INRS
  • Paris, France
Recent publications
Within the EU human biomonitoring initiative (HBM4EU), a targeted, multi-national study on occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was performed. Cr(VI) is currently regulated in EU under REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) and under occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation. It has recently been subject to regulatory actions to improve its risk management in European workplaces. Analysis of the data obtained within the HBM4EU chromates study provides support both for the implementation of these regulatory actions and for national enforcement programs and may also contribute to the updating of occupational limit values (OELs) and biological limit values for Cr(VI). It also provides useful insights on the contribution of different risk management measures (RMMs) to further reduce the exposure to Cr(VI) and may support the evaluation of applications for authorisation under REACH. Findings on chrome platers’ additional per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure highlight the need to also pay attention to this substance group in the metals sector. A survey performed to evaluate the policy relevance of the HBM4EU chromates study findings supports the usefulness of the study results. According to the responses received from the survey, the HBM4EU chromates study was able to demonstrate the added value of the human biomonitoring (HBM) approach in assessment and management of occupational exposure to Cr(VI). For future occupational studies, we emphasise the need for engagement of policy makers and regulators throughout the whole research process to ensure awareness, relevance and uptake of the results in future policies.
IntroductionOver the past 50 years, the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases has been increasing. The Hygiene hypothesis explains this progression by the decrease in the bio-diversity of early microbial exposure. This study aims to evaluate the effect of early-life farm exposure on airway hyperresponsiveness and cough hypersensitivity in an allergic airway inflammation rabbit model.MethodA specific environment was applied to pregnant rabbits and their offspring until six weeks after birth. Rabbits were housed in a pathogen-free zone for the control group and a calf barn for the farm group. At the end of the specific environmental exposure, both groups were then housed in a conventional zone and then sensitized to ovalbumin. Ten days after sensitization, the rabbit pups received ovalbumin aerosols to provoke airway inflammation. Sensitization to ovalbumin was assessed by specific IgE assay. Cough sensitivity was assessed by mechanical stimulation of the trachea, and bronchial reactivity was assessed by methacholine challenge. The farm environment was characterized by endotoxin measurement.ResultsA total of 38 rabbit pups were included (18 in the farm group). Endotoxin levels in the farm environment varied from 30 to 1854 EU.m-3. There was no significant difference in specific IgE values to ovalbumin (p = 0.826) between the two groups. The mechanical threshold to elicit a cough did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.492). There was no difference in the number of cough (p = 0.270) or the intensity of ventilatory responses (p = 0.735). After adjusting for age and weight, there was no difference in respiratory resistance before and after methacholine challenge.Conclusion Early exposure to the calf barn did not affect cough sensitivity or bronchial reactivity in ovalbumin-sensitized rabbits. These results suggest that not all farm environments protect against asthma and atopy. Continuous exposure to several sources of microbial diversity is probably needed.
Immune system molecules are expressed by neurons, yet their functions are often unknown. We have identified IL-13 and its receptor IL-13Ra1 as neuronal, synaptic proteins in mouse, rat, and human brains, whose engagement upregulates the phosphorylation of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits and, in turn, increases synaptic activity and CREB-mediated transcription. We demonstrate that increased IL-13 is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in male mice as well as in two distinct cohorts of human patients. We also provide evidence that IL-13 upregulation protects neurons from excitotoxic death. We show IL-13 upregulation occurring in several cohorts of human brain samples and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Thus, IL-13 is a physiological modulator of synaptic physiology of neuronal origin, with implications for the establishment of synaptic plasticity and the survival of neurons under injury conditions. Furthermore, we suggest that the neuroprotection afforded through the upregulation of IL-13 represents an entry point for interventions in the pathophysiology of TBI. Il-13 is expressed in neurons and IL-13 ko causes memory impairment. Here, authors show that IL-13 and its receptor IL-13Ra1 are pre- and post-synaptic proteins, respectively, involved in synaptic signaling, plasticity and neuroprotection.
