INRCA Istituto Nazionale di Ricovero e Cura per Anziani
Recent publications
Background Frailty, disability, and polypharmacy are prevalent in nursing home (NH) residents, often co-occurring with multimorbidity. There may be a complex interplay among them in terms of outcomes such as mortality. Aims of the study were to (i) assess whether nursing home residents with polypharmacy (5–9 medications) or hyperpolypharmacy (≥10 drugs), have an increased risk of death and (ii) whether any association is modified by the co-presence of frailty or disability.Methods Cohort study with longitudinal mortality data including 4,023 residents from 50 European and 7 Israeli NH facilities (mean age = 83.6 years, 73.2% female) in The Services and Health for Elderly in Long Term care (SHELTER) cohort study. Participants were evaluated with the interRAI-LongTerm Care assessment tool. Frailty was evaluated with the FRAIL-NH scale. Hazard ratio (HR) of death over 12 months was assessed with stratified Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, facilities, and cognitive status.Results1,042 (25.9%) participants were not on polypharmacy, 49.8% (n = 2,002) were on polypharmacy, and 24.3% (n = 979) on hyperpolypharmacy. Frailty and disability mostly increased risk of death in the study population (frailty: HR = 1.85, 95%CI 1.49–2.28; disability: HR = 2.10, 95%CI 1.86–2.47). Among non-frail participants, multimorbidity (HR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.01–1.82) and hyperpolypharmacy (HR = 1.61, 95%CI = 1.09–2.40) were associated with higher risk of death. Among frail participants, no other factors were associated with mortality. Polypharmacy and multimorbidity were not associated with mortality after stratification for disability.Conclusions Frailty and disability are the strongest predictors of death in NH residents. Multimorbidity and hyperpolypharmacy increase mortality only in people without frailty. These findings may be relevant to identify patients who could benefit from tailored deprescription.
Context Poor glucose control has been associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Objective To assess the effect of pre-vaccination glucose control on antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2 in T1D. Design and methods We studied 26 patients with T1D scheduled to receive two doses, 21 days apart, of BNT162b2, followed prospectively for six months with regular evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and glucose control. IgG to spike glycoprotein were assessed by ELISA, and serum neutralization by a live SARS-CoV-2 assay (Vero E6 cells system). HbA1c and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), including time in range (TIR) and above range (TAR) were collected. Main outcome measures The primary exposure and outcome measures were pre-vaccination glucose control, and antibody response after vaccination, respectively. Results Pre-vaccination HbA1c was unrelated to post-vaccine spike IgG (r = -0.33, p = 0.14). Of note, the CGM profile collected during the two weeks preceding BNT162b2 administration, correlated with post-vaccine IgG response (TIR: r = 0.75; p = 0.02; TAR: r = -0.81; p = 0.008). Patients meeting the recommended pre-vaccination glucose targets of TIR (≥70%) and TAR (≤25%), developed stronger neutralizing antibody titres (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.008, respectively), regardless of HbA1c. Glucose control along the study timeframe was also associated with IgG response during follow-up (TIR: r = 0.93, p < 0.0001; TAR: r = -0.84, p < 0.0001). Conclusions In T1D, glucose profile during the two weeks preceding vaccination is associated with stronger spike antibody binding and neutralization, highlighting a role for well-controlled blood glucose in vaccination efficacy.
There have been several initiatives aiming to promote innovation and support stakeholders to increase investments in relevant societal areas connected to Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments—SHAFE. However, their impact usually runs shorter than desirable in the mid- and long-term due to the difficulty to identify, map, and connect stakeholders in the different European and world countries that are willing to work for the practical implementation of social innovation around SHAFE. This mapping and connection can contribute to increase awareness of innovation actors on social innovation concepts and, if well disseminated, may also leverage the creation of alliances and synergies between different stakeholders within ecosystems and between ecosystems. Understanding what relevant practices exist, how they are funded, and how they involve citizens and organisations is also key to ensure that business actors have access to social innovation and entrepreneurial knowledge, which is key for future sustainable societal change. The present study developed and implemented a survey replied by 61 organisations from 28 different countries. The results showed relevant inputs regarding different cultural and societal perceptions, including diverse end-user organisations, and will, thus, facilitate multistakeholder engagement, public awareness, and the overall upscaling of social innovation on SHAFE.
