of this work is to identify species of plants from the restinga ecosystem which could be suitable for pot planting for landscaping use. Thirty different species were planted in pots containing soil, sand and manure as substrate and maintained for a period of one year. Along this time, variables such as plant height, number of leaves and diameter of the stem base were obtained. It was possible to identify the characteristics of each plant in relation to its adaptation to the potting environment, as well as to obtain information that might help choose species to properly fit the desired purpose of use.
A aprendizagem baseada em projetos (PBL) é uma metodologia de aprendizagem ativa que coloca o aluno no centro da aprendizagem, forçando o professor a assumir um papel de facilitador e coadjuvante. Esta nova postura docente não é menos importante, porque exige muitas mudanças que devem ser promovidas por estes, em particular, relacionadas à coordenação e à organização do projeto de aprendizagem. Uma tarefa importante neste planejamento está relacionada ao método de avaliação, que deve estimular o comportamento discente que promova sua motivação à aprendizagem. Esta foi a preocupação em um programa de graduação em Administração de uma instituição privada na cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes, no Brasil. Esta metodologia exigiu mudanças substanciais nos métodos de ensino/aprendizagem, assim como abordagens de avaliação focadas na presente pesquisa. Este artigo apresenta uma visão geral dos conceitos PBL e da metodologia de avaliação adotada para esse curso específico. Além disso, discute os resultados do novo método de avaliação. Esta foi uma experiência inovadora que confirmou os resultados positivos da experiência PBL dos alunos e também a importância da avaliação por pares nesta metodologia de aprendizagem.
Natural fibers presents interfacial characteristics with polymeric matrices that favor a high impact energy absorption by the composite structure. The objective of this work was then to assess the charpy impact resistance of polymeric composites reinforced with one or two layers of batt jute and malva fibers. The results showed a remarkable increase in the notch toughness with increasing layers of jute blankets and malva. This can be attributed to a preferential debonding of the fiber/matrix interface, which contributes to an elevated absorbed energy.
One of the major bottlenecks in the postharvest commercialization of coconut fruits is the black rot disease, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis paradoxa. This disease has been neglected in the main production areas or associated with other coconut diseases. To date, there are no standardized methods for assessing the intensity of such a problem. In this sense, the aim of our study was to prepare and validate a diagrammatic scale to evaluate the disease severity in coconut fruits. We also tested the scale applicability comparing distinct C. paradoxa isolates on inoculated fruits. For such quantification, the fruit longitudinal sectioning was necessary, allowing the visualization of internal symptoms. The proposed scale showed good repeatability and high reproducibility, with absolute errors around 8%, while the coefficient of determination presented an average of 91% with the aid of the scale and of 59% without the scale. In addition, symptom analyses showed that the outer necrosis does not match the internal damage. Therefore, we suggest in this study that the severity estimate of this disease be obtained by using the presented scale.
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