Increasing agricultural production is a major concern that aims to increase income, reduce hunger, and improve other measures of well-being. Recently, the prediction of soil-suitability has become a primary topic of rising concern among academics, policymakers, and socio-economic analysts to assess dynamics of the agricultural production. This work aims to use physico-chemical and remotely sensed phenological parameters to produce soil-suitability maps (SSM) based on Machine Learning (ML) Algorithms in a semi-arid and arid region. Towards this goal an inventory of 238 suitability points has been carried out in addition to14 physico-chemical and 4 phenological parameters that have been used as inputs of machine-learning approaches which are five MLA prediction, namely RF, XgbTree, ANN, KNN and SVM. The results showed that phenological parameters were found to be the most influential in soil-suitability prediction. The validation of the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve approach indicates an area under the curve and an AUC of more than 0.82 for all models. The best results were obtained using the XgbTree with an AUC = 0.97 in comparison to other MLA. Our findings demonstrate an excellent ability for ML models to predict the soil-suitability using physico-chemical and phenological parameters. The approach developed to map the soil-suitability is a valuable tool for sustainable agricultural development, and it can play an effective role in ensuring food security and conducting a land agriculture assessment.
Potentially explosive atmospheres generated by the raw materials used, intermediate / final products or the resulting waste may form in all industries involving flammable / combustible substances. Thecreation of these atmospheres must be treated as a major risk, as the fires or explosions that may occur affect human health and safety as well as the environment. Reducing these risks requires the assessment of the risk of explosion and the establishment of measures to reduce it to acceptablelevels in accordance with the requirements of European standards and the ATEX Directive.The general standard SR EN 60079-0 requires that only electrical / non-electrical equipment, certified for safe use, be used in hazardous areas Ex, which must ensure an appropriate normal degree of protection through the outer casing, as this protection is a requirement basic explosion protection.The tests for determining the degree of protection were carried out in accordance with harmonized European requirements and in the area of high-performance stands in accordance with SR EN ISO / IEC 17025, and the validity of the test results was demonstrated by successful participation in interlaboratory competitions and test of laboratory competition.
Due to the tightening of air pollution laws and employee safety regulations, manufacturers are being forced to pay more and more attention to removing dust particles from the air released by their installations. This requires them to install large complex dust collection systems in all their facilities. Dust collection systems include collection points where air and entrained dust are drawn into a system of pipes that carry dust and air, fans that feed the movement of air, and dust collectors that separate dust from air. Dust collectors are mostly dry type. Dry-type dust collectors are divided into cyclones and bag-type dust collectors. As dust can create an explosive atmosphere, it is necessary to assess the risk of explosions and to establish appropriate measures to prevent the explosion or, as the case may be, to limit the effects of explosions. The paper presents aspects related to the evaluation of the risk of explosions at dust removal installations with emphasis on the risk of initiating the explosive dust / air atmosphere through electrostatic discharges.
The flameproof enclosure type of protection is still one of the safest because it is based on a very simple and, therefore, unlikely fallible technology. If an explosive atmosphere penetrates an enclosure producing a trigger, the explosion occurs, but it remains confined within the enclosure. EN 60079-1 standard, states that flanged flame paths are allowed in the presence of gases and vapours of Group IIB, but cannot be used with gases and vapours of Group IIC. Also, flame transmission tests for Group IIB equipment are carried out at atmospheric pressure, whereas for Group IIC equipment they are conducted (depending on the testing method applied) at a higher initial pressure. The purpose of the paper is to perform a thorough study upon the differences between testing of flameproof electric motors of Group IIC, compared to electric motors of Group IIB gases and vapours, in terms of testing conditions required by the standard and how the explosion group influences the maximum explosion pressures and explosion pressure development, when tested in explosive mixtures of gases and vapours. The purpose of this paper is to assist manufacturers in designing flameproof electric motors that satisfy the requirements of the specific standard for either Group IIB or Group IIC applications in order to smooth the path for certification.
The equipment of installations for the processing, transport or storage of flammable substances which may generate an explosive atmosphere, in or around them, must be assessed in terms of the risk of explosions, both when they are put into operation or when the installation is modified and periodically for verify that the initial level of protection is maintained. The purpose of the assessment is to establish appropriate protective measures to prevent sources of ignition that could initiate explosive atmospheres. Explosion risk assessment is an obligation of the employer who must draw up an explosion protection document, as regulated in GD 1058/2006 transposing European Directive 1999/92/EC. The explosion risk assessment process focuses primarily on the formation of explosive atmospheres and then on the presence and activation of ignition sources. The principle of explosion protection is to reduce the probability of an ignition source occurring at the same time as the explosive atmosphere, to a minimum acceptable level according to the applicable norms and standards. The paper presents some aspects regarding the evaluation of the risk of explosions to already installed equipment, assembled in an installation, depending on the specific conditions.