Background: Dementia is a priority for global public health. The management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is one of the highest ongoing challenges and needs new approaches. The special care unit for people with dementia and BPSD (SCU-B) is viewed in this context as a further medical intervention. Aim: this study aims to explore SCU-B units in order to describe their main characteristics in relation to different implementation contexts, identify the characteristics of their replicability, and examine the social innovation elements promoted by SCU-B units. Method: This qualitative study is based on focus groups (FGs) and interviews involving nine international centers. Five of the centers have a memory clinic unit and SCU-B, compared with six that only have a memory clinic unit. A total number of 18 FGs were held, which altogether involved 164 participants. All data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by means of a content analysis and a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. Results: The qualitative analysis offers a vision of the SCU-B model as an innovative care unit for BPSD, promoting social innovation in the long-term care (LTC) sector. This system mainly targets people with dementia and BPSD and their informal caregivers but encourages collaboration between dementia care stakeholders at the micro and meso levels. Conclusions: Specific characteristics of the country's LTC systems and the organization of specialized units are determinants for the success of the SCU-B experience. The replicability of the entire SCU-B model was considered low; however, the implementation of single elements composing the SCU-B model may foster innovation. This study provides relevant suggestions on how to implement the SCU-B unit and innovative solutions for dementia care.
Innovative technologies can support older adults with or without disabilities, allowing them to live independently in their environment whilst monitoring their health and safety conditions and thereby reducing the significant burden on caregivers, whether family or professional. This paper discusses the design of a study protocol to evaluate the acceptance, usability, and efficiency of the SAVE system, a custom-developed information technology-based elderly care system. The study will involve older adults (aged 65 or older), professional and lay caregivers, and care service decision-makers representing all types of users in a care service scenario. The SAVE environmental sensors, smartwatches, smartphones, and Web service application will be evaluated in people’s homes situated in Romania, Italy, and Hungary with a total of 165 users of the three types (cares, elderly, and admin). The study design follows the mixed method approach, using standardized tests and questionnaires with open-ended questions and logging all the data for evaluation. The trial is registered to the platform with the registration number NCT05626556. This protocol not only guides the participating countries but can be a feasibility protocol suitable for evaluating the usability and quality of similar systems.
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker for systemic inflammation. Since inflammation plays a relevant role in vascular aging, the aim of this study was to investigate whether NLR is associated with blood pressure profiles in older adults. This study was performed within the framework of the SCOPE study including 2461 outpatients aged 75 years and over. Mean blood pressure values, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were investigated across tertiles of NLR. Change in blood pressure levels in 2 years of follow-up were compared across categories of baseline NLR. Data of 2397 individuals were used, of which 1854 individuals had hypertension. Mean values of blood pressure did not differ across categories of baseline NLR in individuals without hypertension. Individuals with hypertension with a high-range NLR had lower SBP and PP when compared to those in low-range NLR (mean difference SBP −2.94 mmHg, p = 0.032 and PP −2.55 mmHg, p = 0.030). Mean change in blood pressure in 2 years did only slightly differ in non-clinically relevant ranges, when compared across tertiles of baseline NLR. NLR as a marker of inflammaging was not associated with unfavorable blood pressure profiles in older individuals with or without hypertension.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor disturbances as a result of a complex and not fully understood pathogenesis, probably including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and formation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates. As age is the main risk factor for several neurodegenerative disorders including PD, progressive aging of the immune system leading to inflammaging and immunosenescence may contribute to neuroinflammation leading to PD onset and progression; abnormal α-syn aggregation in the context of immune dysfunction may favor activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NOD) family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome within microglial cells through interaction with toll-like receptors (TLRs). This process would further lead to activation of Caspase (Cas)-1, and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PC), with subsequent impairment of mitochondria and damage to dopaminergic neurons. All these phenomena are mediated by the translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and enhanced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). To date, drugs to treat PD are mainly aimed at relieving clinical symptoms and there are no disease-modifying options to reverse or stop disease progression. This review outlines the role of the TLR/NLRP3/Cas-1 pathway in PD-related immune dysfunction, also focusing on specific therapeutic options that might be used since the early stages of the disease to counteract neuroinflammation and immune dysfunction.
Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs), atrial NP (ANP) and B-type NP (BNP) are true hormones produced and released by cardiomyocytes, exerting several systemic effects. Together with C-type NP (CNP), mainly expressed by endothelial cells, they also exert several paracrine and autocrine activities on the heart itself, contributing to cardiovascular (CV) health. In addition to their natriuretic, vasorelaxant, metabolic and antiproliferative systemic properties, NPs prevent cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, counteracting the development and progression of heart failure (HF). Moreover, recent studies revealed that a protein structurally similar to NPs mainly produced by skeletal muscles and osteoblasts called musclin/osteocrin is able to interact with the NPs clearance receptor, attenuating cardiac dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis and promoting heart protection during pathological overload. This narrative review is focused on the direct activities of this molecule family on the heart, reporting both experimental and human studies that are clinically relevant for physicians.
Mild cognitive impairment is frequent among people with Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training seems effective for cognitive status and for mitigating anxiety and depression. With the COVID-19 outbreak, such therapeutic interventions were delivered online. This longitudinal mixed-method study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of an online cognitive treatment, carried out during COVID times and based on Parkinson's-Adapted Cognitive Stimulation Therapy, on cognitive domains and mood of 18 older people with Parkinson's disease. After screening, the cognitive status and mood were assessed three times by Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. At the follow-up, patients were also interviewed for understanding their experience with the technology. Such treatment was effective on the participants' cognitive functions, but not on their mood. Despite some initial problems with the technology, the online intervention was experienced as a way of not being 'left behind', staying in contact with others, and being safe during the lockdown. This suggests that online cognitive treatment can be adopted to integrate face-to-face interventions by increasing their efficacy, accessibility, and long-term outcomes. Suggestions for future research are given.
A high polyphenol intake has been associated with higher bone-mineral density. In contrast, we recently demonstrated that the urinary levels of these micronutrients were associated with the long-term accelerated deterioration of the bone. To expand on the health consequences of these findings, we assessed the association between urinary level and dietary intake of polyphenols and the 9-year risk of hip fractures in the InCHIANTI study cohort. The InCHIANTI study enrolled representative samples from two towns in Tuscany, Italy. Baseline data were collected in 1998 and at follow-up visits in 2001, 2004, and 2007. Of the 1453 participants enrolled at baseline, we included 817 participants in this study who were 65 years or older at baseline, donated a 24 hour urine sample, and underwent a quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) of the tibia. Fracture events were ascertained by self-report over 9 years of follow-up. Thirty-six hip fractures were reported over the 9-year follow-up. The participants who developed a hip fracture were slightly older, more frequently women, had a higher dietary intake of polyphenols, had higher 24-hour urinary polyphenols excretion, and had a lower fat area, muscle density, and cortical volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) in the pQCT of the tibia. In logistic regression analyses, the baseline urinary excretion of total polyphenols, expressed in mg as a gallic acid equivalent, was associated with a higher risk of developing a hip fracture. Dietary intake of polyphenols was not associated with a differential risk of fracture. In light of our findings, the recommendation of an increase in dietary polyphenols for osteoporosis prevention should be considered with caution.