In the case of use of the electric igniters, in various applications, depending on their field of use, there may be a risk of unexpected initiation by means of electrostatic discharges from persons, their clothing and / or objects isolated from the ground. Electrification and consequently the accumulation of dangerous electrostatic potentials on people and on their outerwear, generally takes place during the performance of work tasks, a situation in which due to the movements performed by the persons involved, there is the phenomenon of friction between different parts of clothing or between clothing and the person wearing the clothing. The presence of the risk of unexpected initiation of electric igniters by electrostatic discharge requires the adoption and implementation of measures to minimize their effects on the safety and health of workers and others. In view of the above, determining the performance of sensitivity of electric igniters to unexpected initiation by electrostatic discharge is very important as this depends on the safety and security of workers / persons involved in activities that require the use of these elements / products.
We exploit the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged neuroprotective peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), and negatively charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to control PACAP release from the surface of nanoparticles dispersed in a hyaluronan-methylcellulose (HAMC) hydrogel composite. PACAP is a promising therapeutic for the treatment of neurological disorders, yet it has been difficult to deliver in vivo. Herein, the PACAP release rate was tuned by manipulating peptide adsorption onto the surface of blank nanoparticles by modifying either nanoparticle loading in the hydrogel or nanoparticle surface charge. This peptide-nanoparticle interaction was controlled by the pH-responsive carboxylic acid end terminal groups of PLGA. We further validated this system with the controlled release of a novel stabilized PACAP analog: Ac-[Ala15, Ala20]PACAP-propylamide, which masks its recognition to peptidases in circulation. Both wild-type and stabilized PACAP released from the vehicle increased the production of neuroprotective Interleukin-6 from cultured primary astrocytes. Using computational fluid dynamics methods, PACAP release from the composite was predicted based on experimentally derived adsorption isotherms, which exhibited similar release profiles to experimental data. This versatile adsorption-based system was used to deliver PACAP locally to the brains of stroke-injured mice over a 10 day period in vivo, highlighting its effectiveness for the controlled release of PACAP to the central nervous system.
Background Sink drains are known reservoirs of pathogens and have been associated with multiple nosocomial outbreaks. In this study, the distribution of Serratia marcescens was investigated within the sink environment of a NICU and in colonized or infected newborns. The effect of different types of drain disinfection on bacterial concentration and on the detection of Serratia marcescens in sink drains was also investigated. Methods Sink drains from a NICU were sampled: 20 drains sampled for 6 weeks in the first year and 28 drains sampled for 5 months in the second year. S. marcescens isolated from positive patients were collected. A high-throughput short sequence typing (HiSST) method was developed to identify S. marcescens and compare strains and environmental DNA from sink drains with 56 clinical strains from 5 nosocomial outbreaks. Five interventions were tested: self-disinfecting drains, hot water disinfection, chlorine disinfection, steam disinfection and hot tap water flushing. Bacterial concentration of samples was measured in culture and flow cytometry and the HiSST method was used to identify S. marcescens. Results During the first and second sampling campaigns, 40% and 60% of sink drain samples were positive for S. marcescens with a moderate genotype diversity (1 to 11 different STs). The genotype profile of the 56 clinical strains was heterogeneous (26 STs). Four distinct STs were retrieved in 8 sinks after detection in patients whereas 1 ST was detected in a sink before detection in patient. Some environmental and clinical strains were found in drains for up to a year after the first sampling campaign. Each tested drain intervention reduced culturable bacteria (4-8 log) and viable bacteria (2-3 log), except for chlorine. The self-disinfecting drains, hot water and steam disinfection were able to remove temporarily S. marcescens from the drains. Conclusion The high genotypic diversity of the clinical strains suggests diffuse sources of S. marcescens within the NICU likely to cause nosocomial infection outbreaks. The self-disinfecting drains, hot water and steam disinfection seem to be the best methods to reduce bacterial concentration in drains and eliminate S. marcescens in the short term, thus limiting the risk of pathogens spread from the sink environment to patients. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures.