Background SARS-COV-2 infection has been associated to long-lasting neuropsychiatric sequelae, including cognitive deficits, that persist after one year. However, longitudinal monitoring has been scarcely performed. Here, in a sample of COVID-19 patients, we monitor cognitive, psychological and quality of life-related profiles up to 22 months from resolution of respiratory disease. Methods Out of 657 COVID-19 patients screened at Manzoni Hospital (Lecco, Italy), 22 underwent neuropsychological testing because of subjective cognitive disturbances at 6 months, 16 months, and 22 months. Tests of memory, attention, and executive functions were administered, along with questionnaires for depressive and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, psychological well-being and quality of life. Cross-sectional descriptives, correlational, as well as longitudinal analyses considering COVID19-severity were carried out. A preliminary comparison with a sample of obstructive sleep apneas patients was also performed. Results Around 50% of COVID-19 patients presented with cognitive deficits at t0. The most affected domain was verbal memory. Pathological scores diminished over time, but a high rate of borderline scores was still observable. Longitudinal analyses highlighted improvements in verbal and non-verbal long term memory, as well as attention, and executive functioning. Depression and PTSD-related symptoms were present in 30% of patients. The latter decreased over time and were associated to attentional-executive performance. Conclusions Cognitive dysfunctions in COVID-19 patients may extend over 1 year, yet showing a significant recovery in several cases. Cognitive alterations are accompanied by a significant psychological distress. Many patients displaying borderline scores, especially those at higher risk of dementia, deserve clinical monitoring.
Background Multimorbidity (MM) burdens individuals and healthcare systems, since it increases polypharmacy, dependency, hospital admissions, healthcare costs, and mortality. Several attempts have been made to determine an operational definition of MM and to quantify its severity. However, the lack of knowledge regarding its pathophysiology prevented the estimation of its severity in terms of outcomes. Polypharmacy and functional impairment are associated with MM. However, it is unclear how inappropriate drug decision-making could affect both conditions. In this context, promising circulating biomarkers and DNA methylation tools have been proposed as potential mortality predictors for multiple age-related diseases. We hypothesize that a comprehensive characterization of patients with MM that includes the measure of epigenetic and selected circulating biomarkers in the medical history, in addition to the functional capacity, could improve the prognosis of their long-term mortality. Methods This monocentric retrospective observational study was conducted as part of a project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health titled “imProving the pROgnostic value of MultimOrbidity through the inTegration of selected biomarkErs to the comprehensive geRiatric Assessment (PROMOTERA).” This study will examine the methylation levels of thousands of CpG sites and the levels of selected circulating biomarkers in the blood and plasma samples of older hospitalized patients with MM ( n = 1,070, age ≥ 65 years) recruited by the Reportage Project between 2011 and 2019. Multiple statistical approaches will be utilized to integrate newly measured biomarkers into clinical, demographic, and functional data, thus improving the prediction of mortality for up to 10 years. Discussion This study's results are expected to: (i) identify the clinical, biological, demographic, and functional factors associated with distinct patterns of MM; (ii) improve the prognostic accuracy of MM patterns in relation to death, hospitalization-related outcomes, and onset of new comorbidities; (iii) define the epigenetic signatures of MM; (iv) construct multidimensional algorithms to predict negative health outcomes in both the overall population and specific disease and functional patterns; and (v) expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of MM.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are predominantly lifestyle related. Mental health issues also influence CVD progression and quality of life. Self-management of lifestyle behaviors and mental well-being may play a significant role in reducing the CVD burden. Previous studies have shown that mindfulness practices are associated with psychological well-being, but their effects on CVD self-management are mainly unknown. Methods: The study had a before-after design and included adults over 50 years with CVD and/or one or more risk factors from three European countries. Follow-up was six months. The intervention was a 7-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in a group setting focusing on chronic disease self-management. Outcomes were measured with validated self-report questionnaires at baseline and follow-up: self-efficacy, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol use, sleep and fatigue, social support, stress, depression, medication adherence, and self-rated health. Results: Among 352 participants, 324 (92%) attended ≥4 of the 7 group sessions and completed follow-up. During follow-up, self-efficacy, stress, social support, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health significantly improved. No significant changes were detected for other outcomes. Conclusions: A 7-week MBI focusing on chronic disease self-management was conducive to improved self-efficacy, emotional well-being, social support, and self-rated overall health during six months. These findings support the use of MBIs for improving self-management in cardiovascular care. ISRCTN registry-number ISRCTN11248135.