In this work, we study the joint optimization of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)’ trajectories, power allocation, user-UAV association, and user pairing for UAV-assisted wireless networks employing the nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) for uplink communications. The design aims to minimize the total energy consumption of ground users while guaranteeing to successfully transmit their required amount of data to the UAV-mounted base stations. The underlying problem is a mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP), which is difficult to solve optimally. To tackle this problem, we derive the optimal power allocation as a function of other variables, which is used to transform the optimization problem into an equivalent form. We then propose an iterative algorithm to solve the resulting optimization problem by using the block coordinate descent (BCD) method where three subproblems are solved in each iteration and this process is repeated until convergence. Specifically, given the UAVs’ trajectories and data rates, we solve the NOMA user pairing, and user-UAV association subproblem optimally by exploiting its special structure. Then, we describe how to optimize the users’ data rates and tackle the UAV trajectory optimization in the second and third subproblems, respectively, by using the successive convex approximation (SCA) method. Numerical results show that our proposed algorithm can provide efficient active-inactive schedules (by setting user’s transmit powers to zero), and lower energy consumption compared to an existing baseline, and an OMA-based resource allocation and UAV-trajectory optimization strategy.
The emission of resonant radiation from temporal solitary waves—also known as dispersive wave generation—allows efficient energy transfer to far‐distant spectral domains. This coherent radiation can deliver large spectral densities at selected wavelengths once control over the individual soliton is achieved. Here, the concepts of few‐mode operation and local temperature tuning are combined for precise steering of cascaded dispersive wave generation in liquid‐core optical fibers. By exciting higher‐order TM and TE modes with femtosecond pulses at 1600 nm, the generation of two dispersive waves tunable by up to 33 nm K−1 through adjusting a selected part of the waveguide is observed. Sophisticated soliton‐driven nonlinear dynamics arising from thermally transitioning from anomalous to all‐normal dispersion with temperature changes of only a few Kelvin have been found, including soliton steering, soliton breakdown, and soliton post‐fission tuning. All experimental results are verified by nonlinear simulations and semi‐analytic phase‐matching calculations, overall providing a cost‐effective and practical toolbox for discovering unexplored states of light as well as for developing dynamically tunable broadband light sources. Combining few‐mode operation and local temperature tuning for precise dispersion control in liquid core optical fibers allows to study dispersive wave tuning, soliton steering, soliton breakdown, and soliton post‐fission dynamics. By exciting higher‐order TM and TE modes with femtosecond pulses at 1600 nm in temperature‐controlled CS2 core optical fibers, the generation of two dispersive waves is tunable by up to 33 nm K−1.
Objectifs (1) Discuter des enjeux et des pratiques en termes de prévention des risques liés aux polyexpositions en milieu professionnel et des perspectives de recherche sur le sujet. (2) Identifier les besoins en nouvelles connaissances sur les effets potentiels des polyexpositions sur la santé, ainsi que les leviers d’action pour améliorer la prévention des risques auxquels sont soumis les travailleurs polyexposés. Enjeux Les travailleurs sont, en fonction de leur métier, exposés de manière simultanée à différentes nuisances chimiques, physiques et biologiques, ainsi qu’à des contraintes biomécaniques, et à des facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux. On parle alors de polyexpositions. Ces facteurs de risques favorisent la survenue de pathologies à plus ou moins long terme [1], [2], [3]. L’analyse classique mono-risque atteint ses limites, les nouveaux travaux qui cherchent à évaluer l’effet des polyexpositions doivent être pris en compte. Or, comment évaluer les conséquences potentielles de l’interaction de plusieurs facteurs de risque, où les effets peuvent s’additionner, s’inhiber, entrer en synergie ou se potentialiser ? Cette question illustre le défi majeur que constituent les polyexpositions pour les préventeurs en santé au travail. Par ailleurs, l’état des connaissances sur l’impact potentiel des polyexpositions sur la santé des salariés est à ce jour parcellaire et les besoins en termes de recherche sont considérables. Cet atelier a pour objectifs d’apporter des connaissances cliniques, des exemples de pistes de recherches actuellement suivies à l’INRS, et de susciter une discussion autour des besoins et des leviers d’action pour améliorer la production de connaissances visant à améliorer la prévention des risques liés à la polyexposition. Pratiques Le repérage des situations de polyexpositions, l’évaluation des risques associés et leur prise en compte sont essentiels tout au long de la carrière des travailleurs tant les implications en santé travail sont multiples. Il peut s’agir notamment de la mise en lien (et de la reconnaissance en maladie professionnelle) d’une pathologie avec plusieurs facteurs de l’environnement professionnel, de la prévention des risques, du maintien dans l’emploi, de la mise en place du suivi post-expositionnel/post-professionnel… L’importance de la traçabilité des informations, en particulier les données sur les expositions, sera soulignée. Les constats dressés permettront d’envisager des besoins en termes de recherche épidémiologique, en discussion ouverte avec la salle. Perspectives Les besoins en termes de recherche épidémiologique en santé au travail sur les polyexpositions seront discutés. L’état de la réflexion et les travaux menés par l’INRS dans ce domaine seront présentés. Cinq axes de recherche sont considérés et concernent les polyexpositions aux substances chimiques (1) en mélange ou associées à (2) des substances biologiques, (3) à du bruit, (4) à une charge physique importante et (5) à des horaires de travail décalés. Ce dernier axe, peu connu, concerne la chronotoxicologie, l’étude de la variabilité des effets des substances chimiques en fonction du moment de l’exposition au cours du cycle jour/nuit. Les enjeux de demain identifiés aujourd’hui par l’INRS seront présentés et ils serviront de point de départ à une discussion avec la salle.
Objectifs Analyser l’effet des multi-expositions aux facteurs physiques (FP) et psychosociaux (FPS) dans la survenue d’accidents du travail (AT) chez les travailleurs de l’aide et du soin. Identifier les facteurs professionnels organisationnels associés aux multi-expositions aux FP et FPS entraînant les taux d’AT les plus élevés. Méthodes L’échantillon de l’étude était composé de 4418 travailleurs de l’aide et du soin participant à l’enquête Conditions de Travail de la DARES à la fois en 2013 et en 2016. La survenue d’AT était évaluée sur la période de suivi de 3 ans par appariement avec les bases de sinistralité de la Caisse nationale d’Assurance Maladie. Nous avons défini l’exposition aux facteurs physiques et psychosociaux en utilisant des clusters obtenus après des analyses factorielles combinées à des classifications hiérarchiques ascendantes. Nous avons utilisé des modèles de régression de Poisson ajustés, avec, comme critère de jugement la survenue d’un AT et comme variables explicatives, les clusters d’exposition. Puis, un modèle de régression logistique multiple a permis d’identifier les facteurs organisationnels prédisant les multi-expositions avec un taux d’AT > 40‰. Résultats Les AT étaient fortement liés aux facteurs physiques et psychosociaux. En cas de faible exposition à l’un ou l’autre de ces facteurs de risques, il n’y avait pas d’augmentation du risque d’AT. Les facteurs physiques et les FPS se potentialisaient mutuellement et leur co-exposition augmentait significativement le risque d’AT. Parmi les travailleurs les plus exposés aux risques physiques, les taux prédits étaient respectivement de 14,6‰ [4,5–24,8] et 38,0‰ [29,8–46,3] pour, respectivement, les faiblement et fortement exposés aux FPS. Les facteurs professionnels qui prédisaient les multi-expositions aux FP et FPS entraînant les taux d’AT les plus élevés étaient : la fonction d’aide-soignant ou d’agent des services hospitaliers, le manque de prévisibilité et de souplesse des horaires, les heures supplémentaires, les horaires contrôlés, le déséquilibre travail–famille et mesures préventives insuffisantes. Conclusions Ces résultats ouvrent des pistes pour la prévention des AT dans le secteur de l’aide et du soin et mettent en exergue la nécessité de considérer les facteurs psychosociaux en plus des facteurs physiques classiquement analysés dans l’analyse de la survenue des AT.