Background and Objectives: Elderly patients affected by acute heart failure (AHF) often show different patterns of comorbidities. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate how chronic comorbidities cluster and which pattern of comorbidities is more strongly related to in-hospital death in AHF. Materials and Methods: All patients admitted for AHF to an Internal Medicine Department (01/2015–01/2019) were retrospectively evaluated; the main outcome of this study was in-hospital death during an admission for AHF; age, sex, the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and 17 different chronic pathologies were investigated; the association between the comorbidities was studied with Pearson’s bivariate test, considering a level of p ≤ 0.10 significant, and considering p < 0.05 strongly significant. Thus, we identified the clusters of comorbidities associated with the main outcome and tested the CCI and each cluster against in-hospital death with logistic regression analysis, assessing the accuracy of the prediction with ROC curve analysis. Results: A total of 459 consecutive patients (age: 83.9 ± 8.02 years; males: 56.6%). A total of 55 (12%) subjects reached the main outcome; the CCI and 16 clusters of comorbidities emerged as being associated with in-hospital death from AHF. Of these, CCI and six clusters showed an accurate prediction of in-hospital death. Conclusions: Both the CCI and specific clusters of comorbidities are associated with in-hospital death from AHF among elderly patients. Specific phenotypes show a greater association with a worse short-term prognosis than a more generic scale, such as the CCI
Background In the aging process, the cumulative exposure to stress with increased cortisol levels is considered to be associated to the senescence itself and its related disorders. Aims To evaluate the role of cortisol in elderly subjects, with or without dementia, by the means of the AGICO study. Methods The AGICO study enrolled patients from ten Geriatric Units in Italy in 2012–2017 (Study Director Prof Paolo Falaschi, S. Andrea Hospital of Rome). Every subject received a comprehensive geriatric assessment (including the Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE), the neurological examination (with a computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain), the assessment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), the evaluation of the cortisol activity by two consecutive urine collections (diurnal and nocturnal). Results The MMSE was inversely related to the standardized diurnal and nocturnal urinary cortisol levels (p < 0.025 and p < 0.01, respectively) and the age was positively related (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio between the standardized diurnal and nocturnal urinary cortisol levels was 1.50 ± 1.2 (mean ± standard deviation) and it was not modified by the age or dementia. The standardized diurnal and nocturnal urinary cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients with dementia (MMSE < 24) (p < 0.01). In the analysis of the subgroups with MetS, the highest concentrations of diurnal and nocturnal cortisol were found in patients with both dementia and MetS (p < 0.025 and p < 0.01, respectively). Discussion The AGICO study showed that the stress response significantly and progressively increases with age. Conclusion The cortisol increase in aging is related to the presence of both dementia and metabolic syndrome.
Background Sarcopenia gained importance in the evaluation of patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), since it may impact negatively on clinical outcomes. Aim Aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia, defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2) 2019 definition, and to evaluate the prevalence of the single criteria that define the EWGSOP2 definition (muscle strength, muscle quantity and physical performance), in a cohort of consecutive patients with IPF prospectively followed up in 9 hospitals in Northern Italy between December 2018 and May 2021. Methods Enrolled patients underwent an extensive pulmonary and nutritional assessment, including bioelectrical impedance analysis, dynamometry and 4-m gait speed test, both at IPF diagnosis and at 6-month follow-up. Results Out of the 83 patients (81% males, mean age 72.5 years) with IPF at disease diagnosis enrolled in the study, 19 (22.9%) showed sarcopenia, including 2 (2.4%) with severe sarcopenia, 5 (6.0%) with confirmed sarcopenia and 12 (14.5%) with probable sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was associated with a significantly higher severity of the disease and sedentary lifestyle, while no differences were observed in regards to body mass index, history of weight loss and comorbidities between patients with and without sarcopenia. Out of the 64 patients without sarcopenia at baseline, 16 cases showed alteration of muscle quantity and/or physical performance. In the 51 patients with complete data at 6-month follow-up, there were no cases of severe sarcopenia, 1 case (2.0%) showed confirmed sarcopenia, while the prevalence of probable sarcopenia was 19.6% (10 cases). No differences in regards to antifibrotic treatment received and onset of gastrointestinal side effects were observed between patients with and without sarcopenia at follow-up. Conclusions The prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with IPF both at diagnosis and at 6-month follow-up was low but not negligible and was associated with higher severity of the disease and sedentary lifestyle. In IPF patients, a comprehensive diagnostic work-up including all the criteria defining the EWGSOP2 definition might be more useful than a series testing for prompt recognition of nutritional and physical performance abnormalities.