Objectifs Les mycotoxines sont produites par des moisissures qui se développent sur les produits agricoles. Lors de l’ingestion de produits alimentaires contaminés, elles sont responsables d’effets sanitaires néfastes : immunotoxique, génotoxique, hépatotoxique, néphrotoxique ou reprotoxique. L’environnement de travail peut également représenter une source d’exposition par inhalation, contact cutané, voire par ingestion, lors de la manipulation de produits contaminés. Or, les expositions, les mécanismes d’action et les effets sur la santé des mycotoxines en milieu professionnel sont mal connus. Évaluer les expositions professionnelles aux mycotoxines (atmosphère et biométrologie) et étudier leur relation avec des biomarqueurs d’effet au niveau de l’organe d’entrée (appareil respiratoire), des organes d’élimination (foie et rein) et au niveau systémique, en tenant compte de l’exposition cutanée et de l’apport alimentaire. Méthodes Une étude exposés/non exposés avec un suivi des travailleurs, hommes et femmes, pendant 2 jours consécutifs en entreprise inclura au minimum 105 sujets (35 non exposés, 70 exposés professionnellement aux mycotoxines). Le calcul de cet effectif a été réalisé pour des effets à moyen terme et à court terme. Des mesures d’exposition atmosphérique aux mycotoxines, aux poussières, aux moisissures et aux endotoxines seront réalisées. Des biomarqueurs d’exposition aux mycotoxines seront dosés dans l’urine et le sang. Seront mesurés des biomarqueurs d’effets à court terme : stress oxydant dans le condensat de l’air exhalé (CAE), et des biomarqueurs d’effets à moyen terme : cytokines dans le CAE et le sang, anomalies nucléaires dans les cellules buccales et les lymphocytes, enzymes hépatiques et hormones sexuelles dans le sang, biomarqueurs de dysfonction rénale dans l’urine. Les symptômes respiratoires seront recueillis par questionnaire. L’échantillon de travailleurs sera issu de plusieurs secteurs d’activité dont notamment nutrition animale, manutention portuaire, commerces de gros, déchets, recyclage de papier. Le calendrier prévisionnel s’étend de 2023 à 2028. Résultats Cette étude permettra d’identifier des risques pour les travailleurs par la caractérisation des expositions professionnelles dans différents secteurs et par l’apport de connaissances nouvelles sur les effets des aérosols contenant des mycotoxines. Elle permettra de déterminer si des améliorations des mesures de prévention sont nécessaires.
Objectifs Synthétiser les connaissances sur l’effet du travail de nuit et de ses sous-types (permanent et alternant) sur les facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires : diabète, troubles lipidiques, surpoids, hypertension, tabagisme, sédentarité et facteurs psychosociaux professionnels. Méthodes Une recherche a été menée dans Web of Sciences jusqu’en septembre 2021 pour identifier les revues systématiques avec ou sans méta-analyse traitant de la quantification du lien entre le travail de nuit et les facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires étudié dans des populations de travailleurs. La qualité de chaque revue systématique a été évaluée en utilisant l’AMSTAR2. Une synthèse des principaux résultats des revues systématiques incluses a été réalisée, structurée autour des différents facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires. Résultats Après sélection, 31 revues systématiques ont été retenues : 9 pour le diabète, 4 pour les troubles lipidiques, 9 pour le surpoids, 4 pour l’hypertension, 2 pour le tabagisme, 0 pour la sédentarité, et 3 pour les facteurs psychosociaux professionnels. Les résultats mettent en évidence un excès de risque de diabète d’environ 10 % quel que soit le type de travail de nuit. Un excès de risque de surpoids d’environ 25 % a également été mis en évidence pour l’ensemble des travailleurs postés, et pourrait atteindre 38 % chez les travailleurs de nuit. Un risque augmenté d’obésité, estimé à 5 % pour les travailleurs de nuit et à 18 % pour les travailleurs de nuit alternants a été observé. Un excès de risque d’hypertension a été estimé à environ 30 % en prenant une définition globale du travail posté et lorsque les périodes de nuit étaient incluses dans le travail posté alternant. Les résultats sont contradictoires concernant le lien entre les troubles lipidiques et le travail de nuit. Le fait d’être fumeur semble affecter plus fréquemment les travailleurs de nuit. Le lien entre le travail posté et les facteurs psychosociaux professionnels a été peu exploré dans les études disponibles. Aucune conclusion n’a pu être tirée concernant la sédentarité. Conclusions Les conséquences du travail de nuit en termes de diabète, surpoids/obésité et hypertension semblent établies. La surveillance de ces facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires chez les travailleurs de nuit pourrait être mise en place par les praticiens. En revanche, les liens avec les troubles lipidiques, la sédentarité, le tabagisme et les facteurs psychosociaux professionnels méritent d’être approfondis.
The main problems related to the E-Bike battery mostly appeared from the limited output power, due to the battery chemistry, the dimension, or the capacities. The output voltages from 12V until 48V of batteries are commonly used as the main supply. Aim of this paper was to design and built lithium-ion battery pack with the lightest and higher performance by applying 21700 NMC Cells. were designed and constructed. This battery pack will be placed in E-bike to power the 500W BLDC Motor. The output voltages of 48V, and the capacities of 15Ah were built from 39 cells of 21700 NMC, with configurations of 13 series and 3 parallels. In addition, the BMS was connected for protection and cell balancing features. The performance of the battery pack was analyzed using a Battery Testing Analyzer. The parameter of this study were the cell and pack charge-discharge capacity, C-rate dependence, and High C-rate capability. The output power from the battery is also measured in the dynamic condition while the motor running at a different speed. The results showed that the 21700 NMC 5000 mAh cell has a capacity of 4615.74 mAh (after 50 cycles) with 0.5C current. The 48V 15Ah battery pack delivered charge capacities of 13.28 Ah (1C), 13.70 Ah (0.3C), 13.61 Ah (0.5C), and a discharge capacity of 13.21 Ah (1C). It was capable of delivering the higher current up to 15 Amps (1C) during charge and discharge. At higher C-rates the amount of capacity inside the battery decreased, cell temperature increased, and the driving time of the E-Bike also could decrease. The NMC cells are capable of delivering higher C-rate performance to achieve high power and torque.
The oceans are so vast that it is estimated that humans have only explored 5% of their total surface area. Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Unknowingly, the ocean is one of the main sources of support for many humans. Unfortunately, the importance of oceans is often overlooked. Humans are important entities that have a significant impact on the changes that occur in the oceans. Since before 1972, humans have often indirectly dumped garbage, sewage sludge, chemical waste, commercial waste, and radioactive waste into the sea. According to analysis, 80% of worldwide marine pollution is from land-based pollution (Land-primarily based sources pollution/"LBSP"). The plastic waste, nutrients, pesticides, weight, sediment, and steel waste that enter the water glide through LBSP are the result of family activities, industry, tourism, and agriculture. Every year, 8 million tonnes of plastic waste from deep inland areas ends up inside the ocean, on top of the expected 150 million tonnes, that presently circulate marine environments. This paper was conducted through a literature study and in-depth analysis the using qualitative research methods. This paper pursuits to analyse the proper strategy that the Indonesian government can take as a primary contributor to plastic waste inside the global and reduce ocean pollution.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess trends in management of flail chest injuries over time and to determine impact on patient outcomes. Methods A retrospective review of data from a prospectively collated database of all trauma patients admitted to a level 1 trauma service in Victoria was conducted. All trauma patients admitted to the hospital between July 2008 and June 2020 with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) code for flail chest injury were included. Results Our study included 720 patients, mean age was 59.5 ± 17.3 years old, and 76.5% of patients were male. Length of ICU stay decreased on average by 9 h each year. Regional anaesthesia use increased by 15% per year (0% in 2009 to 36% in 2020) (p < 0.001). Surgical stabilisation of rib fractures increased by 16% per year (2.9% in 2009 to 22.3% in 2020) (p = 0.006). The use of invasive ventilation decreased by 14% per year (70% in 2008 to 27% in 2020) (p < 0.001), and invasive ventilation time decreased by 8 h per year (p = 0.007). Conclusion Over the past decade, we have seen increasing rates of regional anaesthesia and surgical rib fixation in the management of flail chest. This has resulted in lower requirements for and duration of invasive mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay but has not impacted mortality in this patient cohort.
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165 members
Frédéric Cosnier
  • Toxicology and Biometrology Department
Olivier Witschger
  • Aerosol Metrology Laboratory
Philipe Duquenne
  • Process Enginery
Michel Héry
  • Executive management department (Watch and strategic foresight)
Xavier Simon
  • Pollutants Metrology Division
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