The purpose of this scoping review is to investigate the value of creative arts therapies in healthy older adults. This article aims to shed light on current knowledge concerning the effectiveness of art therapies (ATs) for the prevention of common age-related conditions using the definition of art therapy provided by the American Art Therapy Association (AATA), as well as Cohen’s conceptual framework for the psychological conceptualization of the relationship between the arts and health in later life. The objective is to carefully capture subthreshold situations of distress, which are often not taken into account and primarily involve psychological aspects that are crucial in the multidimensional perspective of healthy aging. Twelve articles were selected and examined following an initial electronic search on 3 databases. A thematic analysis of the results identified four major themes: improving cognitive performance and proprioception; enhancing self-identity and meaningful life; reducing feelings of loneliness and depressive symptoms; and the importance of socialization. All these aspects constitute the basis for preventing psychological distress and enhancing mental well-being for healthy aging.
Background Dysphagia is a frequent condition in older nursing home residents (NHRs) which may cause malnutrition and death. Nevertheless, its prevalence is still underestimated and there is still debate about the appropriateness and efficacy of artificial nutrition (AN) in subjects with severe dysphagia. The aim is to assess the prevalence of dysphagia in European and Israeli NHRs, its association with mortality, and the relationship of different nutritional interventions, i.e. texture modified diets and AN—with weight loss and mortality. Methods A prospective observational study of 3451 European and Israeli NHRs older than 65 years, participating in the SHELTER study from 2009 to 2011, at baseline and after 12 months. All residents underwent a standardized comprehensive evaluation using the interRAI Long Term Care Facility (LTCF). Cognitive status was assessed using the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS), functional status using Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Hierarchy scale. Trained staff assessed dysphagia at baseline by clinical observation. Data on weight loss were collected for all participants at baseline and after 12 months. Deaths were registered by NH staff. Results The prevalence of dysphagia was 30.3%. During the one-year follow-up, the mortality rate in subjects with dysphagia was significantly higher compared with that of non-dysphagic subjects (31.3% vs 17.0%, p = 0,001). The multivariate analysis showed that NHRs with dysphagia had 58.0% higher risk of death within 1 year compared with non-dysphagic subjects (OR 1.58, 95% CI, 1.31–1.91). The majority of NHRs with dysphagia were prescribed texture modified diets (90.6%), while AN was used in less than 10% of subjects. No statistically significant difference was found concerning weight loss and mortality after 12 months following the two different nutritional treatments. Conclusions Dysphagia is prevalent among NHRs and it is associated with increased mortality, independent of the nutritional intervention used. Noticeably, after 12 months of nutritional intervention, NHRs treated with AN had similar mortality and weight loss compared to those who were treated with texture modified diets, despite the clinical conditions of patients on AN were more compromised.
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144 members
Tiziana Casoli
  • Scientific Technological Area
Marco Malavolta
  • Gerontological Research Department
Francesca Marchegiani
  • Gerontological Research Department
Francesco Piacenza
  • Nutrition and Aging
Patrizia Fattoretti
  • Neurobiology of Aging
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